MEGA root list - Amos P. Godby High School

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2 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

178 εμφανίσεις


Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




1


Godby High School

MEGA R
oot
L
ist


Root

Origin

Meaning

Example Words

Your Examples

a/n

L

not, without


abyss
-

without bottom; achromatic
-

without color


a

L

on

afire
-

on fire; ashore
-

on the shore;
aside
-

on the side


ab/s, a

L

from, away,
off

abduct
-

carry away by force;
abnormal
-

away from normal


ac, ad

L

to, toward,
near

accelerate
-

to increase speed of;
accessible
-

easily entered


acro


G

top, height,
tip, beginning

acrobat
-

a "high walker"; acrophobia
-

fear of height


act

L

do


activity
-

what a person does; react
-

to do in response


aer/o

L

air

aerate
-
let air reach; aerial
-
relat
e

to
air; aerospace
-
air space


agr/i/o

L

farming


agriculture

manage land, agrarian
-
relating to management of land


alg/o

G

pain


neuralgia
-

pain caused by a nerve;

nostalgia
-

aching for the familiar


ambi,

amphi


G

both, on both
sides,

around

ambidextrous
-

able to use both
hands equally; ambiguous
-

having
more

than one meaning;


ambul

L

walk, move


amble
-

to walk in a slow, relaxed
way;
ambulance

walks for a p
atient


ami/o

L

love


amiable
-

friendly, pleasant, lovable;

amorous
-

showing romantic love


ana


G

up, back,
against,
throughout

analysis
-

a close examination of
something; anatomy
-

the
structure of

something as visible when cut


ance

ence

L

state or
quality of

Independence
-
state of being
independent; tolerance
-
quality of
being tolerant.


andr/o

G

man, male

androgynous
-

being both male and
female; android
-
resembling
h
uman;


anim

L

life, spirit


animal
-

a living organism; animate
-

to make alive


a
nn
,

enn

L

year


annual
-

happening once a year;

millennium
-

1,000 years


ante

L

before, in
front

antecede
-

come before;

anteroom
-

a
small room before the main room


anth/o

G

flower


chrysanthemum
-
name of flower;
anthology
-

a collection of writings


anthrop/o

G

human


anthropology
-

study of mankind;
philanthropy
-

the love to mankind


anti

G

against,
opposite of

antibody
-

a substance that destroys
micro
-
organisms


apo, apho

G

away, off,
apology


a
expression of regret,
apostrophe
-
in place of a letter



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




2


separate

aqu/a

L

water

aquatic
-

relating to water; aqueduct


a pipeline for water


arbor

L

tree


arbor
-

shady area formed by trees;
arborous
-

having many trees


arch/i

/e/o/ae

L

chief, most

important

archbishop
-
high bishop; matriarch
-

a
female who rules a group


archa/e,

archi

G

primitive,
ancient

archaeology
-

study of old cultures;
archaic
-
old; archive
-
collection


arthr/o

G

j
oint


arthroscope
-

to see inside a
joint;
arthritis
-

inflammation of a joint


art

L

s
kill


artifact
-

made by a person's skill;
artisan
-

person skilled in a craft


astro,

aster

G

star, stars,
outer

space

astronaut


travels to the stars;
asterisk
-

a star
-
shaped
symbol


atmos


G

vapor,

steam

atmosphere


atomos


G

uncut,
indivisible

atom: the smallest unit of a chemical
element that can still retain the
properties of that element. subatomic:
less than an atom.



aud/i/io

L

hear


audible
-

loud enough to be heard;
audience
-

people who listen


auto

G

self, same,
one

autocrat
-

a person who governs with
absolute power; autograph


avi/a

L

bird


aviary
-

enclosure for birds; aviatrix
-

a female airplane pilot


bar/o

G

pressure,
weight

baric
-

pertaining to pressure, esp. of
the atmosphere;


bell/i

L

war


bellicose
-

warlike; belligerent
-

hostile, ready to fight


bene

L

good, well


benefactor
-

gives money cause;
benevolent
-

showing kindness


bi/n


L

two, twice,

biannual
-

twice
a year; bilateral
-

of
or involving two sides


bibli/o

G

book


bibliography
-

list of book sources;
bibliophile
-
person who loves books


bio

G

life, living
matter

biography
-

a life story; biology
-

the
science of life


blast/o


G

cell,
primitive,

immature cell

blastula
-
an early embryonic stage;
fibroblast
-
cell forms connective tissue


bryo

bryon

G

moss, swell,
grow

embryo
-
animal offspring; bryophyte
-
non flowering simple plant.


capt, cept

L

take, hold

intercept
-

interrupt; recapture
-

taking
back; captivating
-

taking hold of


cardi/o

G

heart

cardiac
-

relating to the heart;

cardiologist
-

a heart doctor


carn/i

L

flesh, meat

carnivorous
-

flesh
-
eating; incarnate
-

given bodily form



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




3


cata


G

down,
against

according to

cataclysm
-

a flood or
other disaster,
catalog
-

a complete listing


caust,

caut

G

to burn

cauterize
-

burn with a hot instrument;
holocaust
-

devastation especially fire


cede,ceed,

cess

L

go, yield

exceed
-

beyond the limits; accessible


easily

entered, approached


ceive,

cept

L

take


accept
-

to take what is offered;
perceive
-

to take notice of


celer

L

fast

accelerate
-

to increase the speed of;
decelerate
-

to reduce the speed of


cent/i

L

hundred,
hundredth

centennial
-

the 100th anniversary;
centimeter
-

1/100 of a
meter


centr/o/i

G

center


egocentric
-

self
-
centered; eccentric


not according to norm
; centrifugal
-
motion
away from the center


cephal/o

G

head


encephalitis
-

inflammation of the
brain; cephalic
-

pertaining to head


cerebr/o

L

brain

cerebral
-

pertaining to the brain;
cerebrate
-

to use the brain


cert

L

s
ure


ascertain
-

to find out with certainty;
certain
-

being absolutely sure


chrom/o

chromat/o

G

color,
pigment

achromatic
-

without color; chromium
-

a blue
-
white metallic chemical


chron/o

G

time

chronic
-
for a long time; chronological
-

arranging in order of time


chrys/o

G

gold, yellow

chrysanthemum

and helichrysum
-

golden/yellow flowers


cide, cise

L

cut,

kill

homicide
-

murder; incisor
-

a sharp
tooth for cutting food


circum,

circle

L

around,
about

circumnavigate
-

to sail around
;
circumscribe
-

to draw around


claim,

clam

L

shout, speak
out

clamor
-

to shout and make noise;
exclaim
-

to cry out loudly


clar

L

clear

clarification
-

an explanation; clarify
-

to make something

clear


clud, clus

L

close

conclusion
-

the end or last part;
exclusion
-

shutting out, rejecting


cline

L

lean

inclination
-

a leaning toward; incline
-

a surface that slopes or leans


co

L

with,
together,
joint

coauthor
-
writer who collaborates with
another
;

coeducation
-
males

and

females


col

L

together,
jointly

collaborate
-

work together; collision
-

smashing together


com

L

together,
common

commemorate
-

memorize together;
composition
-
putting together of parts


cogn/i

L

k
now


cognition
-

acquiring knowledge;
incognito

none know you
-

disguised


con

L

with, jointly


concur
-

to agree with someone;
contemporary
-

of the same time
;
congruent


corresponding to or
consistent with each
other



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




4


conus

L

cone, peak
of a helmet

cone/conical


a geometrical figure
with point at the top and circle at the
bottom; conifer


cone bearing tree


contra/o

L

against,
opposite

c
ontradict
-

to argue against,
c
ontraflow



against the flow


corp/o

L

body

corporation
-

a company by law as a
single body; corpse


a

dead body


cosm/o

G

universe

cosmonaut
-

a Russian astronaut;
cosmos
-

the universe


counter


L

opposite,
contrary

counteract
-
oppose an action;
countermand
-

cancel a
n
order


cranio

G

skull

craniology
-

study of skull
; cranium
-

s
kull of vertebrates


cred

L

believe

credence
-

belief something is true;
credulous
-
believing things easily


crypto

G

hidden,
secret

cryptic
-
hidden meaning;
cryptography
-
science of secret codes


cumul

L

mass, heap

accumulate
-

to gather or pile up;
cumulative
-

gradually building up


c
ycl

cyl

G

circle, ring


bicycle
-

two wheels; cycle
-

a
sequence that is repeated
; cylinder


object shaped like a tube


de


L

reduce,
away,

down

decelerate
-

to slow down, reduce
speed; dethrone
-
remove from power


dec/a,

deka

G

ten

decade
-

10 years; decathlon
-

athletic contest includes 10 sports


deci

G

one tenth

deciliter
-
a tenth of a liter; decibel

one
tenth of the sound volume unit bel


dem/o

G

people

democracy
-
government
of the
people; demographic
-
study of people


demi

L

half, less
than

demitasse
-

a small cup of coffee;
demimonde
-

one of little respect


dendr/o/i

G

tree

philodendron
-
climbing plant grows on
trees; dendriform
-
the shape of a tree


dent, dont

L

tooth

dental
-

relating to teeth; dentures
-

a
set of false teeth


derm/a

G

skin

dermatologist
-

doctor for the skin;
pachyderm
-

animals with thick skin


di/plo

G

two, twice

dichromatic
-
two colors; diploma
-
a
certificate, literal "a letter fold double"


dif

dis


G

apart, not,

the opposite

digression
-

departure from the
issue
;
disappear
-

to move

out of sight
;
distance


length between two things
;
diffraction


break apart


dia

G

through,
apart
between

diabetes
-
excessive thirst and urine;

diagnosis
-

understand by details
;
diagram


a line drawing that
represents mathematical information


dict

L

s
peak


contradict
-

to express the opposite;
prediction
-

a statement foretelling


domin

L

master


dominate
-

to be the master of;
domineering
-

excessively
controlling


don/at

L

give

donation
-

a contribution or gift; donor
-

someone who gives something



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




5


duc/t

L

lead

conduct
-

to lead musicians in playing
music; educate
-

lead to knowledge


du/o

L

two, twice

duplicate
-

make an identical copy;
duo
-

a pair

normally together


dur


L

harden, to
last,

lasting

durable
-

the quality of lasting;
enduring
-

able to last


dyn/a/am


G

power,
energy,

strength

dynamo
-

a generator of energy;
dynamic
-

having energy/power


dys

G

abnormal,
bad

dyspepsia
-

abnormal
indigestion;
dystopia
-

imaginary place of misery


e
-

L

out, away

eloquent
-

speaking beautifully and
forcefully; eject
-

throw out forcefully


ego

L

self

egoistic
-

self
-
centered; egomania
-

preoccupation with oneself


em, en


G

into, cover
with, cause

empathy
-

to feel like another person;

engorge
-

make larger


endo

G

within, inside

endotherm


creature warm within;

endogamy
-
to marry within one's tribe


enn/i, anni

L

years

bicentennial
-

period of 200 years;
perennial
-
lasting many years


en, in

L

inside,
inwards

envision
-

to picture in the mind;
enclose
-

lock inside; inwards


ence

ance

L

state or
quality of

i
ndependence
-
state of being
independent; tolerance
-
quality of
being tolerant.


ep/i


G

on, upon,
over,

among,

at, to, after,
outside

epidemic
-

the rapid spread of
something negative; epilogue
-

a
short speech delivered after a play


equ/i

L

equal,
equally

equidistant
-
equal distance from two
points; equation
-
statement of equality


erg/o

G

work

ergonomics
-
the working
e
nvironment;
energy
-
the power to accomplish work


esth/aesth


G

feeling,
beauty

aesthetic
-

a sense of beauty;
kinesthesia
-

bodily movement


ethno

G

race, people

ethnic
-
pertain
s

to a group of
p
eople;

ethnology
-
science of people, races


eu

G

good, well

euphonious
-

having pleasant sound;
euphoria
-

feeling of well
-
being.


ex

L

from, out

excavate
-

to dig out; exhale
-

to
breathe out; extract
-

to pull out


extra,

extro

L

outside,
beyond

extraordinary
-

beyond ordinary;
extrovert
-

an outgoing person


fac/t

L

make, do

artifact
-

made by a person; factory
-

place things are made


fer

L

bear, bring,
carry

confer
-

to bring an honor to
someone; ferry
-

a boat that carries


fid

L

faith

confide
-

place trust in someone,
fidelity
-

faithfulness


fissio

L

breaking up,
cleaving

fission


the act or process of
separating into parts



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




6


flect

L

bend

deflect
-

to bend because of hitting
something; flexible
-

easily bending.


flor/a,

fleur

L

flower

florist
-

working with flowers; flora
-

plant life of a
particular time or area


for

O.E.

completely

forsaken, forfeited
-
completely lost;
forgiven
-
completely released of debt


fore


O.E.

in front of,

previous,
earlier

forebear
-

ancestor; forebode
-

an
advance warning of something bad


fort

L

strong

fortissimo
-
very loudly; fortified
-
make
something stronger
; force
-
power,
strength, energy.


f
orm
a

L

physical form
or shape

formula


a plan or method of doing
something; uniform


always the
same in quality, degree, character, or
manner (including dress)


fract, frag

L

break

fracture
-

a break; fragile
-

easy to
break; fragment
-

a part of a whole


fug


L

flee, run
away,

escape

fugitive
-

a person running away;
refuge
-

a sheltered place to flee to


funct

L

perform,
work

defunct
-

no longer working or
alive;
function
-

to work or perform a role


fus

L

pour


confusion
-

flooded with too much
information; fuse
-

to melt by heating
;
fusion


merger or blending of things
such as materials or ideas


gastr/o

G

stomach

gastric
-

pertaining to the stomach;
gastritis
-

inflammation of stomach


gen/o/e/

genesis

L

birth, kind,
production

genealogy
-

the history of a family;
genetic
-
relating to heredity


geo

G

earth, soil,
global

geography
-
study the earth surface;
geoponics
-

soil based agriculture.


ger

G

old age

geriatrics
-

medicine pertaining to
elderly;

gerontology
-
science of aging


giga

G

a billion

gigabyte
-

unit of computer storage;
gigahertz
-

frequency (Hz/sec)


gon

G

angle

decagon
-

a polygon with 10 angles;
diagonal
-

a slanting line across


gram

G

letter, written

diagram
-
a simple drawing; grammar
-

rules to write words in sentences


graph/y


G

writing,
written,

recording

graphology
-

study of handwritings;
autograph
-

by one's own hand


grat

L

pleasing

gratify
-

please someone; grateful
-

feeling thankful


gyn/o/e

G

woman,
f
emale

gynecology
-
science female repro
-
duction; gynephobia
-

fear of women


gress,

grad/e/i

L

to step, to go

digression
-
departure from the main
issue; progress
-
movement forward


hect/o,

hecat

G

hundred

hectoliter
-

100 liters; hectometer
-

100 meters


helic/o

G

spiral,
helicopter
-

aircraft with horizontal


Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




7


circular

rotating wing; helix
-

a spiral form

heli/o

G

sun

heliotropism
-

movement or growth in
relating to the sun


hemi

G

half, partial

hemicycle
-

a
semicircular structure;
hemisphere
-

one half of the earth


hem/o/a

G

blood

hemorrhage
-

clotting of the blood;
hemoglobin
-

red blood particle


hepa

G

liver

hepatitis
-

inflammation of the liver;
hepatoma
-

a tumor of the liver


hept/a

G

seven

heptagon

-

a shape with seven
angles and seven sides


herbi

L

grass, plant

herbicide
-
chemical used to kill plants;
herbivorous
-
plant
-
eating


hetero

G

different,
other

Heterogeneous
-
unrelated parts;
heterodox


non
-
traditional beliefs


hex/a

G

s
ix


hexagon
-

a
shape with six
angles/sides; hexapod
-
has six legs


histo

G

t
issue


histology
-

study of the microscopic
structure of tissues


homo,

homeo

G

like, alike,
same

homogeneous
-
same nature or kind;
homeopath
-
treat
s

"same with
s
ame"


hydr/o

G

liquid, water


hydrate
-

to add water to;
hydrophobia
-

intense fear of water


hygr/o

G

moisture,
humidity

hygrometer
-

tool used to measure
humidity


hyper

G

over,

beyond,

excessive

hyperactive
-

very restless;
hypercritical
-

too critical;


hyp/o

G

under


hypoglycemia
-

low level of sugar
;


hypothesis


unproven
theory


iatr/o

G

medical care


geriatrics
-

care of the elderly;
podiatry
-

medical care for feet


icon/o

G

image

icon
-

an (often religious) image,
iconoclast
-
one who destroys images


idio


G

peculiar,
distinct

idiomatic
-

to a particular language;
idiot
-
one distinctly foolish or stupid


il, in

L

in, into

illuminate
-

to give light to; innovation
-

a new idea, method, or device


ig, il, im,

in, ir

L

not, without

illegal
-

not le
gal; irresponsible
-

no
t

r
esponsible


imag

L

likeness

image
-

a likeness

of someone;
imaginative
-

to think up new ideas


infra

L

beneath,
below

infrastructure
-

underlying framework
of a system


inter

L

between,
among

international
-
between

two
c
ountries;
intersection


where

roads
intersect


intra,

intro

L

within, inside

intrastate
-

existing in one state;
intravenous
-

inside or into a vein


ir

L

not

irredeemable
-

not redeemable;
irreformable
-

not reformable


iso

G

equal

isobar
-

a line
s

of equal barometric
pressure;

isometric
-
equal

measure



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




8


ject

L

throw

eject
-

to throw someon
e/something
out; interject
-

throw a remark into


jud

L

law

judgment
-

a decision of a
court of
law; judicial
-

to do with judges
/c
ourts


junct

L

join

conjunction
-
word that joins

sentence

parts; disjunction
-
a

disconnection


juven

L

young

juvenile
-

youthful or childish;
rejuvenate
-

to bring back to youth


kilo

G

thousand

kilobyte
-
1,000 bytes; kilometer
-
1,000
meter; kilograms
-

1,000 grams


kine/t

/mat

G

motion,
division

kinetics
-

study of th
e force of motion,
telekinesis

move with your mind


lab

L

work

collaborate
-

to work with a person;
elaborate
-

to work out the details


lact/o

L

milk

lactate
-

to give milk, nurse; lactose
-

the sugar
contained in milk


lay

laikos

G

of the people

lay member
-
secular, not clergy;
laity
-
a religious person who is not a
member of the clergy.


later

L

side

bilateral
-

of or involving two sides;
unilateral
-

affecting one side


lay

O.E.

put
something
down

law
-
system of rules and guidelines;
lawyer
-
an attorney, counselor, or
solicitor for the law.


leuk/o,

leuc/o

G

white,
colorless

leukemia
-

abnormal increase of
white blood cells in the blood


lex

G

word, law,
reading

lexicology
-

the study and hi
story of
words; alexia

losing ability to
read


liber

L

free

liberate
-

to set free; libertine
-

a
person with a free, wild lifestyle


lingu

L

language,
tongue

linguist
-

one who studies la
nguages;
multilingual


in

multiple languages


lip/o

G

f
at


Liposuction
-

removal of fat in tissue;
lipase
-
enzyme that breaks down fat


lite, ite,

lith/o

G

mineral,
rock, fossil

apatite
-
com
mon minerals; granite
-

granular rock;

monolith
-
unique stone


loc

L

place

dislocate
-

to put something out of its
usual
place; location
-

a place


log/o


G

word,
doctrine

logic
-

correct reasoning; monologue
-

a long speech by one

speaker


loqu, locu

L

speak

eloquent
-

speaking beautifully and
forcefully ; loquacious
-

very talkative


luc

L

light

elucidate
-

to explain,

throw light on;
lucid
-
easily understood, giv
e

off

light


lud, lus

L

to play

prelude


intro

to major performance;
illusion
-

misleading optical

image


lumin

L

light

illuminate
-

to fill with light; lumen
-

unit measuring light.


lun/a/i

L

moon

lunar
-

relatin
g to the moon;
lunatic
-
insane (as if driven mad by the moon)


macro

G

large, great


macroevolution
-
large scale evolution;
macromolecule
-

a large molecule


magn/a/i

L

great, large

magnify
-

make larger; magnificent
-

grand; magnate
-

a powerful
person



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




9


mal/e

L

bad, ill,
wrong

malcontent
-

wrong content; malaria
-

"bad air", malicious
-

strong ill will


man/i/u

L

hand

maneuver
-

move by hand; manual
-

done with hands


mand

L

to order

command
-

an order or instruction;
mandate
-

an official
order


mania


G

excess
desire
,
madness

bibliomania
-

a crazy love of books;
egomania
-

a mad love of oneself


mar/i

L

sea

marina
-

a harbor for pleasure boats;
maritime
-

relating to the sea


mater,

matr/i

L

mother

maternal
-

relating to mothe
rhood;
maternity
-

the state/
being a mother


max

L

greatest

maximal
-

g
reatest possible;
maximize
-

make
great as

possible


me,
meter,

metr/y

G

measure


audiometer
-

measures hearing;
metric
-

measured


medi

L

middle

medieval
-

pertaining to the Middle
Ages;
medium
-

in the middle


mega

G

great, large,
million

megalopolis
-
area w
/
many nearby
cities; megastructure
-

huge building


melan/o

G

black

melancholy
-

dark emotions;
melanoma
-
malignant dark
skin
tumor


memor/i

L

remember

commemorate
-
honor t
he memory of;
memory:
ability to retain

knowledge


men,
mon,
mene

G

moon

month
-

major division of the year;
moon


natural satellite revolving
around a planet


ment

L

result or
product of
action

environment
-
the sum conditions
affecting an organism;
acknowledgement
-
recognize.


merge,

mers

L

dip, dive

immerge or immerse
-

to put
/
dip into
a liquid; submerge
-
dip completely


meso

G

middle

Mesoamerica
-
Mid
dle America;
meson
-
between electron and proton


meta


G

change,
after

betwe
en

metaphysics
-

study
of nature
/
reality;

metastasis
-

disease t
hroughout b
ody


micro


G

small, short,

minute

microbe
-

a very sm
all living thing;
microscope
-

to see very small things


mid

O.E.

middle

midriff
-

between the chest and the
waist; midterm
-

middle of
term


migr

L

move

immigrant
-
moves to new country to
settle;
migration
-

process of moving


milli

L

o
ne

thousandth

millimeter
-

one thousandth of meter;
millibar
-

one thousandth of a bar


min/i

L

small, less

mini
-

something that is very small;
minuscule
-

extremely tiny


mis/o


O.E.

badly,

wrong,

to hate

misbehave
-

to behave badly;
misprint
-

an error in printing


miss, mit

L

send, let go

dismiss
-

to send someone away;

admittance
-

entry



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




10


mob

L

move

immobilize
-

to stop from moving;
mobile
-

able to
move freely


mon/o

G

one, single,
alone

monochromatic

-

having one color;
monologue
-

a speech by one

person


mot, mov

L

move

motion
-

the act of moving; motivate
-

to move someone to action


morph/o

G

form

metamorphosis
-

complete change of
form;
amorphous
-

without shape


mort

L

death

immortal
-

living forever, unable to
die; mortal
-

certain to die


multi


L

many, more
than

one
/
two

multicolored
-

having ma
ny colors;
multimedia
-

range of media


mut

L

change

immutable
-

not changing; mutant
-

an organism has undergone

change


my/o

G

muscle

myocardium
-

middle muscle of the
heart; myasthenia
-

muscle fatigue


narr

L

tell

narrate
-

to tell a story; narrator
-

a
person who tells a story


nat

L

born

innate
-

included since birth; natal
-

relating to birth


nav

L

ship

circumnavigate
-

to sail around a
place; navigate
-

sail a ship


necr/o

G

dead,

death

necrophilia
-

loving death; necrosis
-

death of tissue due to disease/injury


neg

L

no

negate
-

to say it didn't happen;
renege
-

to go

back on a promise


neo

G

new, recent

neoclassic
-

a revival of classic form,

neonatal
-

a newborn child


nephr/o

G

kidney

nephritis
-

inflammation of kidneys;
nephron
-

an excretory unit in kidney


neur/o

G

nerve

neuralgia
-

pain along a nerve;
neurologist
-

specializing in nerves


nom/in

L

name

misnomer
-

error in naming a person
or thing; nominal
-

in name only


non

L

no, not,
without

nonfiction
-

true, real, not made
-
up;
nondescript
-
no special
c
haracteristics


not

L

mark

notable
-

marked as

worthy of
attention; notarize
-

to certify


noun,

nunc

L

declare

announce
-

to declare in public;

enunciate
-
declare something clearly


nov

L

new

innovate
-

to introduce a new way;
novelty
-

something new


nuc

nux

L

nut,

kernal

nuclear


relating to
the nucleus of an
atom; nucleus


the positively
charged central region of an atom


numer

L

number

enumerate
-

name a number of items
on a list; numerous
-

a large number


ob, op

L

in the way,
against

object
-

to be against something;
opposition
-

resistance or against


oct/a/o

G

eight

octagon
-

a figure with 8 sides and 8
angles; octogenarian
-

person in 80s


ocu

L

eye

binoculars
-

lens
f
or seeing distances;
monocular

-

relating to one eye


omni

L

all

omnipotent
-

with all the power;
omniscient
-

knowing all things



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




11


op/t/s


L

eye, visual

condition,
sight

optic
-

relating to the eyes; optician
-

a person who fits eyeglasses


opt

L

best

optimal
-

the best, the most desirable;
optimize
-

to make the best of


ortho

G

straight

orthodontist
-

dentist that straightens
teeth;
o
rthography


correct

writing


osteo

G

bone

osteoarthritis
-

inflammation caused
by degeneration of the joints


out

O.E.

goes beyond

o
utgoing
-

being of lively, sharing
nature; outdoing
-

doing better than


over

O.E.

excessive

overstock


more

supplies than
need
;
overexcite

-
more than one should
b
e


oxy

G

sharp

oxymoron
-

combining two ideas tha
t
sharply contradict each other


pale/o

G

ancient

paleontology
-

study anc
ient fossils;
paleography


study
ancient writing


pan

G

all, any,
everyone

panacea
-
cure all dise
ases/problems;
panorama
-
all
-
around

view


para


G

beside,
abnormal

parasite
-
organism that lives on
/
off
another being; parallel

-

alongside


para

FR

protection
from

parachute
-

protection from falling;
parasol


protect

from the sun


pater,

patr/i

L

father

paternal
-

relating to fathers; paternity


fatherhood
, patronize


act fatherly


path

G

feeling,
emotion

antipathy
-

a feeling of great dislike;
apathy
-

a lack
of feeling or interest


ped/i/e

L

foot, feet

pedal
-

a lever pushed by the foot;
pedestrian
-

one who walks


pel

L

drive, force

compel
-

to f
orce someone to act;
expel
-

drive someone out of a place


pent/a

G

five

p
entagon
-

shape 5 angles/
5 sides,
pentagram
-
a five
-
pointed

star


pept,

peps

G

digestion

dyspepsia
-

abnormal digestion;
peptic
-

aiding digestion


per

L

through,
throughout

permanent
-

lasting thr
oughout all
time; permeate
-

spread throughout


peri

G

around,
enclosing

periodontal
-

bone and tissue around
tooth; peripheral

lying

outside center


phag/e

G

to eat

esophagus
-

carries food to stomach;
xylophages

-

feeding on wood


phaino

phen

G

to bring to
light

phenotype


visible characteristics of
an organism from
environment and
genetics; phenobarbital

drug used to
make you calm or help you sleep


phil/o

G

love, friend

philanthropist
-

one who loves
humanity; philology
-

love of words


phon/o

/e/y

G

sound

cacophony
-

loud,
unpleasant
sounds; microphone
amplifies
sound


phot/o

G

light

photogenic
-

caused by light;

photon
-

s
mallest possible unit of light.


phyll/o

G

leaf

chlorophyll
-

green pigments found in
leaves; phyllite
-
rock that forms
s
heets


phys

G

nature,
body,

physical
-

relating to the body;


Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




12



medicine

physique


nature
/
shape of body

phyt/o/e

G

plant, to
grow

hydrophyte
-

plant that grows only in
water; neophyte
-

a beginner


plas/t/m


G

to form,

forming cells

protoplasm
-

the living

portion of a
ce
ll; plastic
-

able to be formed


pneum/o


G

breathing,
lung, air

spirit

pneumonia
-

inflammation of the
lungs; dyspnea
-

difficulty breathing


pod/e

G

foot

podiatrist
-

a doctor for the feet;
tripod
-

a stand or frame with 3 legs


poli

G

city

metropolis
-

a large city; police
-

people who
m
aintain

order in a city


poly


G

many, more
than

one

polychrome
-

with m
any colors;
polyglot
-

fluent in many

languages


pon

L

place, put

opponent
-

a person against an
action, idea, etc.;

postpone
-

to put off


pop

L

people

popular
-

appealing to a lot of
people;
population
-

the people in a
n

area


port

L

carry

export
-

carry goods out to another

place
; portable

-

a
ble to be

carried


pos

L

place,

put

deposit
-

to place or drop something;
expose to place out into the open


post

L

after,

behind

posthumous
-

after someone's death;
postpone
-

to delay something


pre


L

earlier,
before, in

front of

preamble
-

a part in front of a formal
document; prepare
-

to get ready


pro


G

before, in
front of,

for,
forward

prognosis
-
predict what will happen;
prologue
-

passage before main part


proba


test, proof,
prove

probability


something that is likely
to happen or exist (math
-
the
likelihood that an event will occur);
proof


evidence that establishes a
fact


prot/o

G

primitive,
first, chief

prototype
-

the first of a kind; proton
-

on of the very basic parts of an atom


pseud/o

G

wrong,

false

pseudonym
-

a fictitious name;

pseudopregnancy
-

false pregnancy


psych/o

G

mind, mental

psyche
-

the human spirit or soul;

psychology
-

the study of

the mind


pugn/a,

pung

L

to fight

pugnacious
-

aggressive nature;
repugnant
-

distasteful, revolting


pul

L

urge

compulsion
-

a very strong urge;
impulsive
-
spontaneous urge


purg

L

clean

purge
-

remove anything undesirable;

expurgate
-
remove passage from pub


put

L

think

computer
-

an electronic thinking
device; dispute
-

to disagree with


pyr/o

G

fire, heat

pyrotechnics
-

art of fireworks; pyretic
-

relating to or producing fever.


quad/r/ri

L

four

quadrant
-

open space with buildings
on 4 sides;
quadrennial



4

years


quant

L

how, how
quantity


how much or many of


Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




13


much, how
many

something; quantify


an entity that
has a numerical value or magnitude

quart

L

fourth

quarter
-

one fourth; quart
-

a fourth
of a gallon


quin/t

L

five, fifth

quintet

-

a composition for 5 voices or
instruments; quintuple
-

fivefold


rad

radic,

radix


L

root


eradicate
-

pull out at the roots;

radish
-

edible root of mustard family
,
radius


straight line from the center
of a circle to its edge; area enclosed
by a circle.


radio

L

radiation, ray

radioactive
-

emitting r
adiation;
radiologist


diagnosing/
treating

via


ram/i

L

branch

ramification
-

consequence of a
decision; ramus
-

a branchlike part


rat

L

reckon,
calculate,
think

ratio


a proportional
relationship
between two different numbers or
quantities; rational


reasonable or
sensible, in accordance with logic


re

L

again, back,

backward

rebound
-
to spring back again; rewind
-

to wind something backward


reg

L

guide, rule

regent
-

on
e

who rules on behalf of a
king or queen; regulate
-

apply a rule


retro

L

backward,
back

retroactive
-

relating to the past;

retrospect
-

remembering past events


rhin/o

G

nose

rhinoceros
-

animals with a big horn
on snout; rhinoplasty
-
surgery of nose


rhod/o

G

red

rhododendron
-

red/pink flowers;
rhodium
-

element produces a red


rid

L

laugh

deride
-

to make fun of someone;
ridicule
-

to make fun or mock


rrh/ea

/oea/ag

G

flow,
discharge

diarrhea
-

abnormally excessive
bow
e
l
s

hemorrhage
-

heavy blood


rub

L

red

ruby
-

deep

red color and a precious
stone
; rubella
-

measles


rupt

L

break, burst

bankrupt
-

unable to pay "broke";
interrupt
-

to break into
,
to disturb


san

L

health

sane
-

mentally healthy; sanitary
-

relating to

cleanliness and health


scend

L

climb, go

ascend
-

to climb upward; crescendo
-

a climbing volume of music


sci

L

know

conscience
-

knowing right from
wrong; omniscient
-

knowing
all


scler/o

G

hard

arteriosclerosis
-

hardening arteri
es
;
multiple sclerosis


disease

causes
the brain and spinal cord to harden


scop/e/y

G

see,
observe
,
examine

microscope
-

used t
o see tiny things;
periscope
-

i
nstrument on submarine


scrib,

script

L

write, written

inscribe
-

to write letters or words on
a surface; scribe
-

person who writes


se

L

apart

secede
-

to formally break away from;
seclude
-

to keep away from


sect

L

cut

dissect
-

to cut apart piece by piece;
intersection
-

point two things cross



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




14


self

O.E.

of, for, or by
itself

self
-
discipline
-

discipline yourself;
self
-
respect
-

respect yourself


semi

G

half, partial

semiannual
-

every half year;
semicircle
-

half a circle


sept/i

L

seven

September
-

seventh month Roman
calendar;

septet
-

seven musicians


serv

L

save, keep

conserve
-

to save or keep something
safe; preserve
-

to save something


sex

L

six

sextet or sextette
-

group of six,

sexagenarian
-

person in
sixties


sol

L

alone

desolate
-

lonely, dismal, gloomy;
solitary
-

done alone, by yourself


sol

L

sun

solar
-

involving the sun; parasol
-

umbrella protecting from the sun


somn/I

L

sleep

insomnia
-

inability to fall asleep;
somniloquy
-

talking in your sleep


son

L

sound

c
onso
nant
-
speech sound;

