10 Programming Languages

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2 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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described and identify programming language

A
programming language

is an
artificial language

designed to communicate
instructions

to a
machine
, particularly a
computer
. Programming languages can be used to create
programs

that
control the behavior of a machine and/or to express
algorithms

precisely.

The earliest programming languages predate the
invention of the computer
, and were used to
d
irect the behavior of machines such as
Jacquard looms

and
player pianos
[
citation needed
]
. Thousands
of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many
more being created every year. Most programming languages desc
ribe computation in an
imperative

style, i.e., as a sequence of commands, although some languages, such as those that
support
functional programming

or
logic programming
, use alternative forms of description.

The description of a prog
ramming language is usually split into the two components of
syntax

(form) and
semantics

(meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document (for
example, the
C

programming language is specified by an
ISO

Standard), while other languages,
such as
Perl

5 a
nd earlier, have a dominant
implementation

that is used as a
reference
.

10 Programming Languages

1. PHP




What it is: An open
-
source, interpretive, server
-
side, cross
-
platform, HTML scripting
language, especially well
-
suited for Web development as it can be embedded into HTML pages.



Why you should learn it: Its particularly widely used. "High
-
speed scripting with caching,
augmented with compiled code plug
-
ins (such as can be done with Perl and PHP) is where the
future is. Building Web apps from scratch using C or COBOL is going the wa
y of the dinosaur,"
said Duquaine.



Job availabilities: 1,152*

2. C#




What it is: A general
-
purpose, compiled, object
-
oriented programming language developed by
Microsoft as part of its .NET initiative, it evolved from C and C++



Why you should learn it: Its an essential part of the .Net framework. "Learning C#, which is
just Java with a different name plate, is critical if you heavily use Microsoft," said Duquaine.



Job availabilities: 5,111

3. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript a
nd XML)




What it is: Though technically not a programming language, AJAX uses XHTML or HTML,
JavaScript and XML to create interactive Web applications.



Why you should learn it: Ever since Google Maps put AJAX, well, on the map, the requests
for AJAX
-
knowledgeable pros went through the roof. "The demand for AJAX knowledge is
huge because its so damned hard to learn," said Huckaby. Of note, Microsoft announced recently
plans to release a tool named Atlas that will make AJAX easier to implement. "If Mic
rosofts
Atlas tool is successful, it would bring the extreme complexity and annoyance of AJAX to the
average worker," said Huckaby.



Job availabilities : 1,106

4. JavaScript




What it is: Not to be confused with Java, JavaScript is a an object
-
oriente
d, scripting
programming language that runs in the Web browser on the client side. Its smaller than Java,
with a simplified set of commands, easier to code and doesnt have to be compiled.



Why you should learn it: Embedded into HTML, its used in million
s of Web pages to validate
forms, create cookies, detect browsers and improve the design. With its simplicity to learn as
well as wide use, its considered a great bang for your educational buck.



Job availabilities: 4,406

5. Perl




What it is: Perl i
s an open
-
source, cross
-
platform, server
-
side interpretive programming
language used extensively to process text through CGI programs.



Why you should learn it: Perls power in processing of piles of text has made it very popular
and widely used to write Web server programs for a range of tasks. "Learning some form of
scripting language, such as Perl or PHP is critical if you are doing We
b apps," said Duquaine.



Job availabilities: 4,810

6. C




What it is: A standardized, general
-
purpose programming language, its one of the most
pervasive languages and the basis for several others (such as C++).



Why you should learn it: "Learning

C is crucial. Once you learn C, making the jump to Java or
C# is fairly easy, because a lot of the syntax is common. Also, a lot of C syntax is used in
scripting languages," said Duquaine.



Job availabilities: 6,164, including all derivatives

7. Ruby
and Ruby on Rails




What they are: Ruby is a dynamic, object
-
oriented, open
-
source programming language; Ruby
on Rails is an open
-
source Web application framework written in Ruby that closely follows the
MVC (Model
-
View
-
Controller) architecture.



Why
you should learn it: With a focus on simplicity, productivity and letting the computers do
the work, in a few years, its usage has spread quickly. As a bonus, many find it easy to learn.



Job availabilities : 210 and 54, respectively

8. Java




What i
t is: An object
-
oriented programming language developed by James Gosling and
colleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s.



Why you should learn it: Hailed by many developers as a "beautiful" language, it is central to
the non
-
.Net programming expe
rience. "Learning Java is critical if you are non
-
Microsoft," said
Duquaine.



Job availabilities: 14,408

9. Python




What it is: An interpreted, dynamically object
-
oriented, open
-
source programming language
that utilizes automatic memory management.



Why you should learn it: Designed to be a highly readable, minimalist language, many say it
has a sense of humor (spam and eggs, rather than foo and bar), Python is used extensively by
Google as well as in academia because of its syntactic simplicity.



Job availabilities: 811

10. VB.Net (Visual Basic .Net)




What it is: An object
-
oriented language implemented on Microsofts .Net framework.



Why you should learn it: Most argue that VB.Net is currently more popular than ever and one
of the only "m
ust
-
learns." "It is currently dominating in adoption and that is where all the work
is," said Huckaby.



Job availabilities: 2,090