PART 3 RFID technology

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112
-

NORWEGIAN OIL AND GAS
ASSOCIATION


GUIDELINE


DEPLOYMENT OF
RADIO FREQUENCY
IDENTIFICATION (
RFID
)
IN

THE
OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY



PART
3



RFID
t
echnology









Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
2

NORWEGIAN OIL AND GAS ASSOCIATION


Guideline title:


Deployment of Radio Frequency

Identification (RFID) in the oil and gas industry

Part
3 RFID technology



Published by:

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Vassbotnen 1

NO
-
4313 Sandnes



Entry into force:









01
.
07
.2010


Relevant committee: Operations





Sanction date:
03
.
02
.2010


Norwegian Oil and Gas

Guideline 112 approved by:


Norwegian Oil and Gas
’s Director General




Approval date:
22
.
03
.2010



Objective of the guideline:


The objective of this guideline is to secure a cost effective deployment of Radio Frequency
Identificati
on (RFID) in the oil and gas industry through a common understanding, practice, and
technology platform adoption to achieve data interoperability between RFID and corporate
systems. The guideline is inline with
Norwegian Oil and Gas
’s Integrated Operations

(IO) and it
consists of nine parts.


Part 3 covers the area of RFID technology in the oil and gas industry, and the target group is
primarily
the IT technology departments and RFID system integrators
.



Status with the authorities:

This guideline has no f
ormal relations to any authority.



Web site location:

This guideline can be downloaded for free from the
Norwegian Oil and Gas

web site:

http://
www.norskoljeoggass.no
/retningslinjer/


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
3

Acknowledgements


The
Norwegian Oil and Gas

Guideline No. 112 (part 1
-
9) was developed in a consensus oriented
process with broad participation from major stakeholders within the Oil and Gas, ICT, Telecom
manufacturing, and Service industries and in cooperation with the nat
ional standardization body,
Standards Norway.


This project has based its work on voluntary participation in workgroups and plenary meetings,
starting in June 2007 and was finalized December 2009. The guideline reflects the consensus of
the individuals and

their organizations that have participated in this work.



Authors and editor t
eam
:


Dr. Ovidiu Vermesan, SINTEF, NO

Magnar Gregersen, Statoil, NO

Emil Andersen,
Conoco Phillips, NO

Dr. Thore Langeland,
Norwegian Oil and Gas
, NO

Roy Bahr, SINTEF, NO

Mart
in Viktil, SINTEF, NO

Brede Fladen, Trac

ID, NO

Jan Robert Moen, Statoil, NO

August Nilssen, Standard Norge, NO


Many
organizations

and individuals

have assisted with their views, comments and suggestions
on this and previous issues of this guideline docum
ent. Their contributions are gratefully
acknowledged.


Ken Douglas, BP, UK

Chris Geen, BP, UK

Paul Hocking,
BP, UK

Josef Preishuber
-
Pflügl
,
CISC Semiconductor GmbH
, A

Robert Williams
,
CSI Ltd
., UK


Tor Holm,
Conoco Phillips, NO

Magne Valen
-
Sendstad, DNV, N
O

Patrick
Guillemin, ETSI, FR

Chris Mahler, GS1, US

Kjell Arne Myren, GS1
, NO

David Weatherby, GS1, UK

Paul Chartier, P
raxis

Consultants, UK

Manus Bakken, Telenor Objects, NO

Juan Carlos Calvet, Telenor Objects, NO

Arild Herstad, Telenor Objects, NO

Edvin

Holsæter, Telenor Objects, NO

Eyvind Skaga, Telenor Objects, NO

Thor Steffensen, Telenor Objects, NO



Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
4

Table of contents

1 Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................

6

1.1

Discovery services

................................
................................
................................
...............

10

2 RFID technology

................................
................................
................................
.......................

10

2.1 RFID system

................................
................................
................................
........................

10

2.2 RFID data management

................................
................................
................................
.......

15

2.3 Regulatory framework

................................
................................
................................
.........

15

3 RFID tags (transponders)

................................
................................
................................
........

15

3.1 Passive RFID tags

................................
................................
................................
...............

16

3.2 Semi passive RFID tags

................................
................................
................................
......

19

3.3 Active RFID systems

................................
................................
................................
..........

19

3.4 Sensing capabilities

................................
................................
................................
.............

20

3.5 Attachment characteris
tics

................................
................................
................................
..

21

3.6 Communication protocol tag
-

interrogator

................................
................................
.........

21

3.7 Inductive and propagation coupling

................................
................................
....................

22

3.8 Frequency range

................................
................................
................................
..................

24

3.9 Read
-
Write

and Read
-
Only RFID tags

................................
................................
...............

25

3.10 Range

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

25

3.11 Form factor and packaging

................................
................................
................................

25

4 RFID interrogators (readers)

................................
................................
................................
..

25

4.1 Environment

................................
................................
................................
........................

26

4.2 Types of interrogators

................................
................................
................................
.........

26

4.3 Power levels

................................
................................
................................
........................

27

4.4 Antennas

................................
................................
................................
..............................

27

4.5 Portable RFID system for harsh environment

................................
................................
.....

27

4.6 Directional portals for RFID system used in harsh environment

................................
........

28

4.7 Non
-
directional portals for RFID system used in harsh environment

................................

28

4.8 RFID middleware

................................
................................
................................
................

28

4.9 RFID security

................................
................................
................................
......................

29

4.10 RFID privacy

................................
................................
................................
.....................

30

5 Appendices

................................
................................
................................
................................

31

Appendix A


Terminology and definitions

................................
................................
.............

31

Appendix B


RFID Technology Ove
rview

................................
................................
.............

37

Appendix C


RFID compared with other ID technologies

................................
......................

40

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
5

Appendix D


ETSI standards, maximum power levels for ISM frequencies

..........................

42

Appendix E


Overview ISO R
FID related standards/publications

................................
..........

43

Appendix F


RFID related standards description

................................
................................
....

47

Appendix G


Wireless sensor networks and wireless standards description

...........................

54



Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
6

1

Introduction

This guideline for deployment of RFID
in the oil and gas industry

addresses the main needs and
requirements of the offshore industry for real time management and operational information in
five deployment areas covered: Personnel


Health,
Safety and Environment (HSE), C
argo
carrying unit (CCU)
, Drill string components, Mobile equipment, and Fixed equipment. The
deployment areas are supported by the four technical areas: General principles for deployment,
Architecture and integration, RFID t
echnology, and Unique identification number. The
organization of the guidline is illustrated in
Fig.
1
.




Fig.
1
: RFID guideline documents organization.


The goal is to define the requireme
nts and needs of oil and gas industry for the deployment of
RFID technology to successfully undertake the adoption and evaluation of the technology for
petroleum personnel monitoring in critical situations, c
argo carrying unit

tracking, drill

string
compon
ents and tools

tracking, and monitor and manage
mobile

and
fixed equipment. The
guidelines are recommending open and scalable architectures that consider possibility for plug

&

pla
y

new ID methods combined with sensing/actuating and being compatible with f
uture internet
and Internet of Things infrastructure and
required
specifications.


Internet of Things (IoT) is an integrated part of Future Internet and could be defined as a
dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based o
n standard and
interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities,
physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly
integrated into the information network.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
7

In the Io
T, “things” are expected to become active participants in business, information and
social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with
the environment by exchanging data and information “sensed” about the environm
ent, while
reacting autonomously to the “real/physical world” events and influencing it by running
processes that trigger actions and create services with or without direct human intervention.


Interfaces in the form of services facilitate interactions wi
th these “smart things” over the
Internet, query and change their state and any information associated with them, taking into
account security and privacy issues.


Two key components in RFID systems are
interrogators (readers) and transponders usually
call
ed tags.

RFID is a method for tagging and identifying objects such as objects, store
merchandise, equipment, postal packages and living organisms. Using a RFID
interrogator
,
RFID allows objects to be
labelled

and tracked as they move from place to place. R
F
identification systems are radio bar codes embedded into billions of different things and
organisms, including animals and possibly some human beings
-

sending out radio signals about
what they are, where they are, and possibly what they are doing or how

their bodies are working.
Like other wireless devices, they exchange information via send/receive RFID
interrogators
.


RFID devices work using very small RFID integrated circuit that feature an antenna to transmit
and receive radio signals. RFID devices m
ay be attached to objects, or in the case of some RFID
systems, injected into objects. The RFID systems come in a large range of packaging options,
they are reusable, and can withstand harsh environments. RFID systems can operate effectively

(including ret
ention)

in temperatures ranging from

40
°
C

to
+
200
°
C. The integrated circuits are
also capable of performing under rugged conditions and when they are dirty.

To ensure quality
and availability in the market it is important to address your needs and require
ments to the RFID
product vendors.


Growing demand for the use of RFID by customers is compelling manufacturers to explore the
opportunities and challenges of implementing the technology. RFID can help improve
production operations, lower costs and streaml
ine the supply chain, but gaining these benefits
will hinge on a wise implementation strategy.

In the next few years, RFID technology will
evolve toward addressing issues, such as tag costs, large scale production, accuracy of sensing,
improved read write
performance,
interrogator

costs, and interoperability. Privacy is also an
issue that is addressed.


One of the major problems with large scale RFID adoption is the lack of standardization across
many fronts, ranging from the different data formats used, to

interoperability between RFID
interrogators

and tags from different vendors, to interference problems between RFID products
from different manufacturers. To overcome such problems, several standardization
activities
have started.

The RFID process for gene
rating the guidelines and the future
standardiz
ation
activities is presented in
Fig.
2
.

The guideline for deployment of
r
adio
f
requency
i
dentification
technology
in the oil and gas industry
is a step in this direct
ion.


Today, the sensor based RFID systems consist of a number of discrete semiconductor
components. E.g. temperature or shock sensor, AD converter, RFID front end, non volatile
memory and RFID coils. Although the market demands such sensor RFID, the manuf
acturing
cost of a sensor RFID consisting of several discrete components is too high in order to serve
large volume applications. On above, the size of a sensor RFID assembled using different
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
8

components is too large and especially too thick for most high v
olume applications.

But a
simple
sensor (originally completely specified in ISO/IEC 24753


now shared with 18000
-
6) is
intended to be a single trip disposable product. Even the IEEE 1451.7 sensors are considered to
be mass production products.




Fig.
2
: Guidelines and
standardiz
ation process.


Before starting the planning phase of the RFID deployment it will be required to conduct a site
survey in order to identify issues related to RF communications and potential electromagnetic
interference on the platform and in the facility where the RFID system will be installed. In oil
and gas environments it is also necessary to consider radiated emission levels of
interrogators

and regulatory health and safety requirements in respect of all

powered items in respect of spark
-
free environments.


In hi
-
metal areas, such as offshore platforms and onshore towers, the effect of metals in the
environment need to be considered as both as part of the survey and any test and tender phases,
and of cou
rse, in any proposed implementation. Specific attention should be given to potential
attenuation of inductive signals and potential reflections of propagated signals. Such effects will
be very juxta
-
position related to the location of
each
interrogator

sit
e and probable
tag position to
the
interrogator

(n
ot just general site conditions).

This is necessary to adapt the design of the
RFID system accordingly to the environment conditions. A site survey will help identify existing
in band RF sources that may pr
esent co existence challenges, such as other wireless access points
and wireless alarms or monitoring systems. A proper site survey will be important for mapping
out the antenna RF coverage, power and network architecture. The site survey will also identif
y
specific equipment requirements and will help to optimize component placement and determine
the most appropriate programming and read zones.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
9

For seamless integration of the RFID technology prevailing standards have to be implemented.
In general, standar
ds are developed and issued by international, national, or industry specific
entities. A standard issued by one entity may be applicable to a standard being developed by
other entities. There are several areas of standards that need to be reviewed for a co
mplete
understanding of RFID technology. But international/global standards are vital for a number of
reasons. Primarily, global standards help to ensure that product interoperate between different
entities and provide guidelines in which to develop comple
mentary products. Secondary,
standards encourage competition and increase confidence in new technologies.


RFID data share four principal characteristics:



Simplicity of data
-

data generated from an RFID or RFID/sensing application is a stream of
RFID sampl
es that are characterized by an ID number,
interrogator

ID
, time stamp and
sensing data.



Large volume of data


large amount of information since is received from many RFID and
sensor tags and nodes. The volume and rate of RFID data will add to the capacit
y of IT
infrastructure.



Temporal and dynamic
-

RFID samples are dynamically generated and the data carry state
changes, and the RFID samples are associated with the time stamps, the object
’s

locations
and the containment relationships change along the tim
e. This requires that the RFID data
management is suitable for application level interactions, including tracking and monitoring.



Semantics and inaccuracy of data


The accuracy of RFID samples is required to reach 95
-
99%, and erroneous readings (e.g. miss
ed or duplicate readings) have to be semantically
processed and RFID samples need to be automatically transformed by a framework into
business logic data.




Fig.
3
: RFID

system

-

Oil and gas industry
.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
10


1.1

Discovery
s
ervices


The conc
ept of the discovery services is to return network addresses where data related to an
RFID
identification number can be found.

Discovery services offer a potential mechanism to make the
information regarding the history of a particular tag’s transactions
available over an inter enterprise sub
system and

information.
This is
viewed as a search engine that provides a means to locate the network
addresses of
RFID

services that may have information about a specific
RFID identification number
attached to an obj
ect
.


2

RFID technology


2.1

RFID
s
ystem

RFID system
s

consist

of
interrogator
s (
reader
s)

and transponders usually called tags
. The
technology of RFID deals with the
wireless
collection of information stored on a tag using radio
frequency communication

protocols
.




Fig.
4
:

Elements
of
complex

RFID system
.

.

RFID systems have some typical features:



The basic functionality of all RFID systems is that there is an interrogator that acquires the
identity of any RFID
tag
s in its reading zone.



M
anage populations of multiple tags simultaneously in a read zone.



In some cases it may also collect additional data from the
tag
.



In some cases it may also write data to the
tag
.



In some cases the location of a tag can be iden
tified simply as being presen
t
in a particular
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
11

read zone (or by not being identified in the zone inferring that it is not present). In other
systems a combination of
interrogators

may, by triangulation or triliteration, more exactly
locate the position of a tag.



Error detection
.


The
basic elements of an RFID system are that there is an interrogator connected to an antenna,
and typically connected to a computer or network. However, many systems are more capable and
may include all or s
ome of the features presented
in
Fig.
4
.


A reference example

including the standards that address the air interface data incoding and data
management

is given in
Fig.
5
.




Fig.
5
: RFID deployment


standards applied
.


Information stored on the tag can range from an identification (ID) number, to

the number of

kbytes of data written to and read from the tag, to dynamic
/real time

information maintained on
the tag, such as
sen
sor data
. The information from the tag/
interrogator

combination is either
presented to a human operator using a hand

held

interrogator

device or a host computer which
automatically manages the information.
The overall architecture
with the main functional
blocks
and the integration of RFID, sensor network nodes, real time location systems within the
enterprise application layer information system is presented in

Fig.
6
.


RFID system,
interrogator
, and tag p
erformanc
e test methods are covered by the three parts in
ISO/IEC 18046.
Critical performance variables in an RFID system
include

the following:



Communication range
.



Communication speed
.



Ability of the system to communicate simultaneously with multiple tags
.



Maximu
m practicable simultaneous tag population
.



Maximum practicable population of
interrogators

at within a site (usually measured in
kilometres or parts thereof)
.



Robustness of the communication with respect to interference, signal attenuation, signal
reflecti
on and def
lection
(usually due to material in the vicinity of the interrogator and the
tag).



Size of the user addressable memory provided on the tag.



Ability a
nd limitations when writing to t
ag
.



Operational and survivable temperature limits



Tag durabili
ty in expected operational environmental
.



Tag operational life, and means of life extensibility
.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
12

The level of performance that can be achieved in these variables is determined by several factors
,
including
:



Legal/regulatory emission levels allowed in the
country of use and r
estrictions in spark
-
free
zones.



Environment, especially the presence of hi
-
metal environments and the presence of spurious
emissions from other radio equipment and mechanical devices, and in many systems, the
presence of multiple inter
rogators in proximity
.



Type of tag (
passive
-

obtains power from the carrier signal;
semi
-
active
-
uses on board power
source for on board processing and possibly to boost signal return; and
active
-

both tag and
interrogator communicate by transceiver).



Frequ
ency of the RF carrier used to carry the information between the tag and the
interrogator
.



Nature of system (inductive/propagating)
.



Air interface Protocols (modulation, encoding, and management)
.



Memory addressing techniques
.



Tag/tag proximity
.




Fig.
6
: E
nterprise application layer information system

-

Fuctional Blocks
.


