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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 28 μέρες)

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Web Servers


Web server software is a product that works with
the operating system


The server computer can run more than one
software product such as e
-
mail and FTP


With both a LAN and the Web, controlling
access is very important


The Web server can be part of the LAN


Web communication and LAN communication
are different


Web Server Platforms
-

Microsoft


Windows NT (IIS 4)


IIS (Internet Information Server) was added in the
mid
-
1990s, and support for ASP was added later


Windows 2000 (IIS 5)


IIS part of the OS from the beginning


.NET Framework add
-
on allows use of ASP.NET


Windows Server 2003 (IIS 6)


.NET Framework integrated into OS


Other Microsoft Server Products


Application Center


Allows you to manage a cluster of servers as
if it is one server


Biztalk Server


Connects to your business partners using
XML


Commerce Server


Builds e
-
commerce sites in a short amount of
time

Other Microsoft Server Products


Internet Security and Acceleration Server


Combines a firewall product with a Web cache


Operations Manager


Helps decrease support costs for a server
environment


SharePoint Portal Server


Set up a site that is highly personalized

Configuring TCP/IP in Windows


To determine TCP/IP configuration, type
ipconfig

at a command prompt

How a Web Server Works


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) defines how
information is passed between a browser and a
Web server


The two most popular Web servers are


Apache from Apache Software Foundation


Internet Information Services (IIS) from Microsoft


The original Web server from Microsoft available on Windows
NT was Internet Information Server


Almost two
-
thirds of all Web servers use Apache

How a Web Server Works


As is true with other servers such as DNS,
Web servers listen for communication at a
port


The default port is 80


You can also create Web servers at port
numbers greater than 1023


Each Web server has a root, which is
where you store the HTML documents

Understanding HTTP


The current version of HTTP is 1.1


Virtually no browsers are so old that they do
not support 1.1


HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that
each Web page sent is independent of
every other Web page sent


This makes it more challenging to create a
shopping cart application

Understanding HTTP


HTTP 1.1 supports persistent connections


This allows the browser to receive multiple
files in one TCP connection


This can speed up communication


Although you see a single page in your
browser, it can be composed of many text and
image files

Understanding HTTP


When the browser sends a request to a Web
server, it looks like:

GET /hello.htm HTTP/1.1

Host: www.technowidgets.com


The above requests the hello.htm file from the
root of the Web server


It specifies the host of www.technowidgets.com


There could be multiple hosts at the IP address

Understanding HTTP



The following shows some of the headers
along with the HTML that the Web server
would send:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Server: Microsoft
-
IIS/5.0

Content
-
Type: text/html

Last
-
Modified: Fri, 17 May 2005 18:21:25 GMT

Content
-
Length: 43

<html><body>

Hello, World

</body></html>



The headers contain information about the
page

Features in Apache


Apache 1.3 was used for many years but version 2.0
was released in 2001


Apache can also be used as a proxy server


A proxy server isolates your real Web server from the
Internet


Apache 2.0 has


Better support for Windows


Support for IPv6


Simplified configuration


Unicode support in Windows


Multilanguage error responses


Apache supports many programming languages such
as Perl and PHP

Features in IIS


IIS versions associated with Windows
versions


Windows NT


IIS 4.0


Windows 2000


IIS 5.0


Windows Server 2003


IIS 6.0


SMTP can be easily added so you can
send e
-
mail from your Web pages

Features in IIS 5.0


Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning
(WebDAV)


Allows a server to share Web
-
based files


Named virtual hosting


Multiple Web sites can share a single IP address


Per Web site bandwidth throttling


Control bandwidth by Web site


Kerberos authentication


Secure Sockets Layer 3.0


Encrypted communication

Features in IIS 6.0


Increased security


Default permits only HTML documents


Expanded language support


Can use XML and SOAP


Support for IPv6


Increased dependability


Kernel
-
mode HTTP service


Self
-
healing mechanism

Components in IIS


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server


To transfer files between user and server


FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions


Used by programs to transfer files to and from a Web
site


NNTP Service


Used to create user forums


SMTP Service


World Wide Web Server

File System Permissions


Permission allow you to control access
to the resources on a computer such as
a Web page, a document, or a program


In Windows, the NTFS file system is
required in order to assign permissions


All Linux file systems incorporate
permissions

File System Permissions in
Windows

Permission

Description

Full Control

Full Control includes all other permissions and allows you to take
ownership of the file or folder and change the attributes of a file

Modify

Allows read, write, and delete

Read

With this permission, you can read files but cannot execute them

Write

When set on a file, this permission allows you to write to files; when
set on a folder, you can write to the folder

Read & Execute

Read files and run programs

List Folder Contents

This permission allows you to view the contents of a folder

Special Permissions

(Windows 2003
only)

This is not a specific permission; under the list of permissions for
users, when this permission is checked, it means that this user
has one or more of the 14 individual permissions set

Hosting Multiple Web Sites

by Port Number


Associate each new Web site with a
port above 1023


To retrieve a Web page from a site at
port 8080


www.technowidgets.com:8080/prod.htm


Because it requires a user to add the
port number, it is not a popular method


UNIX/Linux


UNIX was introduced in 1969


Linux is from the early 1990s


Based on MINIX


Three basic components


Kernel


central portion of OS


File system


provides input and output
mechanisms


Shell


provides user interface

Linux


Source code is freely available


Developers can make changes


Available from a number of organizations


Red Hat


Mandrake


SuSe

Summary


Server administration focuses on LANs


Web server administration focuses on the
Internet


Both types of administrators install,
configure, and maintain servers


Many pieces make up the network


There are many Web server platforms
from which to choose

Summary


Web servers use HTTP to send HTML
documents


IIS is from Microsoft while Apache is from
Apache Software Foundation


IIS modifications are made through
property pages


Apache modifications are typically made
by changing /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf