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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Web Servers

Web server software is a product that works with
the operating system

The server computer can run more than one
software product such as e
mail and FTP

With both a LAN and the Web, controlling
access is very important

The Web server can be part of the LAN

Web communication and LAN communication
are different

Web Server Platforms


Windows NT (IIS 4)

IIS (Internet Information Server) was added in the
1990s, and support for ASP was added later

Windows 2000 (IIS 5)

IIS part of the OS from the beginning

.NET Framework add
on allows use of ASP.NET

Windows Server 2003 (IIS 6)

.NET Framework integrated into OS

Other Microsoft Server Products

Application Center

Allows you to manage a cluster of servers as
if it is one server

Biztalk Server

Connects to your business partners using

Commerce Server

Builds e
commerce sites in a short amount of

Other Microsoft Server Products

Internet Security and Acceleration Server

Combines a firewall product with a Web cache

Operations Manager

Helps decrease support costs for a server

SharePoint Portal Server

Set up a site that is highly personalized

Configuring TCP/IP in Windows

To determine TCP/IP configuration, type

at a command prompt

How a Web Server Works

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) defines how
information is passed between a browser and a
Web server

The two most popular Web servers are

Apache from Apache Software Foundation

Internet Information Services (IIS) from Microsoft

The original Web server from Microsoft available on Windows
NT was Internet Information Server

Almost two
thirds of all Web servers use Apache

How a Web Server Works

As is true with other servers such as DNS,
Web servers listen for communication at a

The default port is 80

You can also create Web servers at port
numbers greater than 1023

Each Web server has a root, which is
where you store the HTML documents

Understanding HTTP

The current version of HTTP is 1.1

Virtually no browsers are so old that they do
not support 1.1

HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that
each Web page sent is independent of
every other Web page sent

This makes it more challenging to create a
shopping cart application

Understanding HTTP

HTTP 1.1 supports persistent connections

This allows the browser to receive multiple
files in one TCP connection

This can speed up communication

Although you see a single page in your
browser, it can be composed of many text and
image files

Understanding HTTP

When the browser sends a request to a Web
server, it looks like:

GET /hello.htm HTTP/1.1

Host: www.technowidgets.com

The above requests the hello.htm file from the
root of the Web server

It specifies the host of www.technowidgets.com

There could be multiple hosts at the IP address

Understanding HTTP

The following shows some of the headers
along with the HTML that the Web server
would send:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Server: Microsoft

Type: text/html

Modified: Fri, 17 May 2005 18:21:25 GMT

Length: 43


Hello, World


The headers contain information about the

Features in Apache

Apache 1.3 was used for many years but version 2.0
was released in 2001

Apache can also be used as a proxy server

A proxy server isolates your real Web server from the

Apache 2.0 has

Better support for Windows

Support for IPv6

Simplified configuration

Unicode support in Windows

Multilanguage error responses

Apache supports many programming languages such
as Perl and PHP

Features in IIS

IIS versions associated with Windows

Windows NT

IIS 4.0

Windows 2000

IIS 5.0

Windows Server 2003

IIS 6.0

SMTP can be easily added so you can
send e
mail from your Web pages

Features in IIS 5.0

Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning

Allows a server to share Web
based files

Named virtual hosting

Multiple Web sites can share a single IP address

Per Web site bandwidth throttling

Control bandwidth by Web site

Kerberos authentication

Secure Sockets Layer 3.0

Encrypted communication

Features in IIS 6.0

Increased security

Default permits only HTML documents

Expanded language support

Can use XML and SOAP

Support for IPv6

Increased dependability

mode HTTP service

healing mechanism

Components in IIS

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server

To transfer files between user and server

FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions

Used by programs to transfer files to and from a Web

NNTP Service

Used to create user forums

SMTP Service

World Wide Web Server

File System Permissions

Permission allow you to control access
to the resources on a computer such as
a Web page, a document, or a program

In Windows, the NTFS file system is
required in order to assign permissions

All Linux file systems incorporate

File System Permissions in



Full Control

Full Control includes all other permissions and allows you to take
ownership of the file or folder and change the attributes of a file


Allows read, write, and delete


With this permission, you can read files but cannot execute them


When set on a file, this permission allows you to write to files; when
set on a folder, you can write to the folder

Read & Execute

Read files and run programs

List Folder Contents

This permission allows you to view the contents of a folder

Special Permissions

(Windows 2003

This is not a specific permission; under the list of permissions for
users, when this permission is checked, it means that this user
has one or more of the 14 individual permissions set

Hosting Multiple Web Sites

by Port Number

Associate each new Web site with a
port above 1023

To retrieve a Web page from a site at
port 8080


Because it requires a user to add the
port number, it is not a popular method


UNIX was introduced in 1969

Linux is from the early 1990s

Based on MINIX

Three basic components


central portion of OS

File system

provides input and output


provides user interface


Source code is freely available

Developers can make changes

Available from a number of organizations

Red Hat




Server administration focuses on LANs

Web server administration focuses on the

Both types of administrators install,
configure, and maintain servers

Many pieces make up the network

There are many Web server platforms
from which to choose


Web servers use HTTP to send HTML

IIS is from Microsoft while Apache is from
Apache Software Foundation

IIS modifications are made through
property pages

Apache modifications are typically made
by changing /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf