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MAKERERE UNIVERSITY









FACULTY OF SCIENCE








MASTER

OF SCENCE DEGREE PROGRAMS










JUNE 2009











CURRICULUM FOR T
HE MASTER OF SCIENCE


IN BIOCHEMISTRY
(MSc Biochemistry)



COURSE
-
WORK AND DISSERTATIO
N (PLAN A)

DAY PROGRAMME


C
ourse Name
:

MICROBIAL BIOCHEMISTRY

AND PHYSIOLOGY



Course Code:


MBC710
1

Course Level:

1





Course Credit:

4 CU


Brief Course Description

This course examines: a) the principles underlying microbial systematics, b)
microbial growth and metabolism, c)
information flow, and d) signal transduction and
homeostasis.


Course Objectives

At the end of this course learners should be able to:




Isolate, characterize, and classify microorganisms



Discuss the various approaches to microbial systematic



Use mathematic
al models to describe the kinetics of microbial growth



Discuss microbial signal transduction and homeostasis



Describe a microbial genome



Describe mutation, mutagenesis, mutants and mutation analysis



Discuss the molecular basis of mutations



Compare the prok
aryotic and eukaryotic genomes



Course outline


Microbial Systematics









(10 hours)

Approaches to microbial taxonomy: a) Numerical taxonomy (based on morphological,
physiological and biochemical characteristics), b) phylogenetic or mo
lecular taxonomy
(based on rRNA cataloguing, mol % G+C content, DNA: DNA hybridization), c)
classification of bacteria (eubacteria and archeabacteria), d) taxonomic criteria of fungal
classification, and e) viruses classification



Microbial growth, physio
logy and metabolism





(10 hours)

a) Growth kinetics, mathematical models for batch (closed) and continuous (open) culture
system; b) Microbial physiology and metabolism: overview of primary metabolism,
secondary metabolism and microbial s
ignal transduction and homeostasis (quorum
sensing, chemotaxis and efflux systems)


Microbial genetics






(15 hours)

a) An overview of the organization of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, Typical
exampl
es of bacteria genome (haploid genome) and the eukaryotic yeast genome(diploid)
b) The gene: organization (the operon model), and gene expression or protein synthesis,
control/regulation of gene expressions (transcription and translation control mechanism
s,
post
-
translational control , global regulators and involvement of RNA in the regulation of
gene expression); c) Bacterial recombination: molecular basis of recombination,
conjugation, transduction, complementation and transformation; d) Extra
-
chrosomoso
mal
elements: plasmids/cosmids, transposons and phages; e) Mutation: Mutagens (chemical
mutagens, ionizing radiations), mutagenesis (chemical mutagenesis, radiation
mutagenesis, PCR
-
based mutagenesis methods) and mutants, molecular basis of
mutations, iso
lation of mutants, determination of mutation rates.


Tutorial




(20 hours)

Practical




(30 hours)


Mode of delivery

This course will be taught by using lectures, practical and coursework assignments.


Assessment

Assignment
s, reports, tests, practical reports and end of module examination. Their
relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Test








20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %



Reading List




LENGELER, J. W., DREWS, G AND SCHLEGEL, H. G (1999).
The
Biology of the Prokaryotes




SINGLETON, P (1997). B
acteria in Biology, Biotechnology and Medicine.



Course Name:

GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY


Course code:

MBC7102


Course Level:

1




Course Credit:

3 CU


Brief Course Description


This course begins by introducing students to the concept o
f genetic engineering and
biotechnology. It then examines the molecular cloning methods, the various cloning
vectors and their hosts, and how to find the right vector for molecular cloning. Aspects of
DNA amplification and analysis techniques,
cloning and
expression of mammalian and
plant genes in bacteria and practical applications of genetic engineering and
biotechnology

are covered under this course. The course ends with the analysis of the
legal, ethical, and biosafety aspects of genetic engineering.



Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Explain the concept of genetic engineering and biotechnology



Explain the principles underlying molecular cloning



Describe the various cloning vectors and their hosts



Describe the prin
ciples underlying DNA amplification and analysis



Explain the steps involved in
cloning and expression of mammalian and plant
genes in bacteria




Describe the various
practical applications of genetic engineering and
biotechnology in agriculture, industry, m
edicine and environmental protection



Analyze the
legal, ethical, and bio
-
safety implications of genetic engineering.




Course outline


Concept of genetic engineering and biotechnology






(2
hours)


Definition of genetic engineering and
biotechnology, and how have they emerged from
other sciences. A historical perspective of biotechnology, and the key events in the
evolution of biotechnology.


Cloning, expression and analysis of genes and their products






(7
hours)

Co
ncept of molecular cloning, plasmids as cloning vectors, Bacteriophage Lambda as a
cloning vector, hosts for cloning vectors, finding the right vector, expression vectors.
Synthetic DNA, Amplifying DNA: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cloning and
expr
ession of mammalian and plant genes in bacteria,
In vitro

and site
-
directed
mutagenesis.


Practical applications of genetic engineering and biotechnology





(7
hours)

Production of Transgenic plants and animals, Production of enzymes and
medicines
(industrial applications), Production of Mammalian Products and Vaccines by
Genetically Engineered
Organisms (GMOs), Use of GMOs

in p
ollution control
(bioremediation).


Legal, ethical and bio
-
safety aspects of genetic engineering






(4 hours)


Institutional, National and international legal framework for biotechnology, ethical
concerns of genetic engineering (culture, religion and trade), safety and risks of
genetically engineered products to human health and environment.


Tut
orials











(20 hours)





Practical




(30
hours)


Mode of course delivery

This course will be conducted in three main ways i.e fo
rmal lectures, reading
assignments/coursework, and participatory discussions/presentations.


Assessment

End of module examination, tests, assignments reports, and presentations. Their relative
contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Tests







20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %



Reading L
ist


The recommended reading will include but not limited to the following literature.



Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko and ack Parker (2000). Brock.
Biology of microorganisms (9th and 10th Editions), Prentice Hall
International, Inc.





Joseph Kyambadd
e (2005). Optimizing processes for biological nitrogen
removal in Nakivubo wetland, Uganda. PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of
Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, ISBN 19
-
7283
-
962
-
7




Essential Biosafety (CD
-
ROM, 2
nd

edition): The latest scientific and
regulatory in
formation for genetically modified and other novel crops and
foods. AGBIOS, Canada




http://www.agbios.com/main.php



Course Name:
ADVANCED

ENZYMOLOGY


Course code:

MBC7103


Course Level:

1





Course Cred
it: 3 CU


Brief Course Description


This course begins with the
Extraction and purification of enzymes, Enzyme activity,
Factors affecting enzyme activity, enzyme inhibition.
Enzyme kinetics:
Multisubstrate
enzyme mechanisms (Chance mechanisms, Pin
g
-
pong mechanisms, Random sequential
and ordered Bi
-
Bi mechanisms).

Mechanisms in families of enzymes (Serine proteases,
Dehydrogenases, Carboxypeptides, Lysozyme), Multisite and Allosteric enzymes (
Non
-
cooperative sites, Cooperative binding in allosteric
enzymes, the Hill equation for
Allosteric enzymes, Sigmoidicity of velocity curves)

Enzyme regulation and stability,
Fine control of enzyme activity (
Steady state fluxes, and flux regulation by feedback,
Saturated or substrate independent reactions, Kacse
r and Burns theory, switch
mechanisms, role of near equilibrium reactions in maintaining metabolite
concentrations).Finally the course ends up with
measurement of enzyme rate constants
(
Rapid mixing and sampling technique and Relaxation methods).


Course O
bjectives

At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Explain the methods of extraction and purification of enzymes.



Explain the standardized reporting of enzyme activities (International units,
katals, turnover number)



Describe factors that affe
ct enzyme activities and types of enzyme inhibitions



Describe enzyme kinetics of multisubstrate enzyme mechanisms



Explain enzyme reaction mechanisms used in selected families of enzymes.




Explain the binding of substrates to multisite and allosteric enzyme
s




Explain enzyme fine regulation and stability
.



Describe the theories of Kacsaer and Burns, Switch mechanisms and near
equilibrium reactions.



Describe methods used in measuring enzyme rate constants.




Course outline


Extraction and purification methods
for enzymes





(4
hours)

Description of available extraction and purification methods, and show how
specific activities of enzymes. The objective of each step is to retain as much
enzyme as possible while getting rid of unw
anted contaminants. The efficiency of
each step is given by yield and increase in specific activity.


Factors that affect rates of enzyme activities and types of enzyme inhibitions


(8
hours)

Detailed explanation of factors that affect rates of enzy
me activities, fine control of
enzyme activities such as steady state fluxes, flux regulation by feedback, enzyme
kinetics involving multisubstrate enzyme mechanisms involving random sequential
mechanism, ordered BiBi reaction mechanisms, Ping Pong kinetic

mechanism and
Theorell
-
Chance mechanism


Enzyme reaction mechanisms used in selected families of enzymes


(8
hours)

Detailed description of enzyme reaction mechanisms used by Serine proteases,
Dehydrogenases, Carboxy peptidases a
nd Lysozymes. Binding of substrates to
multisite and allosteric enzymes involving cooperative and non
-
cooperative sites,
and Hill equation for allosteric enzymes and sigmoidicity of velocity curves.


The theories of Kacsaer and Burns, Switch mechanisms and


Near equilibrium reactions




(5
hours)

The theories of Kacser and Burns, switch mechanisms and near equilibrium reactions will
be explained. The principles learnt in the mechan
isms are explained in rapid mixing and
relaxation methods used in measuring enzyme rate constants.


Tutorials











(10 hours)


Practical











(30 hours)



Mode of course delivery

This course will be conducted in four main ways namely: Stru
ctured lectures,
Coursework, practical, and Tutorials.


Assessment

The following instruments (Test, presentations and examination) will be used to assess
the students. Their relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Tests







20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %


Reading L
ist

The reading list includes but not limited to the following textbooks.

i)

Lehninger ,A.L, Nelson, D.L., and Cox, M.M. (1993) Principles of Biochemistry
2
nd

Edition. Worth Publishers, New York.


ii)

Stryer, L (2005) Biochemistry. 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and C
o. New York




Course Name:

ADVANCED METABOLISM

Course Code
:



MBC 7104

Course Level:

1

Course Credit:

3CU


Brief course description


This course will explore the principles that underlie the integration of metabolism in
mammals. It will also examine m
etabolism under stress and disease, and compare
metabolism in different organisms and their applications for drug design and therapeutics.
The concepts and key mediators of signal transduction will also be examined.


Course Objectives

At the end of this c
ourse, learners should be able to:



Critically discuss metabolism under stress and disease conditions,



Compare the metabolism in different organisms (ruminants, non
-
ruminants,

micro
-
organisms),



Discuss the importance of various metabolic pathways in dru
g, vaccine and
therapeutics

Development,



Describe how signal transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of

stimuli and how molecular circuits integrate diverse external signals to generate
responses.


Course outline


Metabolism under stress a
nd disease



(16hours)

An overview of metabolism of major nutrients; implications of reaction stochiometry; the
phenomenon of reverse electron transfer; metabolism under prolonged starvation,
strenuous ex
ercise, extreme temperatures, pregnancy and high altitude with limited
oxygen. Metabolic adaptation, metabolism in plants under stress (salinity, drought,
pathogenesis, heavy metals); metabolic control mechanism; changes in metabolism due
to disease states

and implication of the remedies; interconnection of pathways in
metabolism, major organ systems and their specialized metabolic roles will be discussed.


Comparison of metabolism in different organism



(6
hours)

Metabolism in
protozoa, worms and bacteria will be compared; ruminants and non
-
ruminants and application of different metabolic pathways in drug, vaccine designs and
therapeutics will be discussed.


Signal transduction and homeostasis

(8
hours)

Signal transducing receptor classes, receptor tyrosine kinases, Non
-

receptor tyrosine
kinases, phospholipids, phospholipases, G
-
protein coupled receptors, G
-
protein
regulators, intracellular hormones, Ca
2+
as a cytosolic messenger will be considered.
Mechanisms of signal transduction and defects in signalling; cytokine signalling
-

cytokine receptor/receptor families (EGF
-
cytokine
receptor, PDGF
-
receptor,TGF
-
βreceptors); mechanisms by which intracellular signalling is initiated will be discussed


Practical


(30
hours)


Teaching and assessment patter
n


Mode of Delivery

This course will be taught using lectures, reading assignments and practical classes.


Assessment method

This will include assignments, tests, laboratory practical reports and end of module
examination. Their relative contribution to th
e final grade is as shown below:



Requirement




Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)






20%

Tests




20%

Final Examination



60%

Total




100%


Reading list




J.G Salway (1999). Metabolism at a glance, 2
nd

edition.



Frayn K.N and Keith N (1996) Metabolic regulation: A human perspective



Marshell William and St
ephen K Bangert (1995) Clinical Biochemistry:
metabolic and clinical aspects



Charles Scrivener (1995) Metabolic basis of inherited disease Volume 1
-
3, 7
th

Edition



Stryer (1992). Biochemistry. 5
th

edition, W.H freeman and Company, New York.



Lehninger, Nelso
n and Cox (1993). Principles of biochemistry. 2
nd

edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.



Voet D., Voet J., Pratt C.(2006).
Fundamentals of Biochemistry, life at molecular
level. 2
nd

edition published by John Wiley and Sons,Inc.



Murray, Granner, Mayes, Rodwel
l (2003). Harpers Illustarated Biochemistry, 26
th

edition,Mcgraw
-
Hill Companies U.S.A.




Course Name:

STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS


Course Code:


MBC7201


Course Level:

1




Course Credit:

3 CU


Brief Course Description


This course introduces students
to statistical methods often used in scientific data
analysis. It begins by giving a statistical view to students and then introduces them to the
basics of descriptive statistics. The probability theory and concept, probability
distributions and statistica
l inference are also covered. Students are then introduced to
hypothesis testing, comparison of two mean values, basics of experimental design and
one way Anova. Significance of the F test, experiments with a block structure, factorial
experiments, random
and hierarchical models, split
-
plot experiments and checking the
assumptions in Anova are also covered in this module.


Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Explain the principles underlying the various statistical metho
ds used for data
analysis



Analyze scientific data using various statistical approaches



Apply statistical models during their experimental design process



Report their data collected in a scientific way backed up by statistical analysis


Course outline


Stat
istical view and basics of descriptive statistics






(4
hours)

Statistics and biological sciences, populations and samples and statistical inferences,
making measurements, summarizing numerical data, graphical summaries of numeric
data,

and summarizing qualitative data.


Probability and probability distribution








(4
hours)

The probability concept, probability rules, discrete random variables, continuous random
variables, rules for expectations and variance and the
distribution of the mean.


Statistical inference and hypothesis testing







(5
hours)

Point estimation, properties of estimators, interval estimation, testing the hypothesis, the
p
-
value of a test, single
-
sided alternative hypothesis, te
sting H
o
: µ = µ
o

when σ is
unknown.


Comparing two mean values and basics of experimental design





(5
hours)

Inference on µ
1



µ
2
: matched data, inference on µ
1



µ
2
: principles, inference on µ
1



µ
2
:
small samples but equal variances, in
ference on µ
1



µ
2
: small samples but unequal
variances, inference on µ
1



µ
2
: large samples, Minitab example: comparing two groups;
key concepts in experimental design, examples of experimental designs

One
-
way ANOVA and significance of the F test









(5 hours)


Introductory example, model restrictions, subdivisions of Sums of Squares, ANOVA
table, analysis by computer; comparisons between the treatments, problems when you
make many tests, recommendations.


Block structure and factorial

experiments









(3 hours)


Randomized block design, Latin Square experiments, two fixed factors in blocks
(factorial experiments), experiments with more than two fixed factors, unbalanced, and
experiments. Introductory example, mode
l restrictions, subdivisions of Sums of Squares,
ANOVA table, analysis by computer; comparisons between the treatments, problems
when you make many tests, recommendations.


Random and hierarchical models










(3 hours)

Models with random

factors (one
-
way Anova, two
-
way Anova), hierarchical models
(Crossed and nested factors, some examples).


Split
-
plot experiments











(3 hours)

Introductory example, Model and Anova table, Analysis by computer.


Checking the assumpt
ions in Anova









(3 hours)


Analysis of the residues, normality, homoscedasticity, what happens if the data is not
independent, validity of the model (outliers), and residual plots in MINITAB





Tutorials











(20hours)



Mode of course delivery

This course will be conducted in three main ways i.e. formal lectures, reading
assignments/coursework, and participatory discussions/presentations.


Assessment

End of module examination, tests, assignments reports, and presentati
ons. Their relative
contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Assignments/
presentations











10
%

Tests







20
%

Final examination










70
%

Total













100 %


Reading List



The recommended reading will include but not limited to the following literature.



Ulf Olsson and Ulla Engstrand (2002). Statistics fo
r Biologists. Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Informatics



Any other statistics text books




Course Name:

BIOINFORMATICS

Course code:

MBC 7202


Course Level:

1



Course Credit:

2 CU


Brief Course Description

Th
is course starts with introduction to Bioinformatic, what it can and why it is now very
important. This will be followed by introduction to DNA databases (NCBI, EMBL,
DDBJ), Protein databases (GenPept, TrEMBL, Swiss Prot, PIR, ExPasy, SMART, etc).
Search t
ools for data retrieval (Entrenz, DBGET, PubMed), Sequence alignment soft
ware programmes (BLAST, FASTA, etc), Sequence alignment types. Main sequence
types (mRNA, cDNA, genomic DNA ESTs, GSS) and end with Phylogenic analysis and
Structural modelling.



Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:




Define bioinformatics and explain what it can do



Describe the various DNA and Protein databases.



Explain the principles search tools for data retrieval



Explain soft ware programmes
available for sequence alignments



Explain the sequence alignment types



Describe the main sequence types.



Explain Phylogenic analysis and structural modelling
.

Course outline


Concept of bioinformatics









(6
hours)

Definition of bioi
nformatics, what it can do, and how it has influenced research. Different

Nucleic acid databases such as the National Centre for Biotechnology
Information (NCBI), European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), DNA Data
Bank of Japan (DDJ), and GeneBank st
ore DNA sequences. Search tools for
retrieval of data namely: Sequence Retrieval System (SRS), Entrez and DBET
will be explained and demonstrated using Internet.


Soft ware programmes available for sequence alignments




(6
hours)

The pra
ctical use of software programmes
(BLAST, FASTA, etc)

for sequence
alignments

Will be demonstrated using a computer connected to the internet, sequence alignment
types such as Local sequence alignment, Global sequence alignment and multiple
sequence alignm
ent will be explained.


Main sequence types in the GenBanks








(3
hours)


Main sequence types in the GenBanks are mRNA, cDNA, genomic DNA ESTs and GSS
will be explained. The course will end with Phylogenic analysis and Structural modeli
ng.


Tutorials


(10
hours)


Practical




(20
hours)


Mode of course delivery

This course will be conducted in three main ways involving formal lectures, practical
Assignments using computers/Coursework, and Presentations.


Assessment

Assessment will be by examination, te
sts, assignments reports, and presentations. Their
relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement








Contribution

Assignments and

presentations









20 %

Tests








20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %



Reading List

1. Bioinformatics,
A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins
.


Second edition, A john Wiley & sons, InC., Publications


Edited by Andreas D.

Baxevanis and B.F.Francis Ouellette


2. NCBI databases and tools
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


3. BLAST
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/B
LAST/


4.ENTREZ

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Entrez/




Course Name:

MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Course Code:

MBC 7203

Course Level:

2




Course Credit:

4 CU

Brief Course Description

This course requ
ires prior knowledge of the basic biological sciences at BSc or
equivalent level. The course will teach an understanding of the pathophysiology of
human diseases and equip students with the practical skills to pursue research and
development into novel con
cepts of diagnosis, natural history of disease and innovative
approaches to management and care for the sick.


Course Objectives

At the end of this course students should understand:



Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.



Endocrine regulation of energy mobili
sation, metabolism and reproduction.



Haemopoiesis and haematological disorders.



The physiological response to infection and trauma.



The diseases of the vital organs (liver, kidney and heart).