In this context the f
ollowing detailed information should be provided for each application used in
the oil and gas industry:



RFID Tag information:

o

User m
emory
size



Small
<
128 bytes



Middle 128 bytes
-

1 Kilobyte



Large > 1 Kilobyte

o

Type



Read/Write (RW),



Read Only (RO),

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
13



Write Once Read Many (WORM)

o

Physical size and form of the tag

o

Reusable or disposable tag



Tag access
-

Read and/or write:

o

Define read environme
nt and conditions

o

Define write environment and conditions

o

Single or multiple antennas

o

Reader/writer type



Hand
-
held



Fixed antenna/antennas

o

Maximum read/write distance



Proximity

devices:

< 0.1m
.



Vicinity devices: 0.1m


0.7m.



Medium range devices: 0.7m


3m.



Long
r
ange
devices:
>
3

m

o

Maximum speed in field of reader/writer

o

How much data is transferred during the read operation

o

Range required for writing (often 60%
-

75% of read range in passive and semi passive
systems)

o

How much data is transferred during the

write operation (and dwell time required in
interrogation zone)

o

Minimum separation distance between tags

o

Packaging or containers material (esp. metal material)

o

Assembly contents/object attached (esp. liquids or metals)

o

Tag orientation



Controlled



Not co
ntrolled

o

Anti
-
collision
-
one or many tags

o

Security system:



Encryption



Authentication


RFID development in different industries have proposed different RFID solutions that variously
trade the regulatory constraints, the signal propagation characteristics of

various RF carrier
frequencies, and the economics of tag size and optional batteries.


These solutions employ only a few RF frequencies around which most of RFID systems are
developed today.
Each RFID system operates within a given frequency range. The f
requency
range in which a RFID system operates determines key capabilities and limitations in the system
.


T
he guidelines
consider different frequencies,
protocols and technologies
that can be
used

in
specific
oil
and
gas industry
applications.


Such tec
hnologies are for example, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) active tag technology that is used
in highly metallic environments and has very good battery life due to low power consumption.
UWB active tag technology is used in several
oil
and
gas
applications. Other ex
amples include
the RuBee IEEE P1902.1 protocol.
The RF frequencies
used for RFID
include relatively narrow
bands as presented in

Table
1
:

Table
1
:

RFID technology frequencies and standards

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
14

R
ange

Frequency Range

Wavelength

Frequency

Standard

LF

Low Frequency

30kHz to 300kHz

10km to 1km

30
-
50kHz

125/134kHz
1

131/450kHz

USID

ISO/IEC 18000
-
2

IEEE P1902.1/ RuBee

ETSI EN 3
00 330

MF

Medium Frequency

300kHz to 3MHz

1km to 100m


ETSI EN 3
00 330

HF

High Frequency

3MHz to 30MHz

100m to 10m

6.78MHz
2

7.4
-
8.8MHz

13.56MHz






27MHz



ISO/IEC 18000
-
3

ISO/IEC 15693

ISO/IEC 14443

ISO/IEC 18092/NFC

ISO/IEC 10536

EPCglobal EPC HF C1G2

ETSI EN 3
00 330

VHF

Very High Frequency

30MHz to 300MHz

10m to 1m

125MHz


UHF

Ultra High Frequency

300MHz to 3GHz

1m to 10cm

433MHz

840
-
956MHz




2.45GHz

ISO/IEC 18000
-
7

ISO/IEC 18000
-
6 Types A, B. C,
D

EPCglobal EPC UHF C1G2


IEEE 802.11

ISO/IEC 18000
-
4

IEEE 802.15 WPAN

IEEE 802.15 WPAN Low Rate

IEEE 802.15 RFID

ETSI EN 3
00
220

ETSI EN 3
00 440

ETSI EN 3
02 208

SHF

Super High Frequency

3GHz to 30GHz

10cm to 1cm

3.1
-
10,6GHz



5.8GHz


24.125GHz

IEEE 802.15
.
4a WPAN UWB



ISO/IEC 18000
-
5

(withdrawn)

ETSI EN 3
00 440

EHF

Extremely High
Frequency

30GHz to 300GHz

1cm to 1mm


MMID

ET
SI EN 3
00 440




Fig.
7
:

RFID air interface standards and
other
standards used in RFID applications
.

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
15

A description in detail of the RFID technology feature and the typical relative performance of
systems employing the various techn
ologies is presented in Appendix.


