Tackling the issue of blood diamonds in Angola. - Ammunjo.org

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Expectation Packet


Tackling the issue of
blood diamonds in
Angola
.

President: Jude
Mattar

Chair: Jasmine Abu
Hamdan

Expert Chair: Jasmine
Abu Hamdan






Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Page 3

Contact Information

Page 4

Guiding Questions

Page
5

Tables

Page
8

Example of a Solution

Page
1
2

Notes

Page
12

Major Parties Involved

Page
13

Useful Links

Page 1
4




Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Introduction:

Angola is a country in Africa that was a colony of Portugal until its independence on
November 11, 1975. However, as a result of its independence, a civil war started
between Angola’s three main political parties for power. These parties are the Popular
Mo
vement of the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo Dos Santos, the
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas Savimbi
and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA). This war lasted for 27 years, from

1974 to
2001. As a result of this war, Angola suffered limited development and
prosperity
. A
round 1.5 million
people died

and 4 million
were

displaced. Savimbi’s
death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened MPLA's power as Dos
Santos became president. T
hroughout the years, the FNLA started playing less and
less a role

in the country’s political arena
.

Between 1992 and 1998,

UNITA violated the
1991 Bicesse Accords
, which called for
the transition into multi
-
party democracy,

by selling diamonds, valued at

US$3.72
billion, to fund its war with the government (MPLA). The UN recognized this and in
1998 passed United Nations Security Council Resolution 1173 and Resolution 1176,
which banned

the purchase of b
lood diamonds from Angola as a whole.

This, in turn,
led to illegal trade of blood diamonds. It is estimated that around 20% of the total
production of diamonds was sold for illegal purposes
, such as funding for civil war,
causing major political tension between the UNITA and MPLA parties, and causing
social

problems as
thousands of peasant miners make a living by searching for
dia
monds with shovels and sieves. H
owever, because they lack government permits,
miners and their families report that they are often beaten and shaken down for
bribes by soldiers and
private security guards, and sometimes, even killed.

By 1999,

the

World Diamond Council estimated the illegal diamond trade to have decreased to
around 3.06% of the world’s total diamond production. UNITA, however, was still able
to illegally sell blood di
amonds to fund for weapons, which led to United Nations
Security Council
Resolution 1295
and the Kimberley Process
, which
was established
in 2003 to prevent blood diamonds from entering the mainstream rough diamond
market.

Angola is now greatly struggling
to rebuild its infrastructure, recover
weapons from its heavily armed citizens, resettle thousands of refugees who fled and
destroy its many landmines that are deserting major parts of the country.







Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Map of Angola, Africa:


Contact Information:

I wou
ld like to welcome
all you enthusiastic delegates into AMMUN’13. It is a pleasure
to have you attend our conference and more importantly, to have you be part of the
Human Rights Commission. We hope that this year, this commission would excel and
find feasi
ble and efficient solutions to the world’s most pressing problems.

This Expectation pack
age
will provide you with a general idea on one
the topic of
‘Tackling the issue of Blood Diamonds in Angola’
, which will be debated in our forum
.
It will also give you

the basis for all you need to know about the topic and will show
you what you need to focus on and what you should avoid while researching

and
debating
.

Once again, I would like to say that I am thrilled to have you attend AMMUN’13 and
am eager to see ho
w enthusiastic all
of you
will be during debate.

E
-
mail Address:
jasmine_abuhamdan@abs.edu.jo






Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Guiding Questions:

1.

What are blood diamonds?

2.

Why have these diamonds caused conflict worldwide?

3.

What are
these blood diamonds used for?

4.

Where is Angola?

5.

Where are Angola’s major diamond mining industries?


6.

When did Angola first start mining for diamonds?

7.

Where does Angola rank in top diamond
-
producing countries worldwide?

8.

What are
Garimpeiros
?

9.

What effect do
Garimpeiros

have on the issue

of blood diamonds in Angola
?

10.

What are artisanal miners?

11.

What effect do artisanal miners have on the issue

of blood diamonds in Angola
?

12.

Why are there many illegal Congolese miners in Angola?

