TEC UNITED NATIONS SIMULATION

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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TEC UNITED NATIONS SIMULATION

Tecnológico de Monterrey Campus Saltillo


Topic A:

International Involvement in the Stabilization of Syria

Director:

Rene González

Moderator:

Luiza Cardoso


I. Committee Background

The
United Nations Security Council

(
UNSC
) is one of the six principal organs of
the
United Nations

and is charged with the maintenance of
international peace and
security
. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the
establishment of Peacekeeping operations, the establishment of
international
sanctions
, and the authorization of
military action
. Its powers are exercised through
United Nations Security Council resolutions
.

There are 15 members of the Security Council. This includes five veto
-
wielding
permanent members

China
,
France
,
Russia
, the
United Kingdom
, and the
United
States

based on the
great powers

that were the victors of
World War II
. There are
also 10 non
-
permanent members, with five elected each year to serve two
-
year
terms. This basi
c structure is set out in
Chapter V of the UN Charter
. The current
non
-
permanent members are
Argentina
,
Australia
,
Azerbaijan
,
Guatemala
,
Luxembourg
,
Morocco
,
Pakistan
,
Rwanda
, South Korea, and
Togo
.

The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at
Church House,
Westminster
,
London
. Since its first meeting, the Council, which exists in
con
tinuous session, has travelled widely, holding meetings in many cities, such as
Paris

and
Addis Ababa
, as well as at its

current permanent home at the United
Nations Headquarters in
New York City
. Representatives of the members of the
Security Council must always be present at UN headquarters in N
ew York so that
the Security Council can meet at any time. This requirement addresses a
weakness of the
League of Nations
: that organization was often unable to respond
q
uickly to a crisis.


II. Introduction and Description

Syrian civil war grew out of a popular uprising against the regime of President
Bashar al
-
Assad in March 2011.
At the root of the conflict was anger over
unemployment, decades of dictatorship,
corruption and state violence under of the
Middle East’s most repressive regimes.

Many western countries are also against
the regime of Syria’
s president and support rebels
, such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia,
Qatar, Lebanon, Jordan, etc
. Notwithstanding being a
gainst Syria’
s power, some

do not support international intervention.

Until now, neither rebels, nor
the
government had received foreign assistance.

The only
two
assistance
s

were from
T
urkey in Oct
ober 2012 supporting the rebels and Qatar giving

weapons

(also to
rebels)
.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the toll stands at 110,371
people, with at least 40,146 civilians killed including nearly 4,000 women and more
than 5,800 children.

Also, over 20,000 refugees have left the country.

The crisi
s has now been for more than two years,
in spite of the several number of
meeting and proposals at Security Country, nations hasn’t reached a solution.
Each passing day, there are more deaths and refugees leaving the country.
As the
crisis keeps going, the P5 members don’t have an agreement. China and Russia
support Syria’s government and want a peaceful way to solve the problem. On the
other side, UK, US and France support rebels and a military intervention.
However,
Assad and

rebels are accepting the minimum of countries help. There is only one
thing in which both agree with, no country can solve their problem. Assad
established

that
is their war.


III. History and General Ideas of the Topic

The Assad regime came into power
in 1971. The p
roblem first began on March of

that same year

when ex
-
President Hafez al
-
Assad, father of Bashar al
-
Assad,
came into
power.
Assad was known for his
brutal
burden

within Syria and proved
to be a
relentless

leader after murdering
over 20,000 Su
nni guided Syrian civilians
in orde
r to prevent the toppling of a
massive revolution.
He

died on June 10, 2000
and he was succeeded by his son,
Bashar al
-
Assad.


In

March

of 2011
p
rotests

began

in Damascus and

the southern city of Deraa
demand
ed

the release of political prisoners
. Security forces shot

a number of
people

in Deraa, triggering days of violent unrest that steadily spread nationwide
over the following
months.
The government announced

some conciliatory
measures in an

attempt to damp do
wn unrest.
President Assad released

dozens of
p
olitical prisoners and dismissed

the government, and in April

of 2011 lifted

the 48
-
year
-
old state o
f emergency. However, he accused

protesters of being Israeli
agents.

In

May

of that same year, a
rmy tanks
enter
ed

Deraa, Banyas, Homs and suburbs
of Damascus in an effort to crush anti
-
regime protests. US and European Union
tighten
ed

sanc
tions. President Assad announced

amnesty for political prisoners.

In
June
the IAEA nuclear watchdog decided

to report Syria
to the UN Security
Council over its alleged covert nuclear programme reactor programme. The
structure housing the alleged reactor was destroyed in an Israeli air raid in 2007.