2.2

RFID
d
ata management

It is required for all RFID applications in oil and gas industry to ensure the effective RFID data
management which will provide reliable, real time, accurate decisions. For obtaining this it is
nece
ssary to process the data close to the source at the tag or sensor level and prevent the
transmission of redundant data and transfer of the
large
amount of low level data from RFID
interrogators
. This is realized by processing, filtering, and aggregating t
he
information
in the
early

stage
.
The processing of data has to consider the specific oil and gas applications since the
amount of data is generally not an issue, and most applications


even RTLS (Real Tim
e

Location Systems), location tracking


generate

manageable data volumes.


The simple RFID events are
then
transform
ed

into

more complex meaningful events, by using
e
vent
processing algorithms and methods

that can process

multiple streams of simple events with
the goal of deriving

more complex meaningfu
l events which infer from the simple events.


Using b
uffering
e
vent
streams the data is processed
by
the

RFID middleware and event
processing

and pass to the enterprise application using the company RFID

system architecture
for managing RFID data
,

the eve
nt processing

and the enterprise
resource planning system
.


2.3

Regulatory framework

National regulations limit power, frequency or bandwidth allocations and such limitations may
reduce the capability of a RFID system. It is required that the RFID technology p
roviders ensure
that they use only systems that comply with these
r
egulations. This implies
the requirement

to
obtain proofs from manufacturers, and where appropriate have adequate tests carried out to
assure that systems are in compliance.


It is
required

to make reference to local or regional radio regulations and radio standards
or air
interface requirements and be able to demonstrate compliance to harmonized ETSI standards
in
addition to this
guideline
.



N
ote:
Additional regulations, standards will be
added as available.


3

RFID
t
ags

(transponders)

The RFID tags are programmed with data that identifies the object to which the tag is attached.
Tags can be either read

only, volatile read/write, or write one/read many.


RFID tags need power to send radio
signals to a
interrogator
, store and retrieve data, and perform
other computations (e.g., security mechanisms computations). RFID tags can obtain the power
from a battery, electromagnetic waves emitted by
interrogators

that induce an electric current in
th
e tags or from other sources (energy harvesting). The power requirements of a tag depend on
several factors, including the operating distance between the tag and the
interrogator
, the radio
frequency being used, and the functionality of the tag. In general
, the more complex the
functions the tag supports, the greater its power requirements.


There are mainly three types of tags (Passive, Semi Passive and Active) used today in different
industries. The choice of the tag depends on the application, operating

conditions and
requirements.
Active tags contains more electronic components are usually larger in size and are
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
16

more expensive than passive tags.

In the oil and gas industry active and passive tags are used in
most of the applications.




Active RFID and Pa
ssive RFID are fundamentally different technologies.



Active RFID and Passive RFID have different functional capabilities, and therefore address
different areas of supply chain visibility.



Passive RFID is most appropriate where the movement of tagged assets

is highly consistent
and controlled, and little or no security or sensing capability or data storage is required.



Active RFID is best suited where business processes are dynamic or unconstrained,
movement of tagged assets is variable, and more sophisticat
ed security, sensing, and/or data
storage capabilities are required.



In most cases, neither technology provides a complete solution for supply chain visibility;
rather, the most effective and complete supply chain solutions leverage the advantages of
each
technology and combine their use in complementary ways.



RFID standards initiatives must embrace and endorse both Active and Passive RFID to
effectively meet the needs of the user community.


Making an RFID tag requires many steps, performed by many compani
es. Each step has some
impact on how tags behave, both in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups, and greatly impact
what
interrogators

must do in order to work optimally with groups of tags. The RFID tag
specification, integrated circuit design tend to intr
oduce the most variation, while label
conversion and packaging introduce less variation, but can greatly impact physical performance
characteristics such as range and consistency of
behaviour

across tagged products.


3.1

Passive RFID tags

The sequence of com
munication using passive RFID tags can be described as follows:



Host manages interrogators(s) and issues commands.



On request from host application, interrogator emits wake
-
up message to stimulate
response
from tags in read zone.



Wake
-
up message transmitt
ed through antennas (propagated systems) or via
a

magnetic
induction
.



Carrier signal containing wake
-
up message reaches tag(s)
.



Tag receives and recognises (or not) wake up message
.



If wake up signal recognised, tag modifies carrier signal to provide its
ID data
.