13.

Who is Jose Eduardo Dos Santos?

14.

What

role does

Jose Eduardo Dos Santos

play in the issue of blood diamonds in
Angola
?

15.

Who is Jonas Savimbi?

16.

What role does
Jonas Savimbi

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in Angola
?

17.

Who is Holden Roberto?

18.

What role does

Holden Roberto

play in
the issue of bl
ood diamonds in Angola
?

19.

What
is UNITA?

20.

What role does
UNITA

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in Angola
?

21.

What is

the

MPLA?

22.

What role does

the

MPLA

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in Angola
?

23.

What is

the

FNLA?

24.

What role does
the
FNLA

play in the
issue

of blood diamonds in Angola
?

25.

What is
the
FDLA?

26.

What role does

the
FDLA
play in
the issue of blood diamonds in Angola
?

27.

How did the conflict rise between UNITA and MPLA?

28.

When did Angola become an independent state from the Portuguese colonial
forces?

29.

What
effect did An
gola’s independence have on the

issue

of blood diamonds in
Angola
?


30.

How did the protests in Lisbon lead to Angola’s independence?

31.

Why did the conflict rise after Angola’s independence from the Portuguese
colonial forces?

32.

What are the Bicesse

Records?

33.

What role does
the Bicesse Records

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in
Angola
?

34.

What is the Kimberley Process

Certification Scheme
?

35.

What role does

the
Kimberley Process

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in
Angola
?

36.

What UN resolution introduce
d this process?

37.

How did the Kimberley Process increase government’s
transparency
?

38.

What is the Lusaka Peace Protocol?

Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

39.

What role does

the Lusaka Peace Protocol

play in
the issue of blood diamonds
in Angola?

40.

Why did the Bicesse Records and Lusaka Protocol fai
l?

41.

What is the Alvor Accord?

42.

What role does
the
Alvor Accord

play in
the issue of blood diamonds in Angola
?

43.

Which countrie
s participated in this
blood diamond
conflict?

44.

What reasons did the aforementioned countries

have for participating in
this
blood
diamond conflict
?

45.

How did the trade of blood diamonds affect Liberia and Sierra Leone?

46.

What sparked the civil war in Sierra Leone?

47.

What did the United Nations do

to solve the

issue

of blood diamonds in Angola
?

48.

What actions did the Security Council take,
following Chapter VII of the UN
Charter, to solve the issue of blood diamonds in Angola?

49.

What UN organizations were

involved in solving the
blood diamond conflict?

50.

What did non
-
governmental

organizations do to solve the
blood diamond
conflict?

51.

What did the

Angolan government do to solve
the blood diamond conflict
?

52.

What steps did the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation take to
overcome the issue of blood diamonds in Angola?

53.

What possible solutions could be achieved to eradicate
the issue of blood

diamonds in Angola?

54.

How can the selling of diamonds from artisanal miners be controlled?

55.

When did the cease
-
fire between the MPLA and UNITA forces occur?

56.

Why is there still tension between the MPLA and UNITA forces despite the
cease
-
fire?

57.

What actions can

be taken to decrease the tension between the MPLA and
UNITA forces?

58.

How can we control diamond mining taking into consideration the geology of
the country (alluvial mining)?

59.

How did Savimbi’s death affect UNITA’s power?

60.

What other countri
es struggle with
blood diamonds?

61.

H
ow are other countries overcoming their struggle with blood diamonds
?

62.

What kind of abuses are the miners exposed to?

63.

Who abuses the miners
?

64.

Why
are the miners

abused
?

65.

What countries are blood diamonds smuggled into?

66.

How much fortune do

blood diamonds make for UNITA?

67.

What effect d
oes
the trade of blood diamonds have on the Angolan economy in
general?

68.

What effect does

the trade of blood diamonds have on the legal diamond trade?

69.

Which countries benefited

most

from the

trade

in blood diamonds
?

70.

Were children employed in mining for blood diamonds?

71.

What continent has the highest rates of blood diamond trade?

72.

Who is Robert Fowler?

73.