unison
-
one
voice, supersonic
-
faster than sound



soph

G

wise

philosopher
-

a wise person;
sophisticated
-

wise about the world


spec/t,

spic

L

see, look

circumspect
-

cautious, looking all
around; retrospective
-

looking back


sphere

G

ball

biosphere
-

whole round surface of
the earth; hemisphere
-

half the earth


spir

L

breathe

inspire
-

to stimulate or animate; spirit
-

invisible life force


sta

L

stand

stable
-

standing steady and firm;
stagnant
-

standing still, not moving


stell

L

star

constellation
-

group of stars that
in

a
pattern; interstellar
-

between stars


struct

L

build

construct
-

to build; destruction
-

destroying something built


su
b

L

under, lower
than,

inferior
to

submarine
-

an underwater boat;
submerge
-

to put underwater


sum

L

highest

sum
-

combined
total of everything;
summit the highest point or top


super


L

higher in
quality

or quantity

S
uperior

-

above average, better

quality; supersonic
-
faster than sound


sy/m

/n/l/s

G

together,
with,

same

symmetry
-
similarity in size, form;
synergy
-

the
combined

e
ffect


tact, tang

L

touch

contact
-

a state in which two things
touch; tactile
-

the sense of

touch


tax/o

G

arrangement

syntax
-

a
rrangement of words;
taxonomy
-

s
cience of

classification


techno

G

technique,
skill

technology
-

practical
application of
knowledge; technocracy
-

rule of


tek, tekt

G

to make, to
build

texture
-

structure/substan
ce of a
material;tectonics

study Earth’s
c
rust


tel/e/o


G

far, distant,

complete

telephone
-

device to talk to a distant
person; telescope


view

far
objects


temp/or

L

time

contemporary
-

existing at the same


Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




15


time; temporal
-

relating to time

term/ina

L

end, limit

determine
-

f
ind something out at the
end; terminate
-

to end


terr/a/i

L

land, earth

extraterrestrial
-

existing outside the
earth; terrain
-

ground or land


tetra

tess

G

four

tetrapod
-

having 4 legs; tetrose
-

a

monosaccharide
+
four carbon atoms


the/
a/
o

L

g
od
/goddess

monotheism
-

belief in one god;
theology
-

study of religion, god, etc.

theory


an idea formed by
speculation or body of rules/principles


therm/o

G

heat

thermal
-

relating to heat; thermostat
-

a device that controls heat


tion

L

act or state
of

conduction
-

the transmission of heat
through a still medium;
instruction
-
teaching or telling what to do.


tomy

G

to cut

anatomy
-

study of the physical
structure of plants and animals;
appendectomy
-
operation to remove
the appendix.


tort

L

twist

contortion
-

twiste
d shape or position;
distort
-

alter shape or

condition of


tox

G

poison


detoxification
-

the process of
removing poisons; toxic
-

poisonous


tract

L

pull, drag


attract
-

to pull objects nearer; distract
-

to drag attention away from


trans


L

across,

beyond,

through

transcontinental
-

across continent;
transfer
-

from one place to

another


tri


G

three, once
in

every

three,

third

triangle
-

a figure with 3 sides and 3
angles; triathlon


athletic
contest

with
3 events


tron

G

instrument

electron
-

negatively charged particle;
neutron
-
a particle in the nucleus of an
atom with a zero charge.


ultra


L

beyond,
more than,
extreme

ultrahigh
-
extremely high;
u
ltramodern
-

more modern than anything else


un


O.E.

not,

opposite

lacking

unabridged
-

not
shortened; unfair
-

opposite of fair


uni

L

one, single

unicycle
-

a vehicle with one wheel;
unilateral
-

decided by one person


urb

L

city

suburb
-

residential area on the edge
of a city; urban
-

relating to a city


vac

L

empty

evacuate
-

to empty a
dangerous
place; vacant
-

empty, not occupied


velox

L

speed

v
elocity


speed at which something
moves or happens; velocipede


early bike with pedals or pushed with
the feet on the ground


ven/t

L

come

circ
umvent
-

to go around or bypass
;
convention


come together


ver/I

L

truth

veracious
-

truthful, honest; veracity
-

the truth



Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




16


verb

L

word

verbalize
-

to put into words; adverb
-

a word relating to a verb


vers,

vert

veer

viro(circle)

L

turn

reverse
-

to turn around; introvert
-

being turned
towards the inside
,
vertices


point where two lines join
at an angle; the point opposite the
base of a triangle


v
e
c/
y

via


L

by way of
road,
channel,
course

convey


to transfer or transmit
something along a wire, pipe, tube, or
other carrier; viaduct


a long bridge
on high posts; vector


quantity with
direction and magnitude


vestige

L

mark, trace,
footprint

investigate
-
take a look, follow a trace;
vestige
-
evidence
, what’s left behind


vice


L

acting in
place of,

next
in rank

vice
-
president
-

the
person next in
rank to the president


vince,

vic

L

conquer

convince
-

to win someone over;
invincible
-

not able to be conquered


vis, vid

L

see

evident clearly seen
;

vision
-

ability to
see; envision
-

to picture in the mind


viv/i

vit

L

live, life


revival
-

the act of bringing back to
life; vital
-

pertaining to live


voc/i

L

voice, call

advocate
-

to speak in favor of;

vocalize
-

produce with your

voice


vol/i/u

L

wish, will

benevolent
-

showing good will;
volition
-

a

choice or decision


volva

vulva

L

womb,
wrapper

revolve
-
move in a circular fashion;
evolution
-
theory that all species
develop from earlier forms of life.


vor,

vour

L

eat

carnivorous
-

me
at
-
eating; voracious

desiring/e
ating in great

quantities


wag

Ger

fluctuate

wag


to go
back and forth; wave


undulating motion; ripple on the water


xen/o

G

foreign

xenophobic
-

afraid of foreigners;

xenophile
-

attracted to foreigners


xer/o/I

G

dry


xerophytes


plant
s that

grow in dry
c
limate; xerography
-

a dry

photocopying


zo/o

G

animal life

zoology
-
study animals;
zooplankton
-

minute floating aquatic animals


zyg/o

G

pair


zygote
-

a cell formed by the union of
two gametes and the organism

developing from that; zygomorphic
-

pertaining to organisms that can be

divided into
symmetrical halves along
one axis only.


Adapted from:
(Table):
http://www.espindle.org/roots.html

Add your own roots from this year:













Updated 8/19/2011
(Malloy)




17