Tag returns modified modulated signal (most commonly by passive backscatter) to its
antenna
.



Tag antenna receives modified modulated signal and emits signal
.



Interrogator antenna(s) receive signal
.



Interrogator

decodes data, acknowledges tag and (
if appropriate) starts half duplex
communication session with tag
.



Where appropriate Interrogator commands tag to provide all or part of its memory (READ)
according to system design
.



Tag uses power from carrier signal (and in some cases stores power from c
arrier signal in
half duplex quiet pe
riods) to backscatter responses.



Where appropriate Interrogator commands tag to revise all or part of its memory (WRITE)
according to system design
.



Tag uses power from carrier signal (and in some cases stores power fro
m carrier signal in
hal
f duplex quiet periods) to
write to its memory and backscatter acknowledgement that this

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
17

operation is completed according to system design
.



Interrogator may or may not send new commands to the Tag and the tag will respond as
descr
ibed above
.



When appropriate interrogator terminates communication session and in some cases may
command the tag to SLEEP for a
system specified period of time.



Results returned to host application.



Passive RFID tags have no power source/battery and all

power comes from the
interrogator
.
They
usually

have a relatively shorter read range than active tags (ranging from mm to m). The
passive RFID tag most commonly consists of an integrated circuit attached to an antenna.


The tag can be packaged in many dif
ferent ways. It can be mounted on a substrate to create a tag,
or sandwiched between an adhesive layer and a paper label to create a printable RFID label, or
smart label. RFID tags can be embedded in a plastic card, a key fob, the walls of a plastic
contai
ner, and special packaging to resist heat, cold or harsh cleaning chemicals. The form factor
used depends on the application, and the packaging the RFID tag is adapted to the environment
conditions and can add significantly to the cost.


The passive RFID
tags can be read only, read
-
write. The read
-
only tags are programmed with a
unique ID data (usually 32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified.
Passive tags are designed to
operate at different frequencies and are most commonly based on air interface standard
s. For the
RFID applications in oil and gas there are passive tags that use low frequency, high frequency
and ultra high frequency communications. Because of regulatory limitations on emission power
from interrogators, microwave communications are not usua
lly used in passive tag systems in
this sector.



Fig.
8
:

Typical p
assive tags architecture
.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
18

Since propagated radio waves are absorbed or reflected differently at different frequencies, RFID
tag systems designed to operate at diffe
rent frequencies are suitable for different applications.


Lower frequency signals mainly use the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field and
exhibit different characteristics. Low frequency signals, whether inductive or propagated, but
particular
ly inductive systems, can better penetrate dense materials such as concrete and the
walls of buildings etc., and better avoid reflections from metal and other hard or reflective
surfaces, but are range limited by the range of the magnetic field. Although s
trongly attenuated,
they can in some circumstances be detected through thin metal. Low frequency tags are
appropriate for applications where the tag needs to be read through material or water at close
range. In contrast, the UHF band is attenuated by liqui
ds of low and medium specific gravity and
reflected by liquids of high specific gravity.


A spatially
-
varying electric field generates a time
-
varying magnetic field and vice versa.
Therefore, as an oscillating electric field generates an oscillating magne
tic field, the magnetic
field in turn generates an oscillating electric field, and so on. These oscillating fields together
form an electromagnet
ic wave
.


Passive RFID systems may use either the Magnetic field or the Electric Field to transmit their
signal
s. Using the magnetic field requires the presence of the tag(s) in a magnetic field (which is
usually) created by laying a coil that produces a field that surrounds the tags, or by making a
small coil in place of an antenna which can be detected at its pe
riphery. The field is circulating
around the generating coil, so appears omni directional, and theref
ore decays rapidly
. The range
of the signal is therefore limited by the rapid decay of the magnetic field. Typically about one
metre from the coil for a d
eployed coil system and a few mm or cm for a small coil (in a portable
interrogator

for example).


Using the electric field requires a means to propagate the signal. This is achieved by an antenna
and its design. The more an antenna is focussed the
greate
r the range of the system
. Antennas are
designed to capture one wavelength or more commonly half a wavelength, but as this would
mean an antenna of multiple kilometres at low frequency, low frequency systems are usually
inductive, and higher frequency syst
ems propagated by an antenna which focuses the beam
thereby increasing its range, but in the narrower beam guided by the antenna. Such systems are
therefore directional.


