Smart School ID System

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27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Smart School ID System

Presented By:

Alpa Kothari

Neha Dua


ENPM 613


Systems Engineering Design Project

Smart School ID System



The Need:



A school generally deals with the following high priority security
risks:


Student accountability in normal and Emergency operations


Need to restrict outsider access




Smart School ID System



The Solution:



We propose a Smart School ID system that will provide presence
detection/access control and notification services as well.



The presence detection/access control function is comprised of a
wired/wireless sensor network of readers that is installed in school
buildings to detect presence of students with badges or tags.



All school students will be supplied photo school ID cards that provide
automated access to designated school entrances during school hours.
The ID cards will be worn at school throughout the day.



As a part of the roll call, student IDs will be tapped into the system when
each student arrives or leaves the school. This automates time and
attendance reconciliation.




Smart School ID System


Approach:



The system would be analyzed and UML definitions will be
used to accurately define the system behavior.


Formal requirements for a particular school would then be
created.


Finally system requirements will be verified to ensure that
the system satisfies the properties required.

Smart Student ID System


System Goals:



Goal 1: The system must be secure


Goal 2: The system must be efficient


Goal 3: The system must be usable


Goal 4: The system must be reliable


Goal 5: The system must be easy to maintain


Goal 6: The system must track accurately and maintain
data integrity



Goal 7: The system must provide authorized access

The Technology


Various ID Systems:



Bar Code


Biometric


Voice Identification


Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems


RFID

The Technology


RFID:



Radio frequency identification

(RFID) technology uses radio waves to
automatically identify physical objects (either living beings or inanimate
items). Therefore, the range of objects identifiable using RFID includes
virtually everything on this planet (and beyond).



Thus, RFID is an example of
automatic identification

(Auto
-
ID) technology
by which a physical object can be identified automatically.


Advantages of RFID over Bar Code


Advantages:



Human intervention is required to scan a barcode, whereas in most
applications an RFID tag can be detected "hands off."


Barcodes must be visible on the outside of product packaging. RFID tags
can be detected regardless of their orientation


You must have "line of sight" to read a barcode. Line of sight is not
required for RFID tagged objects


The readability of barcodes can be impaired by dirt, moisture, abrasion, or
packaging contours.


RFID tags are not affected by those conditions.


RFID tags have a longer read range than barcodes.


RFID tags have read/write memory capability; barcodes do not.


More data can be stored in an RFID tag than can be stored on a barcode.


How it Works


A radio device called a
tag

is attached to the
object that needs to be identified. Unique
identification data about this tagged object is
stored on this tag. When such a tagged object is
presented in front of a suitable RFID reader, the
tag transmits this data to the reader (via the
reader antenna). The reader then reads the data
and has the capability to forward it over suitable
communication channels, such as a network or a
serial connection, to a software application
running on a computer. This application can then
use this unique data to identify the object
presented to the reader. It can then perform a
variety of actions such as updating the location
information of this object in the database,
sending an alert to the floor personnel, or
completely ignoring it (if a duplicate read, for
example).

RFID System


An
RFID system

is an integrated collection of components that
implement an RFID solution.


Tag. This is a mandatory component of any RFID system.


Reader. This is a mandatory component, too.


Reader antenna. This is another mandatory component. Some current
readers available today have built
-
in antennas


Controller. This is a mandatory component. However, most of the new
-
generation readers have this component built in to them.


Sensor, actuator, and annunciator. These optional components are
needed for external input and output of the system.


Host and software system. Theoretically, an RFID system can function
independently without this component. Practically, an RFID system is
close to worthless without this component.


Communication infrastructure. This mandatory component is a collection
of both wired and wireless network and serial connection infrastructure
needed to connect the previously listed components together to
effectively communicate with each other.




System Architecture

Smart Student ID System


Level 1 Requirements Created


Level 2 Requirements Derived


Component Requirements & Specifications Developed







requirements.xls


Smart Student ID System


Use Case diagrams


We developed use case descriptions and diagrams to
define the requirements of the system.


Identified the users of the systems and the roles


16 use cases were developed to cover the system
functionality.



Smart Student ID System

Smart Student ID System

Smart Student ID System

Smart Student ID System

Activity Diagrams & State Chart Diagrams


Activity & state chart diagrams have been developed to study the
Work flow & the Dynamic Behavior of the system


Smart Student ID System

Activity Diagrams




Smart Student ID System

Smart Student ID System

Smart Student ID System

STATE CHART DIAGRAMS

Smart Student ID System

STATE CHART DIAGRAMS

Smart Student ID System

STATE CHART DIAGRAMS

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification

Test Procedure


Test the effect of environments with different medium, humidity, and
electromagnetic wave etc.


Test the difference between HF and UHF frequency, 96 bits and 2K bytes
volume, active and passive tag, and the compatibility with bar code


Include both Field and lab testing as well

Test Specifications


“A Test Method of Tag on Thing’s Surface”


Static Spectrum Analyzing Test, to
confirm

five candidate places


Medium Replacement Test, to suggest the casing material


Apparatus: signal generator, display device, real
-
time RF signal analyzer, thermometer,
speed measurer, speed
-

adjustable conveyor, network analyzer, dimension measuring
devices etc

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification


Technical Variables for the testing procedures


The technical variables that should be considered while designing &
implementing RFID solutions are listed below:


Frequency of operation


Tags


Readers


Antennas


Operating Conditions


Application Software & Hardware


Database Management System


Integration testing

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification


Technical Variables for the testing procedures for RFID Tag


The technical variables to be tested are:


Type


Readability which is effected by read distance, tag motion, tag
orientation, operating environment.


Data capacity


Physical properties for checking the dimensions & weight





Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification


Technical Variables for the testing procedures for RFID Reader
& RF Communications


The technical variables to be tested are:


Features: type, Installation


Readability: Anti collision, false Reads


Operating Conditions


Reader Collision


Distance Calculation


Signal Strength and Power usage


Effect of communication medium and environmental
interference.





Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification: A table to show interference provided to RF
frequencies by various materials


Material

LF

HF

UHF

Microwave

Clothing

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

Dry wood

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
absorbent

Graphite

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
opaque

RF
-
opaque

Liquids (some types)

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
absorbent

RF
-
absorbent

Metals

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
opaque

RF
-
opaque

Motor oil

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

Paper products

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

Plastics

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent (some types)

Shampoo

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
absorbent

RF
-
absorbent

Water

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
absorbent

RF
-
absorbent

Wet wood

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
lucent

RF
-
absorbent

RF
-
absorbent

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification


Some of the tests are:



Access Control testing



Test Database Security



Test Accurate Tracking



Traffic handling test



Reader and Tag testing



Antenna Test



Speed Test



Anti collision Test



Read Distance Test



Tag near conductor test



Radiation pattern test

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification: Sample Test Case

Smart Student ID System

Validation & Verification: Formal Test Procedure to test
the tag performance in presence of metal


The presence of a material near a tag often changes the performance of the tag in significant
ways. Conductors, such as metal, provide some of the greatest challenges for RFID tags.
Conductors are everywhere, including places one might least expect them. Boxes of
dishwasher detergent (used for our conveyor testing, for example,) are lined with a metal foil.
Even a very thin foil of metal is enough to make products difficult to tag.


To assess the performance of tags near metal:


Place each tag at varying distances from a large, flat piece of steel.


The tags and metal plate here are separated by air.


Place the tag at about 3 feet away from the reader antenna.


Use an attenuator to determine the dB attenuation level at which the tag could no
longer read.


A higher attenuation level, expressed in dB, corresponds to a longer reading distance.


This provides with an approximate maximum read distance for each tag.

(The RFID Alliance Lab report contains charts of the dB attenuation level for each tag with an
approximate conversion into read distance in feet.
)

Smart Student ID System

Requirement Traceability Matrix


requirements.xls

Smart Student ID System

Tasks to be Accomplished:



Formal Test Procedures for various system
specifications to be developed


Smart Student ID System

Thank you