Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Conservation of Arctic
Flora and Fauna












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Arctic


importance to global biodiversity


14.8 million km
²

of land
-

13 million km
²

of ocean


Vast wilderness areas


Largest global freshwater reserves (with Antarctic)


Globally significant array of biodiversity


The contribution of wildlife to global biodiversity is
substantial.


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Arctic


importance to global biodiversity


Unique and diverse indigenous cultures


Life is existing on the edge of what is possible and
small physical changes can be crucial for arctic
ecosystems and for the worlds biodiversity.


Changes in biodiversity will cause changes in
economy both negative and positive



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Climate change


Resource development

-

e.g. oil and gas exploration


Increased shipping/air traffic


Habitat destruction and fragmentation


Invasive species


Overexploitation

Arctic


pressures/stressors

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Rapid warming in Arctic
-

worldwide implications


Biota


geographical and numerical shifts


Coastal communities
-

increasing physical exposure


Less sea ice


crucial for some species


Less sea Ice
-

increase transport and resource access


Less sea Ice


problems for some local communities


Melting of Greenland Ice sheet and glaciers


interruption
of coastal ecosystems and ocean current


Thawing
-

disrupts infrastructure; feeding areas shift


Indigenous peoples
-

economic and cultural impacts


Multiple interactions
-

impacts to people and ecosystems

Arctic



Climate change (ACIA)

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What is the Conservation of Arctic Flora &
Fauna (CAFF)?




Working Group of the Arctic
Council
(one of six)


Focus on biodiversity


Board members from:


8 Arctic countries


6 Indigenous organisations


Observers from:


International organisations




Non Arctic countries


Secretariat in Akureyri, Iceland


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… to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity,
and to communicate the findings to the governments
and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote
practices which ensure the sustainability of the
Arctic’s living resources





…to monitor, assess, report on and protect
biodiversity in the Circumpolar Arctic


CAFF



mandate

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Evaluate status and trends of biodiversity


Establish baseline data


Improve and enhance capacity to monitor


Integrated approach to biodiversity monitoring


Monitoring on a circumpolar as against national scale


Analyse gaps in monitoring programs


Understand changes with focused research


CAFF



what will be in focus over the coming years

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Expert Groups


Seabirds, Flora & Protected Areas



Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme




Arctic Biodiversity Assessment





Individual projects .


-

Endorsement of Arctic projects


CAFF



how responding to these needs

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A
CIA recommendation
-

expand & enhance


long
-
term Arctic biodiversity monitoring



International network working to improve
detection,
understanding & reporting of biodiversity trends



A focal point for cutting edge Arctic


biodiversity information

……



Coordinating body of Monitoring Networks



The CBMP



circumpolar biodiversity monitoring programme

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Ecosystem based management approach


Over 60 Global Partners


33 of which are Arctic networks are linked to the CBMP



Led by Canada with funding from Canada, US,


Finland, Sweden and Norway,
Sweden and EU



Expert Monitoring Groups
-

Terrestrial fauna, vegetation,
freshwater, marine & coastal




CBMP



circumpolar biodiversity monitoring programme

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Arctic Species Trend Index



Vertebrate population abundance data are being used to produce
an indicator of the trends in arctic biodiversity


Time span over the last 35 years


Tracks
965 populations of 306 species


Representing 35% of all known vertebrate species found in the Arctic


Presently under review




Protected Areas Workshop



To develop a circumpolar Protected Areas Monitoring Framework


Being led by the US


CBMP



some

upcoming activities

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Purpose:


To synthesize and assess the status and trends of biological
diversity in the Arctic



Baseline data:




Compile up
-
to
-
date scientific & TEK


Identify gaps in data records


Identify main stressors and




key mechanisms driving change


Produce recommendations




Co
-
leads


Greenland/Denmark, Finland and the US

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment



overview (www.caff.is/aba)

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Three components:


Arctic Biodiversity Highlights Report (2010)


Scientific Assessment (2013)


Overview & Policy Recommendations (2013)



Highlights Report
-

AC contribution to the UN
International Biodiversity Year 2010


Measure progress towards the 2010 CBD target
-

to
reduce the rate of biodiversity loss


Baseline for future assessments of Arctic biodiversity


Arctic Biodiversity Assessment



overview (www.caff.is/aba)

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Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010



selected indicators of change

(www.caff.is/aba)

Species

Ice dependent Species

Polar Bears

Aquatic freshwater ecosystems

Reindeer/Caribou

Permafrost change
-

Appearance and Disappearance of Lakes

Shorebirds (Red Knot)

Ice Cover duration (including nutrient change)

Seabirds (Murres and Common Eiders)

Marine Ecosystems

Range changes in invertebrates

Changing distribution of fish in general

Flora


bryophytes

Seafloor destruction

Arctic Char

Chapter 6


Ecosystems goods and services

Invasive species


man induced

Reindeer herding

Emerging species


natural migrations

Changes in harvest (subsistence & commercial)

The Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI)

Human footprint

Terrestrial ecosystems

Protected areas Linguistic Diversity

Greening of the Arctic

Genetic Diversity

Reproductive Phenology (including Snow Cover)

Past and present bottlenecks in population genetics

Lemmings

Ice

dependent species

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Scientific Assessment



structure

(www.caff.is/aba)

Species accounts

Terrestrial ecosystems

Mammals

Aquatic ecosystems

Birds

Marine ecosystems

Amphibians & reptiles

Ecosystem services

Fish

Genetic diversity

Invertebrates

Conservation Issues

Plants

Gaps & Recommendations

Fungi

and

Lichens

Diseases

and

Parasites

Invasive

species

Diseases and Pathogens

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Arctic Council



Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI)


A framework of

spatial data,

metadata, users and tools
that are interactively connected in order to use spatial
data in an efficient and flexible way


Supported by the mapping agencies of all 8 AC
countries


Addressed at upcoming AC meeting in November


A sustainable approach to develop and maintain an
Arctic SDI

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Photos courtesy of ARC
-
PIC.COM

Thank you