Genetic markers of disease and the principles of disease screeni
ng.



Inborn errors of metabolism and management of perinatal conditions.



Clinical Biochemistry at the extremes of life.


Course outline


Homeostasis












(5
hours)

The balance of the internal environment is an interplay of fluid and el
ectrolyte
homeostasis. The course will detail the physiological processes, which regulate these and
their role in disease and management of clinical emergencies.


Haematology

and Inflammation









(8
hours)

The course will cover the reg
ulation of haemopoiesis and the haematological disorders. It
will also deal with the physiological response to infection and trauma with emphasis on
the balance between inflammatory acute
-
phase response and the resolution of infection.


Diseases of the vit
al organs










(8
hours)

A number of specific areas of medical importance will be covered under the theme of
diseases of the vital organs. This will give the students an understanding of the
coordinated roles of the kidney, lung and he
art in acid
-
base balance and cardiorespiratory
function. The course will highlight the importance of electrolyte balance for the
maintenance of normal electrical activity of the heart and clinical emergencies that arise
due to electrolyte imbalance. Labora
tory case management will be illustrated for
investigating injury or functional deficit of vital organs and monitoring in critical care.


Genetic diseases











(4
hours)

The students will get an understanding of the genetic basis of di
sease, their diagnosis and
management. Thy will grasp the use of disease markers and the principles of prenatal
diagnosis and screening for disease. This will include common inborn errors of
metabolism and paediatric clinical chemistry.


Clinical Chemistry

at the extremes of life








(5
hours)

The course will induct students on population, age and gender factors on reference
values. They will then cover life support and the management of pre
-
term babies with
regard to common clinical indica
tions such as respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia
and complications arising from pregnancy diabetes. This will be compared with care of
the elderly and diseases of old age.


Tutorials











(30 hours)


Practicals













(30 hours)






Mode of delivery

This course will be taught by using lectures, practicals and coursework assignments and
tutorial.


Assessment

Assessment will be done through coursework assignments and practical reports, which
will constitute a progressive score, and
end of module examinations. Their contribution to
the final grade is shown below:


Components









Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)





20
%

Test






20
%

Final examination








60
%

Total











100

%


Reading list:

1.

Introduction to Clinical Chemistry.

Derek A Woodrow.
Butterworths

2.

Lecture notes on Clinical Biochemistry. AF Smith, GJ Beckett, SW Walker, PMW
Rae. Sixth Edition;
Blackwell Publishing
.

3.

Clinical Chemistry in Diagnosis and Treatment. Joan F Zilva, Peter R Pannal, Philip
D Mayne. Fifth Edition
.
Edward Arnold
. Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Edited by
Norbert Tietz.
WB Saunders



Course Name:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Course Code:



MBC7204

Course Level:


2



Course Credit:


4 CU


Brief Course Description


This course e
xamines the important aspect of microbiology i.e. how are they amenable to
man? Or how can man make microbes amenable? Advances in this aspect of
microbiology are explored in such fields as environment,

industry, and biotechnology.
The inter
-
relationships
of micro
-
organisms in nature are also explored with regards to
nutrient cycling.


Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Discuss the microbial associations in different environments/ habitats



Explain the principles underly
ing nutrient cycling



Describe the application of microorganisms in nutrient cycling



Relate the metabolic activities of microorganisms to their potential use in solving
the pollution problems (bioremediation)



Design a bioremediation strategy



Assess microbia
l potential for use in biotechnology innovations



Describe the applications of microorganisms in production of industrially
valuable products


Course outlines


Microbial Ecology










(6
hours)

Microbial habitat/niches (terrestrial, m
arine and air), microbial associations/interactions,
population dynamics, factors affecting these interactions, nutrients and nutrients cycling.


Environmental microbiology and biotechnology







(22

hours)

Environmental pollution;

micro
-
or
ganisms in the polluted environments
;

metabolic
ada
ptations of such microorganisms;

principles underlying the application of
microorganisms to ameliorate the pollutants and /o
r their effects; bioremediation
.
Sewage
and wastewater microbiology; a
ctivated
-
sl
udge reactors
and their designs; application of
activated
-
sludge technology to treat nutrient rich wastewaters.
Production of biofuels
(bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas): raw materials; micro
-
organisms and bio
-
energy
production; process biochemistry and limit
ations; considerations for development of
biofuel industry; high rate anaerobic bioreactor systems; biofuel upgrading; integrated
biofuel technology for rural development; carbon
-
trade and life cycle assessment.





Industrial microbiology and biotechnolog
y







(1
7

hours)

Industrial microorganisms and products: growth and product formation in biocatalysis;
characteristics of large
-
scale fermentations; fermentation scale
-
up; Isolation and
characterisation; industrial production of antibiotics
: penicillins and tetracyclines;
vitamins and amino acids;
exopolysaccharides [
EPS], surfactants, flocculants,
microbial
insecticides
;

microbial bioconversions; enzymes; vinegar; citric acid and other organic
compounds; yeast as an agent in fermentation an
d as food; alcohol and alcoholic
beverages; mushrooms as a food source.



Practical






(30 hours)






Mode of delivery


This course will be taught by using lectures, practical and coursework assignments.


Assessment

Assignments reports, tests
, practical reports and end of module examination. Their
relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement








Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Test








20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %


Reading List




LENGELER, J. W., DREWS, G AND SCHLEGEL, H. G (1999).
The
Biology of the Prokaryotes



SINGLETON, P (1997). Bacteria in

Biology,
Biotechnology and Medicine
.



HURST, C. J., CRAWFORD, R. L., KNUDSEN, G. R., MCINERNEY, M. J
AND STETZENBACH, L. D (2002) Ed. Manual of Environmental
Microbiology, 2
nd

Edition. American Society for Microbiology Press,
Washington, DC



Course Name:

ADVANCED

IMMUNOLOGY


Course Code:

MBC7205

Course Level:

2


Course Credit:

4 CU


Brief Course Description


This course requires prior knowledge of the basic biological sciences at BSc or
equivalent level. The course will teach an understanding of the immunolo
gical basis of
disease focusing on self
-
recognition and the role played by the immune system in the
containment of infection, cancer surveillance and tissue rejection and the causes and
management of immunodeficiencies.


Course Objectives


At the end of th
is course learners should be able to




Describe lymphocyte development.



Describe immune response to infection.



Explain tumour development



Describe features of tissue compatibility and transplant immunology.



Discuss acquired and inborn immunodeficiencies.


Course outline


Lymphocyte development









(
2

hours)

The course will cover the development of T and B
-
lymphocytes with emphasis on the
negative selection of self
-
reacting clones and activation of mature peripheral lymphocytes
during immune respo
nse. Factors that affect this process and diseases arising from
deregulation will be highlighted.

Immune response to infection








(3
hours)

A central theme of the course will be the development of specific, adaptive immune
response to pathogens an
d recall of this response in subsequent infections. This will be
the basis of a sub
-
theme, the application of immunological memory in vaccine
development and conditions predisposing to autoimmune disease.


Tumour development and chemotherapy







(2

hours)

The course will cover the role of the immune system in recognition of non
-
self as the
basis of surveillance and removal of cancerous cells. Processes that support tumour
establishment, the immunosuppressive effects of chemotherapy and their sequela
e.


Transplant Immunology









(2
hours)

The course will explain basis of MHC compatibility and tissue matching. The
management of transplant rejection and attendant immunosupression.


Acquired and inborn immunodeficiencies







(3
hours)

The basis of inborn immological diseases such as severe combined immunodeficiency
(SCID) and the Bruton’s disease will be highlighted. Comparison will be made with the
aetiology and management of acquired immunodeficiency such as AIDS.


Tumor immunology









(3
hours)

Tumor as tissues graft, immune surveillance, tumor
-
associated antigens detected by
immune cells (shared tumor antigens & specific tumor antigens) and by antibodies.
Human tumor immune responses and escape mechanisms, Immunodiagnosi
s (use of
antibodies to tumor associated molecules for tumor diagnosis) and immunotherapy
(specific active immunization with inactivated tumor cells or non
-
specific stimulation of
immune responses with other agents) and passive immunotherapy using monoclon
al
antibodies.


Immunological tolerance and Immune deficiencies (3
hours)


Tolerance mechanisms, central thymic tolerance to self, Post
-
thymic tolerance to self
-
antigens, B
-
cell deletion, B
-
cell
-
anergy,
autoimmunity results into breakdown of
toleramce

Artificially induced tolerance. Defective B
-
cell responses due to lack of B
-
cell function,
Defective cell mediated immune response due to failure of T
-
cell function e.g. SCID,
MHC II deficiency, DiGeorge syn
drome, secondary immune deficiencies (due to
irradiation, malnutrition, drugs or infection e.g. HIV/AIDS) hereditary defects and
deficiencies in complement proteins (C5,C6, C7 &C8), defects in oxygen reduction
pathways of phagocytes hence inability to gene
rate toxic H
2
O
2

and free radicals).


Advances in vaccination








(3 hours)

Antigens used as vaccines, effectiveness of vaccines (i.e. induction of the right immune
response, stability on storage and sufficient immunogenicity); vaccine safety an
d cost of
vaccination, adjuvants; types and adjuvanticity, passive immunization, non
-
specific
immunotherapy by non
-
specific stimulation or inhibition of certain components of the
immune system (e.g. IL
-
1 inhibitors against severe cerebral malaria), vaccina
tion against
cancer, anti
-
fertility vaccines (e.g. vaccine based on

-
chain of hCG linked to tetanus or
diphtheria toxoid successfully prevented conception.


Immunity to bacteria, viruses and fungi





(3 hours)

Mechanisms of immunity t
o bacteria, first and second lines of defences to bacterial
infection, antibodies against bacterial infection, of phagocytic actions on bacteria. Models
of virus infection, innate immune responses to viruses, host defence involving B and T

cells, immune ev
asion strategies, immunopathology. Immunity to fungi,
monocyte/macrophage killing of fungi.


Immunity to protozoa and worms





(3 hours)

Features of parasitic infections, effector of hosts’ resistance mechanisms, importance of
T
-
cel
l in development of immunity, evasion of host’s immune response mechanisms,
immunopathological consequences of parasitic infection, vaccine for protozoan parasites
and worms.




Immunological Techniques








(3 hours)

Antibody
-
antigen interaction
s, isolation of pure antibodies and subclasses, assay of
complement, isolation of lymphocyte populations, effector
-
cell assays, gene
-
targeting
and transgenic animals.

Precipitation in gels, simple radial immunoassays, double immuno
-
diffusion assays,
turbi
dity and nephelometry, immuno
-
electruphoresis, electrophoresis in antibody
containing media, 2D
-
immunoelectrophoresis, use of antibodies for purification of
antigens.


Tutorials










(30 hours)


Practicals




(30 hours)




Mode of delivery

Th
is course will be taught by using lectures, practicals and coursework assignments and
tutorials.


Assessment

Assessment will be done through coursework assignments and practical reports, which
will constitute a progressive score, and end of module examina
tions. Their contribution to
the final grade is shown below:


Components










Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Test







20 %

Final examination











60 %

Total














100 %



Reading list:



1.

Ce
llular and Molecular Immunology (2002) by

Abul K Abbas, Andrew H
Litchman, Jordan S Pober.
WB Saunders
.


2.

Laboratory Medicine. Test selection and Intepretation. Joan Howanitz
, Peter
Howanitz. Edited by: P Joane Cornbleet, Ron B Schifman, Lawrence D Petz.
Churchill Livingstone.

3.

Immunology Fourth Edition

(1996)

Edited by
Ivan Roit,
Jonathan B
rosoff and
David
M
ale.

4.

Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune system 2
nd

Edition (2004) by
Abul Abas
Saunder An Imprint of Elservier.





Course name:

NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Course Code:



MBC7206

Course level
:


2

Course Credit:

4 CU


Brief course description

The course will examine (a) the cellular nutrient homeostasis,

proliferation and apoptosis.
(b) role of nutrients in signal transduction, gene expression, (c) The relationship between
nutrients and immune function
.



Course objectives

At the end of the course the learners should be able to:



Describe the role of nutr
ients in cell signalling



Describe the regulation of cellular cholesterol, its trafficking and import into the
mitochondria



Discuss the interaction between nutrients and the human genome



Critically assess the effect of nutrients on immune function


Course

outline


Nutrients and cell signalling


(10
hours)

Vitamin D regulated pathways: impact on cell proliferation, differentiation, and
apoptosis, Mechanisms for dietary regulation
of nitric oxide synthesis in mammals The
roles of thioredoxin reductases in cell signalling, Roles for biotinylation of histones in
chromatin structure, Insulin release, signalling, and insulin resistance, Calcium
-
dependent
signalling, Control of intracell
ular calcium levels, Calcium
-
mediated signalling of
neurons in the physiological and diseased state: role of endoplasmic reticulum

Molecular aspects of Nutrition


(10
hours)

The core

concepts in molecular biology will be reviewed, Effects of genetic code on the
response to nutrients (Gly972 Arg Polymorphism in insulin receptor substrate, tafft acids
and gene expression,), Nutrient regulation of gene expression (nutrient regulation of
gene
transcription, transcription factors, translation and post translation)


Nutrition and immunity


(10
hours)


Overview of the immune system, impact of infection on nutri
ent status, malnutrition and
immune function, influence of individual micronutrients on immune function, amino
acids, fat and immune function.


Tutorials










(30
hours)

Practical



(30
hours)


Mode of delivery



This course will be taught by using Lectures, tutorials and assignments.


Assessment

Assignments reports, tests, practical reports and end of module examination. Their
relative contrib
ution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement




Contribution

Progressive (Practicals and assignments)




20%

Test




20%

Final Examination




60%

Total



100%


Reading list

1. Michael
J. Gibney, Ian A. Macdonald and Hellen M. Roche (2003) Nutrition and
Metabolism

2. Garrow JD, James WPT, Ralph A (2000). Human nutrition & Dietetics. 10
th

Ed.Churchill


Livingstone.

3. Anderson RE. (2003). Obesity: Aetiology, assessment, treatment and
prevention.
Champaign,


Illinois: Human Kinetics.


4. Berdanier CD (1996). Nutrient regulation of Gene expression: Clinical aspects, Boca
Raton,


FL: CRC Press.



Course Name:

RESEARCH ETHICS AND METHODS

Course code:

MBC7301


Course Level:





C
ourse Credit: 2 U


Brief Course Description


This course begins with introduction to research planning, experimental designs and
scientific research methods, data sourcing, introduction to proposal writing, social
research methods, ethical clearance, bios
afety and intellectual property rights (IP).
Finally the course ends with IP management tools involving different types of agreements
and standard elements of agreements.



Course Objectives


At the end of this course students should be able to:



Plan and d
esign experiment



Select appropriate research methods for the experiments designed



Source appropriate data pertaining to the research envisaged.



Write up a research proposal.



Explain the use of social research methods.



Describe the need for research ethics,

clearance, biosafety regulations and
intellectual property rights


Course outline


Concept of research planning








(2
hours)


Define the concept of research planning, the need for project identification involving. Site
selection, study design f
ollowed by team selection (multidisciplinary/collaborative).


Experimental design, scientific methods and data sourcing




(5 hour)

Concept of experimental design and scientific methods are explained. Data sourcing from
available databases, which

involve libraries and websites.


Introduction to proposal writing








(7 hour)

This to include topic selection, literature review, time management, fieldwork where
appropriate, problem statement, rationale, justification, hypothesis, objectives

and sample
size. Social research methods involving structured interviews, participatory rural
appraisal, questionnaires and focus discussion.


Legal, ethical and bio
-
safety aspects of research








(10 hours)

Introduction to fundamentals ethical
principles, the current major international guidelines
(Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration, Belmont Report, CIOMS & WHO). Ethical
review boards, informed consent standards of care, researcher responsibilities and
venerable groups in research. Institution
al and National/Country ethical clearance
requirements explained and participants’ role in the research. Biosafety concerns to cover
regulatory organs (National Biosafety Committee and Institutional Biosafety Committee),
Institutional guidelines, laborator
y safety and disposal methods and sites. Introduction to
intellectual property rights.






Tutorials











(12
hours)


Mode of course delivery


This course will be conducted in three main ways i.e. formal lectures, reading
assignments/coursework,

and participatory discussions/presentations.


Assessment

End of module examination, tests, assignments reports, and presentations. Their relative
contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Prog
ressive (Practicals and assignments)







20 %

Tests







20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %



Reading List


The recommended reading will include but

not limited to the following literature.



African Malaria Network Trust (Amanet) Basic Research Ethics Course.Web
based course, www.amanet
-
trust.org




Essential Biosafety (CD
-
ROM, 2
nd

edition): The latest scientific and
regulatory information for geneticall
y modified and other novel crops and
foods. AGBIOS, Canada




Course Name:

BIO
-
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES


Course Code:

MBC
7302

Course Level:

1




Course Credit:

4CU

Brief Course Description

This introduces students to all the exp
erimental techniques

and their
corresponding principles

used in practical biochemistry and molecular biology. It
begins with detailed explanation of theories and principles behind the techniques
before practical sessions. Broadly, it comprises separation,
analytical,
immunological and molecular biological techniques. The techniques of separation
include chromatographic methods, filtration, centrifugation, precipitation, and
electrophoresis. Furthermore, Analytical techniques consist of spectroscopic,
mass s
pectrometric, radioisotopic and electrochemical techniques. Additionally,
immunochemical, Molecular biological, recombinant DNA and genetic analysis
techniques are covered.


Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Explain t
he principles underlying the various biochemical experimental
techniques.



Demonstrate practical (hands on) competence (skill) with the various
biochemical experimental techniques.



Design approaches through integration of the biochemical experimental
techni
ques to contribute to the investigation of scientific new problems in
biochemistry



Course outline



Separation techniques:










(
8 hours
)

The concepts of the separation techniques: chromatographic methods, filtration,
centrifugation, precipi
tation, and electrophoresis.

Chromatographic techniques
comprising. Principles of chromatography Chromatographic performance
parameters Liquid chromatography (LPLC and HPLC) Adsorption
chromatography Partition chromatography Ion
-
exchange chromatography
Mol
ecular exclusion (gel filtration) chromatography Affinity chromatography Gas

liquid chromatography Thin
-
layer (planar) chromatography Selection of a
chromatographic system

Electrophoretic techniques

of proteins and nucleic
acids, Support media

(
agarose ,po
lyacrylamide)
Types of
electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis Microchip electrophoresis

autoradiography isoelectric
focusing separation


Analytical methods
:








(
8
hours
)

The principles of mass spectroscopy, spectrophotometri
c methods and
microspcopy are covered.
Spectroscopic techniques comprise Atomic and
molecular electronic spectroscopy and Vibrational spectroscopy and electron and
nuclear spin orientation in magnetic fields. Atomic and molecular electronic
spectroscopy in
cludes X
-
ray, Ultraviolet and visible light spectroscopy,
Spectrofluorimetry, Circular dichoursoism, Turbidimetry nephelometry
luminometry and atomic spectroscopy Lasers. Vibrational spectroscopy and
electron and nuclear spin orientation in magnetic fields

consists of Infrared and
Raman spectroscopy Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy. Mass spectrometric techniques comprise Ionisation,
Mass analysers, Detectors, Structural information by tandem mass spectrometry
Ana
lysing protein complexes. Microscopy principles behind light, electron, phase
-
contrast and other microscopes are covered. Specialised imaging techniques
including Image archiving, presentation,

Optical
-
sectioning Imaging living cells
and tissues are covere
d.




Immunological techniques:









(
7 hours
)


The principles and techniques concerning production of mono
-

and
polyclonal

antibodies, purification and fragmentation of immunoglobulins
,

Affinity and
avidity Labeling of antibodies and various
immunoassays are covered.
Immunoassays including ELISA’s(sandwich et.c)
Immunoprecipitation
,
Immunofluorescence assays (IFA)
,

Immunochemical use of
surface plasmon resonance

, immunoelectrophoresis(1D and 2D ) , Western
blotting, flow cytometry , radioimmu
nology, Immunohistology, immunosorption..
and dot immunobinding assay. Immobilization of antibodies, and
immunohistochemistry, image processing Protein A, T
-
gel, HOURSP, biotin
-
avidin are covered



Molecular biology, recombinant DNA and genetic analysis




(
7 hours
)

The manipulation of nucleic acids: basic tools and techniques: Isolation and
separation of nucleic acids
, m
olecular biology and bioinformatics, Molecular
analysis of nucleic acid sequences, The polymerase chain reaction

(PCR),
Northern Bl
otting, Southern Blotting, RFLPs.