What role did Robert Fowler

play in
the issue of blood diamonds
?

74.

What is the Fowler report?

Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

75.

What rol
e does the Fowler report

play in
the issue of blood diamonds
?

76.

What is the Global Witness Organization?

77.

What role does the Global Witness Organization

play in
the issue of blood
diamonds
?

78.

What does UN Security Council Resolution 1173 call for?

79.

What effects
d
oes

UN Security Council Resolution 1173
resolution have on the
issue

of blood diamonds
?

80.

What does UN Security Council Resolution 1295 call for?

81.

What effects does
UN Security Council Resolution 1295
have on the issue

of
blood diamonds
?

82.

What does
UN Securit
y Council Resolution
1176 call for?

83.

What effects d
oes

UN Security Council Resolution
1176
have on the issue

of
blood diamonds
?

84.

What is the World Diamond Council?

85.

What
is the Clean Diamond Trade Act?

86.

Who enacted the CDTA?

87.

What effect did
the Clean Diamonds
Trade Act

have on the blood diamond
conflict
?

88.

What role
does the

United States play in
the issue of blood diamonds
?

89.

What role d
oes

Canada play in the issue of blood diamonds?

90.

What is the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act?

91.

Who enacted
the Export and
Import of Rough Diamonds Act
?

92.

What
role d
oes

the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act

play

in the blood
diamonds conflict?

93.

What is Partnership Africa Canada?

94.

What effect does

the Partnership Africa Canada

have on
the blood diamond
conflict
?

95.

What is the
Canadian Certificate?

96.

By what methods are these diamonds mined in Africa, and specifically in
Angola?

97.

How did the UN investigate the illicit trade of blood diamonds in Angola?

98.

In general, h
ow did the UN monitor
and control
the illicit trade of blood
diamon
ds in Angola?

99.

What monitoring mechanism is used to prevent blood diamond trade?

100.

How does the blood diamond trade impact society negatively?

101.

How is Angola’s political stance on the issue of blood diamonds influenced by
its neighboring countries?

102.

How did the

world raise awareness on the issue of blood diamonds?







Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Tables:

While
Researching:


What to focus on

What to avoid

Research your country or NGO’

l潣慬o慮d
景r敩g渠
p潬楣o 瑯t慲as 瑨攠 楳獵i
. K湯n
y潵r 慬汩a猠慮d r敳e慲a栠w桩捨 捯c湴r楥s
桡h攠 獩浩污r
v楥w猠 o渠 瑨攠 瑯t楣i A汳l,
k湯n w桩捨 捯c湴r楥猠 w楬氠 g漠 慧慩a獴s
your country’s views and find ways to
捯cb慴⁴桥 r⁡牧畭敮瑳

䑯 湯琠 pr潣o慳a楮慴攮
䑯 湯琠 獴srt

r敳e慲a桩湧hy潵r 瑯t楣i
潮o
瑨t d慹a潦 瑨t
捯湦敲敮捥

呲y 瑯t畳攠愠v慲楥ay 潦 w敢獩s敳e 瑯t浡me

攠 楮景r浡瑩潮o 浯r攠 捲敤楢汥l 慮d
慣捵a慴e

䑯 湯琠 獴sr琠 r敳e慲a桩湧n
t
桥h 瑯t楣i 畮瑩氠
y潵 慲攠 晡f楬i慲a w楴h y潵r 捯c湴ry, 楴s
汯l慴楯測⁡汬楥s,⁥ 挮

剥浥浢Rr 瑯t 捩c攠 瑨t 楮景r浡瑩潮o 瑨慴
y潵 畳攬 敳e散楡汬l 楦 楴 楳i 愠q畯瑡瑩潮o潲
慮y瑨敲⁰r業慲i⁳潵r捥c

楮景r浡瑩潮

䑯 湯琠畳攠晡捴猠慮d 獴s瑩獴s捳c畮汥獳uy潵
桡h攠e潵b汥
-
c桥捫敤⁴ 慴⁴桥礠慲攠捯rr散e
潮瑨敲⁳楴o献

I琠楳i pr敦敲慢汥l 楦i y潵 畳攠w敢獩s敳e 瑨慴
慲攠 潦晩捩慬f 潲g慮楺慴楯湳i ⡕剌( 敮ds
w楴栠.潲g⤠ 瑯t g整 慣a畲慴攠 楮景r浡瑩潮o
周攠CIA 坯Wld F慣a


潫 楳i愠gr敡琠獯sr捥
景r g整瑩湧n 楮景r浡瑩潮o 慢潵琠 y潵r
捯c湴ry

䑯 湯琠 r敳er楣i y潵rs敬映 瑯t r敳e慲a桩湧
潮汹 y潵r 捯c湴ry 慮d 楴猠 v楥w 潮o 瑨e
瑯t楣i 汯lk 慴 潴桥爠v楥w猠慮d 瑨攠浡m潲
p慲瑩a猠楮v潬o敤 楮 瑨楳t楳獵i
. A汳漬 d
漠湯琠
潮汹 景捵猠潮or敳e慲a桩湧hME
DC’s stances
潮o 瑨攠 瑯t楣i L潯o 慴 瑨攠 r潬敳o 潦 瑨攠
LE䑃猠慳a瑨敹t慲攠瑨攠潮敳 浯獴s慦a散e敤
楮⁴桩猠獩瑵慴楯i

Research all aspects of the topic’s
b慣agr潵湤 楮 潲der 瑯t 晡f楬i慲楺攠
y潵r獥汦sv敲e w敬氠w楴h 敶敲y瑨楮g 慢潵琠
瑨攠t潰oc

䑯 湯琠汯lk 瑯漠
d敥p
楮瑯t瑨攠p慳a. 䑯 湯琠
r敳e慲a栠 慮y瑨楮g 慢潵琠 瑨攠 瑯t楣i 瑨tt
g潥猠o敹e湤⁴桥′
th

century

R
esearch all actions that the United
Nations and Non
-
Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) have taken to solve
the issue so that you do not propose
solutions in your
resolution that are
already being implemented

Do not repeat yourself. Focus on the
quality of your work, not on the quantity

Research

information
that justify your
country’s stance on the issue

䑯 湯琠r敳er楣i y潵r獥汦s瑯t 潮汹 畳楮朠瑨攠
楮瑥r湥琬 畳攠 d楦i
敲敮e 浥m楡猠 獵s栠 慳a
湥w獰慰敲e慲瑩捬敳, 浡g慺楮攠慲瑩捬敳a慮d
b潯os

I琠楳i pr敦敲慢汥l 楦i y潵 wr楴攠愠瑩浥汩湥 潦
the issue’s major events and document
瑨攠浡m潲 瑵t湩湧 p潩湴猠瑨慴 捡畳敤 瑨t
楳獵攠i漠扥⁴桥⁷慹⁩ ⁩猠湯n

䑯 湯琠景捵猠潮汹 潮o獨潲琠瑥r洠
獯汵瑩潮猠
瑯t 瑨攠 瑯t楣, b畴u 晩fd 汯

-
瑥r洠 潮敳,
w桩捨⁷楬氠慬獯⁢i

敦e散e楶i

剥獥慲a栠 捯c湴r楥猠 pl慹楮朠 瑨攠 b楧i敳e
r潬敳o楮 瑨攠汥l慬ad楡浯湤 瑲慤攠慮d 桯w
䑯 湯琠楮捬cd攠獯汵瑩潮猠瑨慴 浡m攠浡m潲,
獵sd敮 捨a
nges to the country’s policy
Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

they have risen to this level

of
involvement

greatly affecting many of the country’s
潴桥爠o慪潲⁳散瑯牳

剥獥慲a栠浯r攠慢潵琠t桥h瑯t楣i瑨慮 w桡h
楳i r敱畩u敤 晲潭 y潵 楮 瑨攠 p潳楴o潮
p慰敲猠慮d r敳潬畴楯湳e瑯t桥汰hy潵 dur楮g
d敢慴攮

䑯 湯琠 景捵猠 潮汹 潮o w桡琠 瑨攠 啎U 桡h
d潮攠 潮o 瑨攠 楳獵攬 b畴u r敳e慲a栠 w桡琠
潴桥爠 湯n
-
g潶敲湭敮瑡氠 潲g慮楺慴楯湳i
桡h攠e潮o

慮d⁡dd w桡琠t敷⁳潬畴楯u⁹潵
捡c⁢r楮g⁴漠瑨 ⁴ b汥


While Writing the Position Paper:

What to focus on

What to avoid

Divide your position paper into three
parts:

1.

Historical Background

2.

UN involvement

3.

Possible Solutions

Do not assume or use information that
you are not completely sure about. You
need to always provide facts to back up
every point you make

Include key dates in the historical
background of the topic

D
o not mention solutions that have

already

been implemented in your
possible solutions

Focus on the major parties involved
and
their roles

Do not avoid writing a position paper as a
whole because it is a
great way of helping
you get a strong
idea on the to
pic and
what debate will generally be about

Focus on the impacts that blood
diamonds have on the Angolan
government and
on the rights of the
Angolan

citizen
s

Avoid procrastinating. Do not write your
position paper on the day of the
conference.

Research what the United Nations has
don
e and what resolutions it passed to
combat blood diamond trade in Angola

Do not write less than 4 pages for the
position paper

Find solutions to the issue according to
problems

you have found
throughout
your researc
h of

the topic’s

historical
background

In the ‘Possible Solutions’ section, do not
create a new organization that tackles
this problem if there is already an existing
organization for it

Research what treaties have been signed
to solve this issue

Do not
propose solutions that harm your
country or go against its policy

Include statistics that support your points
in the position paper

Do not be repetitive and redundant.
Mention all information about a certain
aspect of the topic and do not repeat it
again.

Mention why solving this issue is so
important

Avoid wordiness. Although detail

is

extremely important when writing a
position paper, avoid irrelevant details
that are unimportant to achieving
Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

complete understanding of the topic

Paraphrase all informati
on that you found
to avoid plagiarism

Do not ignore the aforementioned guiding
questions when writing your position
paper


While Writing your R
esolution:

What to focus on

What to avoid

Focus on tackling the issues that you
found when writing the
historical
background of your position paper

Do not include solutions that have already
been implemented

by the UN or other
governmental and non
-
governmental
organizations

in your operative clauses

Focus on tackling all sides of the issue

Do not assume
that a lengthy and wordy
resolution is better. Having a short, clear
and concise resolution that tackles all
p
roblems efficiently is the best

Remember to use the proper
pre
ambulatory

and operative phrases in
the p
r
e
ambulatory and operative clauses
of the
resolution

Do not write more than 5 preambulatory
clauses
. The operative clauses should
exceed the number of preambulatory
clauses

Focus on finding solutions that will help
the Angolan government, and most
importantly, give the Angolan

citizen
s
their righ
ts

Do not

focus on funding but you should
not implement solutions that need
ridiculous amounts of money

Form preambulatory clauses based on
what you found in
the

historical
background of
your

position paper

Do not drift away from the required
resolution format

When lobbying and merging, integrate
the clauses of other members of the group
into the resolution

Do not forget that you are the Human
Rights Commission and that all solutions
must be related to Huma
n Rights

Paraphrase all your clauses to avoid
plagiarism

Do not propose a resolution that depends
completely on the support of one
organization. A solid resolution has
support from several different charities,
governmental organizations and non
-
governmental organizations.

Elaborate on
and add to
the actions th
at
the UN are already taking to tackle this
issue and create new solutions from
scratch as well

Avoid including vague clauses in the
resolution

Make sure to include both long
-
term and
short
-
term solutions to the issue

Writing sub
-
sub
-
sub clauses is

prohibited
in AMMUN

Make sure that the solutions created are
detailed with sub
-
clauses

Remember that we are the Human Rights
Commission, so do not drift far from the
Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

topic of Human Rights when writing
resolutions


While Debating:

What to focus on

What
to avoid

Always respect your f
ellow delegates and

chairs in the forum

Do not be shy. The more confident you
are, the more your fellow delegates will
take your points into consideration

Maintain good relations with your fellow
delegates outside the forum

Do not forget that the official language of
AMMUN is English and that it is
prohibited to speak any other language
during debate

Follow the AMMUN rules of procedure
highlighted in the Delegate Guide on the
AMMUN website

Do not let your personal views and ideas
influence your stance during debate. You
are representing the country you were
assigned, not your ownself


Remember to participate in debate.
Always raise your placards to
take the
floor
or to ask points of informa
tion

When asking a point of information, avoid
asking a compound question
. You are
allowed to request one follow
-
up after the
speaker has answered your point

Know exactly what you want to say
before taking the floor or asking a point of
information

to avo
id confusion
. Writing
notes on a note pad would help you
organize your thoughts

Avoid using personal pronouns at all
times

Use the information that you have
included in your position paper in your
speech to support your arguments

Keep in mind that
‘rights to reply’ are
prohibited in AMMUN

Use statistics in your speech to justify
your points

Side talk and laughing is out of order in
the forum

Instead of voting against resolutions, try
amending
its clauses
; the goal is to pass
good resolutions, not
to fail them

Avoid writing rude, hurtful or
inappropriate notes to delegates

Keep in mind that the only point that can
interrupt the speaker is a ‘point of
personal privilege’

Directly passing notes without
the admin
staff screening them

is prohibited

If the speaker stated an incorrect point,
wait until he/she finished speaking, then
request a point of order to correct the
delegate.

Avoid wandering off from the main issue
being discussed



Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

Example of a Solution:

1.

Encourages

the establishment of an International Diamond Authority that
includes government, trade and NGO representatives. This authority will:

a.

Monitor the system of rough controls by:

i.

Sending UN watchdogs to country borders

to monitor diamond
trade
,

ii.

W
riting an
annual report to the Secretary General about the
conditions at these borders,

b.

Call upon all countries that export or import rough diamonds to
establish an
official government agency that r
ecords export and import
shipments in an international diamond datab
ase set by the
governments of these countries. The data shall include:

i.


a country export registration number,

ii.

the number of carats,

iii.

the number of stones greater than two carats,

iv.

and the value and date of shipment,

c.

Ensures that the diamonds are to be seale
d in a tamperproof container
with a signed document containing all information entered into the
database;

d.

And

allow or reject rough export in any country
, depending on its
specific situation.


Notes:

You

must understand why the topic of ‘Tackling the issue

of Blood Diamonds in
Angola’ is being discussed in HRC AMMUN’13.
You
must also keep in mind all the
events

in history that have played a key role in the blood diamond trade such as
Angola’s independence from the Portuguese colonial forces, the death of
UN
ITA’s
leader Savimbi

and

the treaties and systems established such as the Alvor Accords and
the Kimberley Process.


You

should also look at what the UN has done to solve this issue and what resolutions

they passed, such as
UN Security
Council Resolution 1
173
, 129
5 and 1176.
You
should
look at what factors playe
d a role in this issue, such as

Angola’s location, geology, etc.
and most importantly how the Angolan citizens and miners are being abused and are
deprived of many rights due to the blood diamond trade.
You

should also look at other
countries involved in the blood diamond trade such as
Sierra Leo
ne, Liberia, South
Africa, etc.,
which countries support UNITA’s rebellion forces and which countries
support the MPLA government.


The HRC are not focusing much on the financial and economic aspects of the blood
diamonds issue, but are focusing

more on Angola’s violation of human rights and the
UN charter. Finally, you are expected to know all aspects of the topic and should come
up with detailed and practical solutions to prevent human rights violations and blood
diamond trade

in general
.

Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13


Major Parties Involved:

1.

MPLA:

The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Labour Party) is a
political party

that
has
ruled
Angola

sinc
e its independence from
Portugal

in 1975. On December

1956, the relatively small
Angolan Communist Party

(PCA) merged with the

Party
of
the United Struggle for Africans in Angola

(PLUA) to form the People's Movement for
the Liberation of Angola. Other gro
ups that merged into MPLA include the Movement
for the National Independence of Angola
(MINA) and the
Democratic Front for the
Liberation of Angola

(FDLA). The MPLA's core base also included the

Ambundu
ethnic
group and the
middle and upper class
educated people of

Luanda, the capital of
Angola.
T
hey fought
the Portuguese army

and defeated

UNITA
and
FNLA

in the
decolonization conflict of 1974
-
1975 and the
Angolan Civil War

of 1975
-
2002.


The party had links to

European and Soviet Communist
parties and is now a full
member of the

Socialist International
grouping of

Social Democratic P
arties. The
armed wing of MPLA was the Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (
FAPLA
),
which later became the national armed forces of the country.


In 1961, the MPLA joined

the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape
Verde (PAIGC)

its

familial party
in direct combat against the

Portuguese empire in
Africa.
In the early 1970s, the MPLA's guerrilla activities were reduced, due to the
"counter
-
insurgency" campaigns of the Portuguese military. Internal conflicts caused
the movement to split up into three factions but were overcome i
n
1974
-
19
75.


2.

UNITA:

The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) is the second
-
largest

political party in Angola.
Founded in 1966, UNITA fought beside the
Movement
for the Liberation of Angola

(MPLA) in the
Angolan War for Independence
(1961

1975) and against the MPLA in the
civil war

(1975

2002).


The war was one o
f the most prominent

cold wars.
UNITA received
military aid

from
the USA and

South Africa
while the MPLA received aid from the

Soviet Union and its
allies and there was no direct military action between these countries
, but there was
political hostility and military tension.


UNITA, led by
Jonas
Savimbi,

launched its first attack on Portuguese colonial
authorities in December 1966. UNITA then abandoned armed struggl
e and
participated in elections

and won 16 out of 220

seats in the
2008 parliamentary
election
. Savimbi was affiliated with
Holden Roberto
's
FNLA
.
However, UNITA then
moved to Jamba in Angola's southeastern province of Cuando Cubango.
Angola’s
majority Ovimbundu ethnic group influenced UNITA’s leadership
, as they were its
main social basis,

and its policies were
Maoist

(influenced by Savimbi's training in

China)
. T
hey targeted rural rights and recognized ethnic divisions. UNITA was later
aligned with the United States promoting
democracy

and

free market
political and
Human Rights Commission


AMMUN’13

economic change in Angola.


3.

United States:

During the

Reagan Administration,
officials to include
the Central Intelligence Agency,

National Security and

Secretary of State
met with UNITA leaders in Washington while
Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs met with Savimbi in Morocco. The U.S.
assured Savimbi that they will assist UNITA and encouraged other governments to do
the same
.
In 1983 the U.S. and South African governments agreed to ship weapons to
UNITA from

Honduras,
Belgium and Switzerland.


Savimbi benefited from the meetings and support of

the

American conservative party
and leaders, culminating in the
“Democrati
c International”, a meeting of anti
-
Communist militants held

in 1985

at UNITA’s headquarters in Jamba in Angola.


Useful Links:

http://www.ugs
-
angola.com/the
-
angolan
-
civil
-
war
-
the
-
concept
-
of
-
blood
-
diamonds
-
explained.php

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405274870419800457531128258895
918
8.html

http://www.stopblooddiamonds.org/conflict
-
diamonds
-
angola.asp

http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/angola.htm

http://www.hardasrocks.info/blood
-
diamonds.htm

http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/congo.htm

http://www.stopblooddiamonds.org/conflict
-
diamonds
-
liberia.asp


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world
-
africa
-
13036732

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405274870419800457531128258895918
8.html

(UN
-
RESO_UNSC
-
20/5/1991)

(UN
-
RESO
-
UNSC
-
28/8/1997)

(UN
-
RESO
-
UNSC
-
12/6/1998)

(UN
-
RESO
-
U
NSC
-
24/6/1998)

(UN
-
RESO
-
UNSC
-
18/4/2000)

(UN
-
RESO
-
UNGA
-
2000)