WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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WHATISARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE?
Cognitivesimulation
(
Thinkingrationally/human-like)
a
Constructionof“intelligent”systems
(
Actingrationally/human-like)
Investigationofprinciplesof“information”processing
Strictformalization
Exemplaryimplementations
Thinkingisalso/onlycomputation.
(“also”=weakvs.“only”=strongAIhypothesis)
InterdisciplinarycharacterofAI:Computerscience,neuroscience,psychology,
philosophy,linguistics,controltheory,economics,...
a
cf.Russell/Norvig
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.85
PrehistoryofAI
Theideaofartificalman(“secondcreation”):automataandandroids
AntiquityandMiddleAges
ModernAge:Empirism,Rationalism,Materialism;Robots
Theideaoftheuniversalcomputingengine
Leibniz,Pascal,...,Babbage
Turing,Zuse,v.Neumann
Theuniversallanguageidea
“Thinkingascomputation”—Logicandfunctionalsimulation
Calculationprocedures:Al-Chorezmi(Al-Khwarizmi),Fibonacci,Riese
Hobbes,Leibniz
Frege,Boole,Peirce,Hilbert,G
¨
odel,...
WittgensteinI:Tractatusandthe“LinguisticTurn”;“ideallanguage”program
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.86
TheOriginofAIinthe20thCentury
Modernformallogic
TuringandtheTuringMachine
McCullochandPitts—NeuralNetworks:analog,topologicalcomputation
Dartmouthconference1956—“GOFAI”McCarthy,Minsky,Newell,Simon,
etal.:discrete,algebraiccomputation
VannevarBush—MEMEX:hypermedia
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.87
PhasesoftheDevelopmentofAI
Dartmouthconference1956
Foundationalphase:“power-basedapproach”—heuristicsearch
Knowledgerepresentation:“knowledge-basedapproach”
Knowledge-basedsystems,broadapplications,“fifthgeneration”
Neuronalnetworksconnectionism
Multi-agentsystems
“NouvelleAI”:roboticswithoutcentralrepresentation,subsumptionarchitecture
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.88
Rational“AGENTS”
“Foreachpossibleperceptsequence,anidealrationalagentshoulddowhatever
actionisexpectedtomaximizeitsperformancemeasure,onthebasisofthe
evidenceprovidedbytheperceptsequenceandwhateverbuilt-inknowledgethe
agenthas.”(Russell/Norvig)
?
agent
percepts
sensors
actions
effectors
environment
Agent=architecture+program
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.89
AgentTypes
Reflexagent
–rule-based
–e.g.factorialagent
Memory-basedagents
–rule-basedpluslearnedrules
–e.g.,factorialagentthatremembersprevioussolutions
Goal-basedagents
–planner
–e.g.routeplanner
Utility-basedagents
–maximizecontinuous-valuedgoals
–e.g.planner:tradeoffbetweentimeandcost
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.810
Agent
Environment
Sensors
Effectors
What the world
is like now
What action I
should do now
Conditionaction rules
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.811
Agent
Environment
Sensors
Effectors
What the world
is like now
What action I
should do now
State
How the world evolves
What my actions do
Conditionaction rules
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.812
Agent
Environment
Sensors
Effectors
What it will be like
if I do action A
What the world
is like now
What action I
should do now
State
How the world evolves
What my actions do
Goals
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.813
Agent
Environment
Sensors
Effectors
What it will be like
if I do action A
What the world
is like now
How happy I will be
in such a state
What action I
should do now
State
How the world evolves
What my actions do
Utility
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.814
FundamentalSubfieldsofAI
Giventhegoaltoimplementrationalactioninacomplexenvironment,as
exemplifiedbytheconceptionoftherationalagent,AIisaninterdisciplinary,
cross-cuttingdiscipline.
ThereisnothinglikeabigunifyingtheoryofAI,butinsteadaninventoryofmethods
whichcanbeassociatedwithfundamentalsubfields:
Problemsolvingandheuristicsearch
Knowledgerepresentationandinference
Planning
Learning
Perception
Naturallanguageprocessingandimageinterpretation
Agentarchitectures
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.815
QuestionstoAsk
ineachpart...
Whatisthesubject?
Whichfunctionalitydowewanttoachieve?
Whichphenomenadowehavetodealwith?
Whataretypicalexamples?
Whichsubproblemsarethere?
Whataretheunderlyingtheories?Whichapproachwillbechosen?
Whichmethodsandtechniquesareused;whataretheirproperties?
Whichextensionsandwhichinteractionsarethere?
c
G.G
¨
orz,FAUErlangen-N¨urnberg,Inf.816