Nucleotide sequencing of DNA,
Constructing gene libraries, Cloning vectors, Hybridisation and gene probes.
Screening gene libraries, Applications of gene cloning, Expression of foreign
genes. Analysing genes and gene expre
ssion, Pharmacogenomics. Analysing
whole genomes



Tutorials











(20 hours)


Practicals











(40 hours)


Mode of course delivery

This course will be conducted in three main ways involving Formal Lectures,
Practical sessions, Coursewor
k, and Presentations.


Assessment

Assessment will be by examination, tests, assignments reports, and
presentations. Their relative contribution to the final grade is shown below:


Requirement









Contribution

Progressive (Practic
als and assignments)







20 %


Tests







20 %

Final examination










60 %

Total













100 %

Reading List

1.

-

Keith Wilson and John Walker (2000) Principles and Te
chniques of Practical
Biochemistry,

Fifth Edition, Cambridge University.


2.

John F. Robyt and Bernard J. White
(
1990
)
Biochemical

Techniques: Theory
and Practice
Waveland Press


3.

Keith Wilson and John Walker (1999)6
th

Edition Principles and Techniques

of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,

Cambridge University Press


4 Alfred Pingoud , Claus Urbanke , Jim Hoggett ,Albert Jeltsch
(
2002
)Biochemical Methods: A Concise Guide for Students and Researchers
Wiley
-
VCH




Elective Courses:
The course requires th
e completion of one elective course from the
following four choices. Students then proceed to develop a research project in a
specia
l
ity within this field.


Course Name:

SEMINAR SERIES I

Course Code:

MBC
7303

Course Level:

1




Course Credit:

2CU

Brief Course Description

Seminar topics focussing on the process of proposal development, identification
of research problems, designing conceptual and theoretical frameworks for
studying a research problem. Skills in literature rev
iew and synthesis, report
writing, and proposal presentations for group review by peers and supervisors.


Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Identify a research problem



Design a scientific
framework for studying the pr
oblem identified



Review and synthesise the available literature



Write a scientific proposal




Course Name:

SEMINAR SERIES II

Course Code:

MBC
7401

Course Level:

1




Course Credit:

2CU

Brief Course Description

Seminar topi
cs focussing on their research problems shall be presented regularly
during the course of the research process. Literature reviews shall be presented
in addition to partial results obtained from their research work. Progress of
students’ research and unde
rstanding of the conceptual frameworks shall be
regularly presented and discussed.



Course Objectives


At the end of this course learners should be able to:



Demonstrate a clear understanding of the research problem



Analyse and communicate their findings


RESEARCH PROJECTS


Brief description


Research projects are undertaken in the second year of the Masters Programme. Students
can select a research topic of their interest according to the elective courses done in the
second semester of their first year.


Objectives of research projects


At the end of the research project the learners should be able to:



Demonstrate ability to design projects



Write proposals of acceptable standard



Demonstrate their ability to use theoretical knowledge to develop and exec
ute
scientifically sound projects



Mode of delivery



Research projects are undertaken according to the general guidelines and requirements of
the graduate school. Students are supposed to write a proposal, which has to be approved
before they can commenc
e their research projects.





MAKERERE UNIVERSITY


DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY






MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BOTANY
, REVISED
EDITION










SEMESTERIZED PROGRAMME






NOVEMBER
,

2008



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE


1.

Background










2

2.

Objectives










2

3.

Justifica
tion










2

4.

Career opportunities









3

5.

Facilities/Resources









3

6.

Admission










4

7.

Structure of the Programme








4

7.1

Part I: Course Work









5

7.1.1

Summary of Part I Programme







5

7.1.2 Semester II (Areas of Specialization)






5

7.2

P
art II Dissertation









7

8.

Examination Regulations








7

8.1

Progressive Assessment








7

8.2

Course Work Examination Scheme







8

8.2.1

Grading System









8

8.2.2

Progression









8

8.2.3

Re
-
taking a Course








9

8.3

Part II: Research and Dissertation







9

9.

Awar
d of the Degree









9

10.

Detailed Syllabuses









10


MAKERERE UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY


REVISED
PROGRAMME FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN
BOTANY BY COURSEWORK AND DISSERTATION


1.

BACKGROUND


The Department of Botany has had an M.
Sc programme by course work and dissertation
since 1994.
T
he

Coursework is taught
in
two semesters of 15 weeks each. During
Semester I, core or cross
-
cutting courses are taught. The

core courses are taught jointly
with the Department of
Zoology
to

avoid du
plication of courses by sister Departments in
the same Faculty. In Semester II, elective courses are taught for the purpose

of
introducing students to
various areas of
specializations.


This programme was

revised to take into account the emerging challeng
es,
needs

and
opportunities
in

plant resource use and
biodi
versity
conservation
.
More

advance
d
knowledge of plant science is needed these days of great concern about depletion of
biodiversity and global warming. In any case, plants constitute the basis of
life on earth
and are the livelihood of a great number of people all over the world.



The Department of Botany has produced a good number of higher degree
gradua
tes who
have been absorbed in both the public and private sectors. The Department of Botany ha
s
therefore taken up the challenge to contribute toward
s the
production of the critical mass
of
high caliber crop of
plant scientists to meet the changing
and increasing needs
of the
country

for plant resources
.


2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAMME


The main obje
ctive of this programme is to produce graduates with
more advanced
knowledge and research skills in various disciplines of plant science w
hich are relevant
to scientific development and conservation of plant diversity for socio
-
economic
development of the
country


Specific Objectives


After completion of the MSc degree programme, the graduate should be able to



(i)

Identify research problem
s
; formulate testable objectives, develop appropriate
methods and experimental designs and write up viable research propos
als in
plant science.

(ii)

Implement research projects and produce credible reports

(iii)

Contribute towards finding
of
solutions for societal problems associated with
plant science and resources.

(iv)

Apply knowledge of plant science in development of plant products

(v)

Appl
y knowledge of plant science in the restoration of degraded environments

(vi)

Influence and guide government policy on the sustainable utilization of plant
resources through research work and dissemination of knowledge.


(vii)

Design and implement projects related to

plant resources which are geared
towards poverty alleviation


(viii)

Monitor and evaluate research projects
concerning ecology, improvement,
utilization and conservation plant resources.


(ix)

Train
others

in
various
aspects of
pure

and

applied Botany in
the identifi
cation
of
practical problems and the acquisition of practical skills and techniques for
handling issues concerned with plant resources



3.

