The following is a brief history of computers, networking and telecommunication milestones:

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The following is a brief history of computers, networking and telecommunication

1. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) credited to Karl Ferdinand Braun in 1897

2. Teletype (telegraph 5 bit) used during WW1

3. ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) credited to Va
n Duuren during WWII

error checking and auto request for retransmission

4. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) credited to DOD / MIT
during WWII

Used for decoding enemy messages

1st generation computer: used vacuum tubes

Programmed wit
h jumpers and switches

MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure): 7 minutes

337 multiplications per second

5. SAGE (Semi
Automatic Ground Environment) developed at MIT in the 1950s

23 centers for ground/air enemy detection systems

Error checking, keyboard & CRT te

ed computers, voice grade (300

300 baud, light pens, multiuser system

Magnetic core memory

Ground to air data Tx

1st commercial use was Sabre Reservation System

6. Jacquard's Loom developed by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804

First progr
ammable machine

Used punch cards to control the weaving of intricate patterns

7. Transistorized Computers

2nd Generation


One of the 1st inventors: Cray

Batch programming: 1 program at a time

Punch cards

Stored programs: held in memory

50K instru

Example: IBM 7905

8. CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) credited to Cobato/MIT in 1961

Time slices multi users

9. Synchronous Orbit Communication Satellites. Idea by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945

Geostationary orbit around equator by Rose/Hug
hes Aerospace in 1963

36,000 miles altitude

10. LASER credited to Maiman in 1960

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

A narrow band source of optical radiation suitable for use as a carrier of

11. T
1 Carrier System credited

to Bell Labs in 1961

TDM (Time Domain Multiplexing)

24 channels = 64 Kbps ea.

1.544 Mbps (mega bits per sec)

12. RS
232 developed in 1960 and revised since.

Standard plug and "protocol" convention between modems and machines: 25 pin

Europe uses V.24 com
patible standard

13. Auto Equalization Techniques of Phone lines credited to Lucky et al. in 1965

Adapt to characteristics of telephone line to increase speed

14. Fiberglass credited to Kao & Hockman in 1966

Proposed "fiberglass" optics developed at Stan
dard Telecom Labs

15. Integrated Circuit Computers

3rd Generation


SSI/MSI (Small Scale Integration/Medium Scale Integration)

10 transistors/chip and 100 transistors/chip

user systems


16. Carterfone

FCC Decision in 1968

ecision allows other manufacturers to use phone lines

Opens up competition among phone systems

17. Low
loss Fiber credited to Kapron in 1970

Speeds: 45
90 Mbps developed at Corning Glass Works

1984: attained 405
565 Mbps in single mode

Early 1990s: attain
ed 1.7 Gbps

18. ARPA Network (ARPANET) developed by the DOD in the 1970s

Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense


1st use of Packet Switching, layered protocols

Beginning of the Internet

19. VLSI Integration

4th Generation Com
puters developed by Intel in 1971

Very large scale integration: 20,000+ transistors/chip

Intel 4004 microprocessor

4 bit

Grandparent of processors today

20. Layered Network Architecture

SNA: System Network Architecture IBM Mainframe

DNA: Digital Networ
k Architecture DEC for DECNET

21. Ethernet developed by Xerox in 1974

Ether is the mysterious invisible fluid that transfers heat

Originally based on the ALOHA radio protocol

22. Videotex developed by Teletel (France) in the 1980s

Interactive video


23. Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnect developed by the ISO in 1983

Continuously evolving model for layering network protocols

24. AT&T Divestiture in 1984

up of AT&T monopoly into Baby Bells

25. ISDN developed in 1984

Integrated S
ervices Digital Network

Strong in Europe

A network evolving from a telephone integrated digital network supporting voice,
teletex, videotex, fax, slowscan video, etc.

26. Linux Version 0.01 released Sept 17, 1991