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WALTER GROPIUS


HIS LIFE,PHILOSPHY AND WORKS


PRESENTATION BY:

PEARL SIDHU

G.P.C.G. PTA

INTRODUCTION


Walter Adolph Georg Gropius

(May 18, 1883


July 5,
1969) was a
German

architect

and founder of the
Bauhaus

School,

who, along with
Ludwig
Mies

van
der

Rohe
,
Le Corbusier

and
Oscar Niemeyer
, is widely
regarded as one of the pioneering masters of
modern
architecture
.


Gropius was founder of the
Bauhaus

and one of the most
influential architects of the 20th century.



WALTER GROPIUS

















Birth
-

Walter

Adolph

Georg


Gropius



18

May

(
1883
)


Berlin
,

German

Empire


Nationality
-
German/American

Awards
-
AIA

Gold

Medal(
1959
)

,

Goethe

Prize(
1961
)



Death
-

5
JULY

1969
,Boston,Mass
.
(U
.
S)






.













































WALTER GROPIUS

Walter Gropius ( 1919).

EARLY CAREER


Walter

Gropius,

like

his

father

and

his

great
-
uncle

Martin

Gropius

before

him,

became

an

architect
.

Gropius

could

not

draw,

and

was

dependent

on

collaborators

and

partner
-
interpreters

throughout

his

career
.



In

school

he

hired

an

assistant

to

complete

his

homework

for

him
.



In

1908

Gropius

found

employment

with

the

firm

of

Peter

Behrens
,

one

of

the

first

members

of

the

utilitarian

school
.



His

fellow

employees

at

this

time

included

Ludwig

Mies

Vander

Rohe
,

Le

Corbusier
,

Dietrich

Marcks
.


WALTER GROPIUS


Fagus

Factory
-

(1910
-
1911)



Werkbund

Exhibition
-

(1914)



Bauhaus
-

(1919
-
1933)



Gropius House
-

(1937)



University of Baghdad


Harvard Graduate Center
-
(1950)


J .F. Kennedy Federal Building
-
(1966)



Pan Am Building

-

(1963)



WALTER GROPIUS

HIS PROJECTS

FAGUS SHOE FACTORY
-
1911

WALTER GROPIUS

WALTER GROPIUS

FAGUS SHOE FACTORY


"Gropius's

first

large

building

in

Alfred

on

the

Leine

in

1911
...

was

materialized

due

to

his

connection

,

with

Peter

Behrens


The

starting

point

for

the

young

architect

was

the

already

existing

site

plan,

the

ground

plan,

and

construction

plans

of

the

architect

Eduard

Werner,

as

well

as

the

foundation,

which

had

already

been

laid
.



A

loan

from

the

American

United

Shoe

Machinery

Corporation

made

the

construction

possible

in

1911
,

and

continued

until

1912

step

by

step

under

the

new

concept

of

Walter

Gropius
.



The

whole

operational

procedure

was

newly

thought

through,

according

to

the

inner

functions,

and

then

articulated

in

a

three
-
dimensional

form
.



FAGUS SHOE FACTORY


The

Fagus

Factory

a

shoe

last

factory

in

Alfeld

on

the

Leine

in

Germany
,

is

an

important

example

of

early

modern

architecture
.



Commissioned

by

owner

Carl

Benscheidt

who

wanted

a

radical

structure

to

express

the

company's

break

from

the

past,

the

factory

was

designed

by

Walter

Gropius

and

Adolf

Meyer
.



It

was

constructed

between

1911

and

1913
,

with

additions

and

interiors

completed

in

1925
.


WALTER GROPIUS

FAGUS SHOE FACTORY





For

the

first

time

a

complete

brick

facade

is

conceived

in

glass



The

supporting

piers

are

reduced

to

narrow

mullions

of

brick



The

corners

are

left

without

any

support



The

expression

of

the

flat

roof

has

also

changed


The

large

expanses

of

clear

glass,

the

usual

hard

separation

of

exterior

and

interior

is

annihilated
.




