Biotechnology- the manipulation of biological organisms or their ...

groupmoujeanteaΒιοτεχνολογία

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 17 μέρες)

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1

Biology K


Biotechnology
1

the manipulation of biological organisms or their components
to create useful products
.


Selective Breeding
-




________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_
_______________________________________________________________




For example:

domestic animals and crops



Genetic Engineering



________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
______



Advances in technology have enabled scientists to use several different
techniques to study and alter DNA sequences.



Techniques


Restriction Enzymes



Discovered in
____________________
.



Enzymes cut the DNA at
___________
,
__________________

sequences.



S
ome restriction enzymes cut the DNA leaving strands that
over
hang called

_______________ ____________


For example:


G A A T T C


C T T A A G




Scientists
can
use sticky ends
to

join together segments of DN
A from two
d
ifferent organisms, which is called
__________________ ________
.




Foreign DNA is

put into a
plasmid,
________________________
____
________

____________________________________________________
_______
_____








2

Biology K






The plasmid with the new DNA can be insert
ed into a new organism.





This is
creates

a
transgenic organism
: individual with DNA from 2 different
organisms.



Agricultural uses: Genetically Modified Organisms



To give crops
________________________________________________
______________________________
_____________________________

Examples:



___________________________



___________________________




Medical uses:
Gene Therapy



Genet
ic diseases are often caused by
_________
___________________
___________________________
______________________________
_.



Scient
ists can add a _____________________ _____________ into a
plasmid and insert it into the patient.



For example:
_______________________________________________
.





plasmid

Enzymes
cut plasmid
and foreign
DNA

The desired
DNA segment
is inserted into
the plasmid.

F
oreign DNA

Plasmid with
foreign DNA

3

Biology K






Biotechnology 2


Gel Electrophoresis
: _______________________________________________
_____
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________


1.

Create an
________________ __________

with wells at the top of each lane.

2.

Add
______________________________
___

into
each

well.

3.

Electric current pulls DNA towards
_____________________

end of the gel.




DNA segments separate by size.



The
________________

segments move slower so they stay at the top
and the
_____________

segments move faster and are at the bottom.



A “
___________” is also added in another lane:



It is made of
________ ____________________

of
known sizes
.



It acts like a
___________

to measure the
unknown fragment
lengths.



















4

Biology K

Biotechnology 3


DNA Fingerprinting
:
______________________
_______________________
___
____
______________________________________________________________________
________________
______________________________________________________



Use
_____________________

to cut DNA samples into segments.



Everyone has different l
ength segments because of
______________
______________

sequences.



Filter DNA through an
_____________________ _____________

by the process
called

gel electrophoresis.



Compare the pattern of the
__________ ________________
.



Matching lengths will appear

at the same
__________________
.
















5

Biology K


Cloning



Remove the _________________ from an ___________ cell.



Replace with a ____________________ from the individual to be cloned.



The cell will divide into an ____________________.



Implant embryo into a

________________________ _____________________.



The _______________________ that is born will be a genetic clone (not related
to surrogate mother).





Dolly was the first animal to be successfully cloned. She was
cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell an
d colleagues at the
Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland.


Born July 5, 1996

Died Feb 14, 2003