Newly for
med Syrian National Council said

it has forged a common front of internal
and exiled opposition activists. Russia and China veto UN resolution condemning
Syria
. Arab League voted

to suspend Syria, accusing it of failing to implement

an
Arab peace plan, and imposed

sanctions. Army defecto
rs target a military base
near Damascus in the Free Syrian Army's most high
-
profile attack since protests
began. Government supporters attack
ed

foreign embassies.

In February of 2012, R
ussia and China block
ed

a UN Security Council draft
resolution on

Syria
, and the government steped

up the bombardment of Homs and
other cities, recapturing the Homs district of Baba Amr
the following month. The
UN said

that more than 7,500 people have died since the security crackdown
began.

A month later, UN Security Council

endorsed

non
-
binding peace plan
drafted by UN envoy Kofi Annan. China and Russia agree
d

to support the plan
after an earlier, tougher draft is modified. The UN stat
ement felt s
hort of a formal
re
solution, and violence continued

into the summer.

Several ma
jor opposition forces unite
d

as National Coalition for Syrian
Revolutionary and Opposition Forces at meeting in Qatar

on November
, including
the Syrian Nat
ional Council. Arab League stoped

short of full recognition. Islamist
militias in Aleppo, including t
he Al
-
Nusra and Al
-
Tawhid groups, refuse
d

to join the
Coalition, denouncing it as a "conspiracy".

Israeli military fire
d

on Syrian artillery
units after several months of occasional shelling from Syrian positions across the
Golan Heights, the first such return of fire since the Yom Kippur War of 1973.

The
US joined

Britain, France, Turkey and Gulf states in formally
recogni
zing

Syria's
opposition National Coalition as "the legitimate representative" of the Syrian
people.

International donors pledge
d

more than $1.5bn (£950m) to help civilians af
fected
by the conflict in Syria this year.
US and Britain pledge
d

non
-
military aid

to rebels,
and Britain and France propose
d

lifting European Union arms embargo. Rebel
National Coalition elects US
-
educated technocrat Ghassan Hitto as interim "prime
minister".

US and Britain demand
ed

investigation into reports government forces
used che
mical weapons. Prime Minister Wael

Nader Al
-
Halqi narrowly escaped

death in bomb attack in centre of Damascus.

Opposition National Coalition

chairman Moaz al
-
Khatib resigned
, accusing foreign
backers of trying to manipulate the group. His successor is vete
ran socialist
George Sabra, leader of the older opposition Syrian National Council.

EU leaders
agree
d

not to renew the bloc's arms embargo on Syria, in a step seen as
potentially freeing EU countries to arm the rebels.

In August

Rebels and Western
governments accuse
d

pro
-
Assad forces of using
chemical weapons in an attack that killed more than 300 people near Damascus.
The Syrian government blame
d

the rebels.

In September
US President
,

Barack
Obama
, postponed

proposed air strike to degrade Syria's c
hemical weapons
capability after Russia suggested a plan

to put weapons under international
control.


IV. Country Specifics

US

On 10 September, US President Barack Obama postponed a Congress vote on
military action in Syria, vowing instead to pursue diplomacy to remove the regime's
chemical weapons. His decision was prompted by a Russian proposal on the eve
of the vote for Damascu
s to place its entire chemical weapons stockpile under
international control.

The Russian initiative came off the back of an apparently off
-
the
-
cuff suggestion by
the US Secretary of State John Kerry. Syrian President Bashar al
-
Assad has since
appeared on

Russian TV to v
oice his support for the plan,
but he insisted the move
was not the result of the threat of US military action.

The crisis escalated in August over the suspected chemical attack in the Ghouta
area of Syria's capital Damascus, which left hu
ndreds dead. Secretary of State
John Kerry was the first US official to publicly hold the Syrian government
responsible, calling the attack "undeniable" and a "moral obscenity". President
Barack Obama had called on Congress to
authorize

US military action
in Syria in a
vote.
Internationally,
Obama tried to garner support among leaders at the G20
meeting in St Petersburg. At the summit, he argued action was required even when
the UN Security Council was
paralyzed
, as the international consensus against the
u
se of chemical weapons had to be upheld.

Ten members of the G20 joined the US in a joint statement accusing the Syrian
government of carrying out the attack and calling for a strong international
response against the government of Syrian President Bashar
al
-
Assad.

UK

The UK is working with the US and France to draft a UN resolution on the Russian
plan for Syria's chemical weapons to be put under international control. The three
nations want a timetable, and consequences of failure spelt out.

Prior to
Russia's
diplomatic initiative, a government motion in support of military action in Syria was
rejected by MPs in Parliament, forcing the UK to rule itself out of any joint
intervention. Prime Minister David Cameron says he still supports military action.

Speaking at the G20 summit, Mr
.

Cameron announced that the UK would give an
additional £52m ($80m) in aid for Syria
,

much of it for medical training and
equipment to help civilians targeted by chemical attacks.

The UK was one of 10
members of the G20 to
join the US in a joint statement calling for a "strong
international response" against the Syrian government.

France

France is working with the US and UK to table a UN resolution on the Russian
plan. However there

remain serious divisions, particularly with Russia
.

France had
previously backed the US plan for military action, and was the only country other
than the US to commit to using force.

French MPs have held a de
bate on the issue in the French National Assembly.
However, they did not vote on the matter and the country's president can
mobilize

the military without their backing. President Francois Hollande called for Europe to
unite on the issue, but said he would
wait for the US Congress vote and a UN
report on chemical weapons before any military action.

France has been amongst the most hawkish Western countries, being the first to
recognize

the main opposition coalition as the Syrian people's legitimate
represent
ative. In May, France, along with the UK, successfully lobbied for the
EU's arms embargo to be lifted so as to allow further supplies to the rebels.

France
also signed the joint statement of the group of G20 countries calling for a "strong
international re
sponse" to the Syrian government.

Russia

Russia announced its proposal for dealing with the escalating chemical weapons
crisis on 9 September, as the US Congress was preparing to vote on whether to
back President Barack Obama's moves to strike Syria.

Putin

has described the
plan as "a new opportunity to avoid military action".

Russia is one of
Assad's most
important international backers and has warned the US and its allies against taking
one
-
sided action against Syria.

In an

opinion piece published by the New York Times
, President Vladimir Putin
said "a strike would increase violence and unleash a new wave of terrorism".

On

September 4th,
Putin said he did not "exclude" the possibility of Russia supporting
a UN Security Council resolution
authorizing

force if it was proved "beyond doubt"
that

Assad used chemical weapons against his own people.

Russian officials
maintain the
Syrian rebel forces were behind the chemical weapon attack,
describing it as "a provocation on the part of the militants who are expecting to get
support from outside".

China

China has joined Russia in blocking resolutions critical of Syria at the UN Secur
ity
Council. It has also
criticized

the prospect of strikes against Syria.

The official
Chinese news agency, Xinhua, said Western powers were rushing to conclusions
about who might have used chemical weapons in Syria before UN inspectors had
completed
their investigation.

Alongside Russia, China insists any military action without UN approval would be
illegal.

Chinese leader Xi Jinping reportedly tried unsuccessfully to dissuade US
President
,

Barack Obama
,

from military action at the G20 meeting in Russ
ia.

Germany

Berlin has ruled itself out of participation in any military action. Foreign Minister
Guido Westerwelle told a German newspaper that "such participation has not been
sought nor is it being considered by us".

Germany has said in the past that pr
oof of
the use of chemical weapons by the government of Bashar al
-
Assad would
demand "consequences" but has not set out what those consequences should be.

On 6 September, Foreign Minister Westerwelle urged the United Nations "to speed
up" its publication o
f a report into chemical weapons use in Damascus. He said he
wants the UN Security Council to take a unified position.


V. Possible Solutions

If solutions are not applied,
problems will

still
growing. Some of the solutions that
the UN already has are:

It
is expected that

the Syrians submit a “comprehensive listing” of all their chemical
weapons supplies and facilities as a first step, with the goal of identifying and
destroying the munitions by the middle of 2014. The agreement also specified that
the Secu
rity Council should review Syrian compliance with the rules of the
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, The Hague
-
based group
that administers the treaty.

The Russia
-
United States agreement specifies that if Syria fails to comply with its
obligations under the chemical weapons treaty, the Security Council should impose
measures under Chapter 7 of the United Nations Charter, which allows for coercive
steps, including the use of military force.

Two other possible solutions would be to restric
ted flights with Syrian airlines and
cut trades with Syria to create pressure in the country.




VI. Important Questions to Ask

1.

What does your nation believe is the right approach towards this topic?

2.

How would your nation resolve this?

3.

Is your country
directly involved in this situation? How?

4.

What is your country’s relationship with Syria?

5.

What measures has your country previously taken regarding Syria?

6.

What solutions would your country propose regarding the situation plaguing
Syria?

7.

What are your count
ry’s policies regarding human rights?

8.

Has your country ever been in a civil uprising? How was the situation
handled?

9.

What other countries share your country’s perspective on ho
w to handle
the
Syrian situation?


10.

Is your country against Syria’s use of chemic
al weapons against civilians?


X. Bibliography

1.

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-
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.

2.

Manfreda, Primoz. "Syrian Civil War Explained."

About.com Middle East
Issues
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3.

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BBC News
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11.

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12.

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help
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you
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-
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