WALTER GROPIUS

FAGUS SHOE FACTORY

WALTER GROPIUS

FAGUS SHOE FACTORY

WALTER GROPIUS


The client's wish for an
attractive fa

cade

was
solved by Gropius in a
special way: by means of
a projected steel skeleton,
which pulled the function
of support to the inside,
thereby making possible a
broad dissolution of the
exterior envelope into
glass walls; the idea of the
'curtain wall' was at this
point first expressed in a
consistent manner


THE BAUHAUS
-
1919

WALTER GROPIUS

THE BAUHAUS


The

Staatliches

Bauhaus

commonly

known

simply

as

Bauhaus
,

was

a

school

in

Germany

that

combined

crafts

and

the

fine

arts,

and

was

famous

for

the

approach

to

design

that

it

publicized

and

taught
.



It

operated

from

1919

to

1933
.



At

that

time

the

German

term


Bauhaus


literally

"house

of

construction",

stood

for

"School

of

Building”


Walter

Adolph

Georg

Gropius

is

the

founder

of

the

Bauhaus

School,along

with

Ludwig

Mies

van

der

Rohe
,

Le

Corbusier

and

Oscar

Niemeyer
,

is

widely

regarded

as

one

of

the

pioneering

masters

of

modern

architecture




WALTER GROPIUS

THE BAUHAUS


In

spite

of

its

name,

and

the

fact

that

its

founder

was

an

architect
;

the

Bauhaus

did

not

have

an

architecture

department

during

the

first

years

of

its

existence


Nonetheless

it

was

founded

with

the

idea

of

creating

a

"total"

work

of

art

in

which

all

arts,

including

architecture,

would

eventually

be

brought

together
.


The

Bauhaus

style

became

one

of

the

most

influential

currents

in

Modernist

architecture

and

modern

design
.



WALTER GROPIUS

The Bauhaus Dessau

THE BAUHAUS


The

Bauhaus

had

a

profound

influence

upon

subsequent

developments

in

art,

architecture,

graphic

design,

interior

design,

industrial

design
,

and

typography
(letter

press

printing)



The

school

existed

in

three

German

cities

(
Weimar

from

1919

to

1925
,

Dessau

from

1925

to

1932

and

Berlin

from

1932

to

1933
),

under

three

different

architect
-
directors
:

Walter

Gropius

from

1919

to

1928
,

Hannes

Meyer

from

1928

to

1930

and

Ludwig

Mies

van

der

Rohe

from

1930

until

1933
,

when

the

school

was

closed

by

its

own

leadership

under

pressure

from

the

Nazi

regime
.



The

changes

of

venue

and

leadership

resulted

in

a

constant

shifting

of

focus,

technique,

instructors,

and

politics




WALTER GROPIUS

THE BAUHAUS


ARCHITECTURAL

OUTPUT

:


The

Bauhaus

style,

also

known

as

the

International

Style
,

was

marked

by

the

absence

of

ornamentation

and

by

harmony

between

the

function

of

an

object

or

a

building

and

its

design
.



Students

architectural

work

amounted

to

un
-
built

projects,

interior

finishes,

and

craft

work

like

cabinets,

chairs

and

pottery


The

architectural

focus

shifted

away

from

aesthetics

and

towards

functionality


One

of

the

main

objectives

of

the

Bauhaus

was

to

unify

art,

craft,

and

technology
.

the

modern

day

"Basic

Design"

course

that

has

become

one

of

the

key

foundational

courses

offered

in

architectural

and

design

schools

across

the

globe
.

WALTER GROPIUS

THE BAUHAUS


The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture
trends in Western Europe, the United States, Canada and
Israel


One

of

the

most

important

contributions

of

the

Bauhaus

is

in

the

field

of

modern

furniture

design



WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE
-
1938

WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE


The

Gropius

House

was

the

family

residence

of

noted

architect

Walter

Gropius

at

68

Baker

Bridge

Road,

Lincoln,

Massachusetts
.


He

designed

it

in

1937
,

when

he

came

to

teach

at

Harvard

University
's

Graduate

School

of

Design,

and

it

was

built

in

1938



The

house

caused

a

sensation

when

built
.

In

keeping

with

Bauhaus

philosophy,

every

aspect

of

the

house

and

its

surrounding

landscape

was

planned

for

maximum

efficiency

and

simplicity
.



Gropius

carefully

sited

the

house

to

complement

its

New

England

habitat

on

a

rise

within

an

orchard

of

90

apple


trees
.

WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE


Two bathrooms


Lounge


Study


Wardrobe


Kitchen


Room service


Spiral staircase


Porch


Floor



WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE


The

materials

used

were

wooden

tablets

on

the

walls,

brick,

steel

to

the

forges

as

stairs,

pergolas,

balustrades,

columns

and

ornamental

porches

lined

with

sheet

metal

building,

the

foundation

stone

and

flooring,

as

well

as

laminated

glass

for

the

woodwork

and

glass

block

to

shed

light

on

some

points



WALTER GROPIUS

Lobby

Three
bedrooms

Terrace

Study

Two bathrooms

GROPIUS HOUSE

WALTER GROPIUS


Set

amid

fields,

forests,

and

farmhouses,

the

Gropius

House

mixes

up

the

traditional

materials

of

New

England

architecture

(wood,

brick,

and

fieldstone)

with

industrial

materials

such

as

glass

block,

acoustic

plaster
,

and

chrome

banisters
.

GROPIUS HOUSE


The house structure
consists of a
traditional New
England post and
beam wooden frame,
sheathed with white
painted tongue and
grove vertical siding.
Traditional
clapboards are used
in the interior foyer,
but are applied
vertically.

WALTER GROPIUS

Gropius House, view from rear side

GROPIUS HOUSE


On

this

floor

access

is

diagonal,

under

a

porch

that

welcomes

visitors,

here

Gropius

used

hollow

glass

block

to

give

privacy

to

the

lobby


The

bathrooms

in

both

the

plans

and

in

the

top

group

in

the

north

corner

where

there

is

no

just

views


The

spaces

such

as

dining

and

living

area,

are

next

to

the

center

of

the

house

which

is

located

a

stone

fireplace
.



WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE


On the back porch is located one
space covering the porch with stone
flooring
.



It was declared a
National Historic
Landmark

in 2000



WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE


The

plan

above

is

accessed

from

the

main

staircase

to

the

lobby

which

leads

to

the

bedrooms,

study

and

terrace
.



In

the

back

of

the

house,

a

pergola

performs

the

function

of

double

height

covered

terrace

which

allows

the

lighting

in

the

dining

room
.


WALTER GROPIUS

GROPIUS HOUSE

WALTER GROPIUS

All family possessions are still
in place, including a
remarkable collection of
furniture designed by
Marcel
Breuer

and made in the
Bauhaus workshops.

PAN AM BUILDING
-
1963

WALTER GROPIUS

PAN AM BUILDING


The

PAN

AM

Building

is

a

skyscraper

located

at

200

Park

Avenue

at

East

45
th

Street

above

Grand

Central

Terminal

in

Midtown

Manhattan
,

New

York

City
.



Built

in

1958

63

as

the

Pan

Am

Building
,

then

headquarters

of

Pan

American

World

Airways
,

it

was

designed

by

Emery

Roth

&

Sons
,

Pietro

Belluschi

and

Walter

Gropius

in

the

International

style
,

and

is

one

of

the

fifty

tallest

buildings

in

the

United

States
.



When

it

opened

on

March

7
,

1963

the

Pan

Am

Building

was

the

largest

commercial

office

space

in

the

world
.


It

bore

15
'

tall

"Pan

Am"

displays

on

its

north

and

south

faces

and

25
'

tall

globe

logos

east

and

west
.


The

Pan

Am

Building

is

an

e
.
g
.

of

an

International


Style

skyscraper
.



WALTER GROPIUS

PAN AM BUILDING


.

WALTER GROPIUS

PAN AM BUILDING


It is purely commercial in design with large floors, simple
massing, with an absence of ornamentation inside and out


The building previously had
helicopter

service to Pan Am's
terminal at
John F. Kennedy International Airport
, a 7
-
to
-
10
-
minute flight from the rooftop
helipad
. .


WALTER GROPIUS

PAN AM BUILDING


The design is inspired by never built Grand Central Terminal
project from Le Corbusier and by the slender
Pirelli Tower in
Milan



It consisted of a tower of 49 stories resting on a 10 story base.


The exterior is covered with concrete panels to strengthen the
building visually.


The 246 meter / 808ft tall building was completed in 1963 and
incorporates an immense 390,700 m2 office space.


Originally the project was called Grand Central City, but was
renamed in 1960 after its main tenant, the Pan American
Airways.