JUSTIFICATION


There is a great need for M.Sc holders in Botany to fill up vacant posts of lectureships in
Department
s of Botany (Biology) in Uganda and elsewhere. The graduates are also on
demand at National Research Institutes like Kawanda, Kabanyolo, Namulonge,
Serere
,
Uganda Virus Research Institute
among others

to work on aspects like crop diseases,
plant breeding,
plant tissue culture, biotechnology etc. Microbiologists are also needed in
hospitals, industries like breweries. The programme will produce the above manpower at
a cheaper cost than training abroad. The programme will also produce the required
personnel

to carry out studies like plant inventories, ecology of forests, savanna and
wetlands. Such data is required by environmental conservationists and in other sectors of
the economy like livestock industry, arable farming and wildlife. Graduates will also b
e
important in carrying out applied botanical research, for example study of economic and
social characteristics of indigenous plants that like the medicinal and food plants where
currently more attention is being paid. Highly trained manpower in fresh wa
ter primary
productivity will be produced and their contribution in the development of the fisheries
industry is highly important.


4.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES


After graduation at postgraduate level, the students find avenues of employment in private
sector and
government ministries such as Ministry of Agriculture, Animal resources and
fisheries, the Ministry of Lands, Water and Environment. Other graduates are employed in
research organisations of Natural Research Organisation (NARO), Wildlife Authority,
Uganda

Forestry Authority, Uganda Wetlands Inspection Division, Non
-
governmental
Organisations (NGOs), The Police and Uganda Peoples Defence Forces (UPDF). Some
graduates with Diploma in Education are employed by the Ministry of Education, while
others take up p
ostgraduate training in Botany and other related fields such as Forestry and
Agriculture.


5.

FACILITIES/RESOURCES


(i)

Funding Sources


The past sources of funding for the programme have been the Uganda government, and
the linkage between the University Of Vienn
a, Institute of Plant Physiology (Austria) and
the Department of Botany, Makerere University. Other finances have come from the
NUFU and NORAD projects funded by the Norwegian government; People and Plants
Initiative (WWW/UNESCO/KEW); DAAD, etc.


(ii)

Physical

Facilities


The Department of Botany is moderately equipped with research laboratories,
microscopes, LCD overhead and slide projectors, video facilities, dark room facilities,
chromatography facilities, experimental garden in the Botany Garden (with a
gre
enhouse), two growth rooms, working cold room, incubators, the largest Herbarium in
the country, with facilities being continuously improved etc. The Department has a
number of computers and has an e
-
mail connection.


(iii)

Academic Staff Position


The academic

staff position in the department is good consisting of two Professors, five
Associate Professors, three senior Lecturers, three, several part
-
time lecturers, two
Assistant Lecturers and two Teaching Assistants. In addition to this, in the first semester
other resource persons come from the Department of Zoology. The links between the
Agricultural University of Norway and the Department of Botany have also involved
staff exchange programmes in areas where the department may lack a local person. This
has
been for short or long periods depending on circumstances. Visiting Lecturers have
also come from the Universities of Hull and Southampton, U.K. and from Egypt.


6.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS


Candidates with at least a lower second degree in Botany, Botany combi
ned with
Zoology or any other relevant subjects like Geography, Chemistry, Forestry, Agriculture
(crop science) and Environmental Science from a recognized University may be admitted
to the course. Eligible candidates may be government or privately sponso
red.


6.1

Student Capacity


The optimum number of students per year is 25 (5 students per each area of specialization
i.e. Genetics (Molecular Biology); Natural Resources Ecology and Conservation; Plant
Taxonomy & Biosystematics; Microbiology & Plant Pathology
; and Plant Physiology).


7.

STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAMME


(i)

The programme shall run on a semester system consisting of four semesters.
Each semester shall last 17 weeks, 15 of which are for instruction
(lectures/tutorials/seminars/practicals), etc. One week is

for registration and
the other for examinations. Each course will be divided into course units. A
course unit is defined as one contact hour per week per semester. One hour of
lecture, tutorial or seminar is one contact hour; two hours of practical or
field
work are equivalent to one contact hour.

(ii)

Students will be required to have both theoretical and practical experiences
during all the course units.

(iii)

The Curriculum shall be divided into two parts. Semesters 1I and II will
constitute the first year (Pa
rt I). At the end of Semester II there is a Recess
Term during which students will finalize the preparation of research
proposals. The third and fourth semesters will form the second year (Part II)
in which candidates will do research and submit dissertat
ions at the end of the
year.


7.1

Part I. Course Work:


These are done in the first semester of first year. These courses are offered jointly with
the Department of Zoology.


7
.1.
1:

Summary of Part
A

Programme


SEMESTER I


CO
RE COURSES


No.

Course
Code and T
itle

LH

PH

CH

C
U

i.

BOZ7101
:

Acquisition, Processing and Analysis of
Data

30

30

45

3

ii.

BOZ7102
:

Key Aspects of Uganda’s Environment:
Climate and Living Resources

25

10

30

2

iii.

BOZ 7103:

Field Course

-

60

30

2

iv.

BOT 7104:

Natural Resources Law

45

-

45

3

v.

BOZ 7105:

Communication Skills

30

-

30

2


TOTAL

130

100

180

12



7
.1.2:

SEMESTER II (
ELECTIVE
COURSES)


Summary of Part
B

Programme


A student will be required to choose only one area of specialization elective course from
the following:


(i)

Mol
ecular Biology and Genetics

(ii)

Natural Resources Ecology and Conservation

(iii)

Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics

(iv)

Mycology, Seed and Plant Pathology

(v)

Advanced Plant Physiology


It is planned that students who are deficient or have interests in some special field ma
y be
required to take collateral courses to strengthen their standing. These may include Plant
Breeding, Plant Stress Physiology, Cell Biology, Plant Biotechnology and Plant Cell and
Tissue Culture. These courses are normally offered in the Department of
Botany as some
of the final year options at undergraduate level


B1:
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


No.

Course
Code and Title

LH

PH

CH

C
U

i.

BOT7201: Cell and Molecular Genetics

20

20

30

2

ii.

BOT7202: Genetic Engineering

20

20

30

2

iii

BOT7203: Cytoge
netics

20

20

30

2

iv.

BOT7204: Population & Evolutionary Genetics

30

30

45

3

v.

BOT7205:
Advanced Plant Molecular Biology

20

20

30

2

vi.

BOT7206: Ecological Genetics

20

20

30

2


TOTAL

125

170

210

13


B.2 NATURAL RESOURCES ECOLOGY & CONSERVATION


No.

Course
Code and Title

LH

PH

CH

C
U

i.

BOT7207: Renewable Natural Resources Ecology

20

20

30

2

ii.

BOT7208: Rangeland Ecology and Management

20

20

30