In 1981 the building was sold to Metlife insurance company
for $400 million and is since called Metlife Building.




WALTER GROPIUS

HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER
-
CAMBRIDGE
-
1950

WALTER GROPIUS

HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER

WALTER GROPIUS


Harvard's new
Graduate Center has
eight buildings
arranged to enclose a
series of large and
small quadrangles.



No building is more
than four stories high;
construction is of
concrete with exterior
walls of buff
-
colored
brick or limestone




The

group

of

eight

buildings

arranged

round

small

and

large

courtyards

on

the

Oxbridge

pattern

has

a

good

community

feel

about

it

and

is

humanly

scaled
.



The

various

buildings

house

dormitories,

common
-
rooms,

refectory

and

a

lounge

convertible

into

a

meeting

hall

for

250

people

WALTER GROPIUS

HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER

HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER


The dormitory blocks are
constructed in reinforced concrete
and the community buildings in
steelwork.



The planning of the dormitories is
of the conventional central
-
corridor
type with single and double rooms
off either side."

WALTER GROPIUS

J.F. KENNEDY FEDERAL
BUILDING
-
1966

WALTER GROPIUS

J.F. KENNEDY FEDERAL BUILDING


The

John

F
.

Kennedy

Federal

Building

in

Boston,

Massachusetts,

is

one

of

the

federal

government's

most

noteworthy

Modern

designs


Master

architect

Walter

Gropius

and

his

firm

The

Architects

Collaborative

(TAC)

designed

the

complex

with

the

assistance

of

Boston

architect

Samuel

Glaser


Technically

one

building,

it

consists

of

twin

26
-
story

high
-
rise

towers,

which

sit

on

axis

to

each

other,

and

a

low,

4
-
story

building
.



This

combination

of

tall

towers

paired

with

low

buildings

is

a

common

Modern

form

that

is

used

extensively

throughout

the

United

States

and

abroad
.





WALTER GROPIUS

J.F. KENNEDY FEDERAL BUILDING


The building occupies only 45
percent of the 4.6
-
acre site.
The remaining portion
contains terraces, plazas,
extensive landscaping, a
sunken patio, and driveways


WALTER GROPIUS

J.F. KENNEDY FEDERAL BUILDING


The

double

towers

increase

the

number

of

offices

lit

by

natural

light

and

decrease

the

visual

bulk

that

a

single

monolithic

building

would

create
.

The

building

contains

839
,
000

square

feet


The

exterior

of

the

towers

is

constructed

of

pre
-
cast

reinforced

concrete
.



The

lower

sections

are

faced

with

polished

granite
.



All

aluminum

work

has

a

dark

anodized

finish

in

a

medium

gray

tone,

which

the

architects

designed

to

contrast

with

the

white

concrete

facade
.



Overall,

the

exterior

lacks

ornamentation,

instead

displaying

a

stark

functionality
.


..

WALTER GROPIUS

J.F. KENNEDY FEDERAL BUILDING


Bands of windows wrap
around the towers; corner
windows have rounded
edges..


The tops of the towers are
distinguished by metal
louvers

An exposed glass
atrium connects the two
towers at the ground level.


A glass
-
enclosed walkway
connects the four
-
story
building to the towers.

WALTER GROPIUS

DESIGN PHILOSPHY AND
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE


One

of

the

most

influential

architects

of

the

twentieth

century,

German
-
born

Gropius

founded

the

world
-
renowned

Bauhaus

school

in

Weimar,

Germany,

in

1919


He

is

credited

with

bringing

the

International

Style

of

architecture

to

the

United

States

and

for

promulgating

Modernist

design

principles


Gropius's

Modern

designs

make

no

reference

to

regional

or

local

architectural

influences
.



Uniting

new

social

demands

with

advanced

technological

possibilities,

he

radically

simplified

building

design
.

Building

forms

were

basic

and

usually

built

of

glass,

steel,

and

concrete

with

minimal

ornamentation
.


WALTER GROPIUS

DESIGN PHILOSPHY AND
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE


Gropius advocated pushing
architecture forward as the
society needs it. He concluded
by saying that “There is no
finality in architecture


only
continuous change.”

WALTER GROPIUS

THANKS

WALTER GROPIUS