The range performance of passive RFID sys
tems is therefore determined by
:



F
requency
and type of system (inductive or propagated)
.



E
mitted power from interrogator
.



E
fficiency of tag antenna
.



E
nvironmental conditions (including materials in the proximity of the tag)
.



R
adio interference, spurious or other traffic legitimately sharing the ban
dwidth
.



E
fficiency of use of power received by the tag and returned
.


The principal factor limiting the effective range of a tag is commonly thought to be the weakness
of the signal returned by the tag, but this is generally not the case and the real limit
ation is the
ability of a very low cost receiver in the tag to recognise and use the emitted signal. As passive
tags carry no consumable components, such as batteries, their life is potentially the number of
times that the memory can be reliably written on

to.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
19

In systems where the WRITE function is not frequently used, tag life tends to be determined by
the manner of tag handling, and measures taken to protect its circuitry and components.

It is
possible for passive tags to receive and forward data from s
ensors so long as no power demands
are made on the tag when it is not in the presence of an interrogator.


3.2

Semi
p
assive RFID tags

Semi passive tags are RFID devices which use a battery to maintain memory in the tag and
sometimes provide power to the proc
essing unit or power the electronics that enable the tag to
modulate the reflected signal, or to support sensors. However, the radio aspects remain passive in
that they only react to received signals and use the power from the carrier signal.


Where the ba
ttery is used to support the processing unit, more sophisticated receivers are
possible and this can in some designs increase read range, although this is not the c
ase for many
semi
-
passive tags.



Improved performance
.



L
arger
.



M
ore complex (so usually more
expensive)
.



P
rovide more capability to support sensors
.



I
n field life limited by life of battery
.


3.3

Active RFID
systems


Active RFID systems are systems where both the interrogators and the tags have both
transmitters and receivers. Both the interrogator a
nd tag behave as any transceiver, and can
instigate or respond to a wake up signal, obtaining their transmission power from an on
-
board
power source. This means that a device can act in some circumstances as a tag, and in other
cases as an interrogator. Be
cause the on board equipment can be sensitive the emitted power is
usually much lower (by a considerable margin) than that required for a passive or semi
-
passive
system, and will usually also have potential read ranges measured in metres, tens of metres, o
r in
some cases hundreds of metres (For example a passive UHF RFID interrogator may emit
between 2 and 4 watts EIRP, depen
ding where it is in the world,
and achieve a read range of 3
metres.


An active system may emit 0.1 watts EIRP (or less to reduce ran
ge) and achieve a read range of
100 metres. Properly encapsulated, this makes such systems attract
ive for spark
-
free
environments.
The read sequence generally follows that for passive tags, but because both are
transceivers there is much more design flexib
ility available
:




Improved performance (over passive or semi
-
passive)
.



L
arger and heavier
.



M
ore complex (so usually more expensive)
.



P
rovide complete capability to support sensors
.



Tag consumes greater power to operate transmitter and receiver



S
emi
-
dormant

modes to conserve batteries
.



I
n field life limited by life of battery, and relatively high power consumption means that
operational situation must enable battery replacement f
rom time to time or recharging.



Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
20

Active tags are typically used on large object
s, cargo containers, rail cars,
and large

reusable
containers, objects that need to be tracked over long distances, for road tolling; and inside
aircraft where the emitted power has to be very low.


Active RFID systems usually operate at 433 MHz, 868MHz (
no standardized RFID protocol)
2.45 GHz, or 5.8 GHz (no standardized RFID protocol except for road tolling), and have a
typical read range of up to 100 meters. LF and VHF systems are also available. Some active tags
now include GPS positioning capability
.


Active RFID b
eacons are used in real

time locating systems (RTLS), where the precise location
of an
object

is

tracked. In an RTLS, a beacon emits a signal with its unique identifier at pre

set
intervals. The beacon

s

signal is picked up by at least three
interrogator

antennas

(triangulation

or triliteration
)

positioned around the perimeter of the area where assets

are being tracked. RTLS
are usually used outside, in a
container base or inside

large facilities to track parts
or personnel
.

Active tags can be

read reliably because they broadcast a signal to the
interrogator
.


The
costs of the active tags are
high
er compared to passive tags and are depending on
environment conditions, packaging
, amount of memory, the battery life required, whether the tag

incl
udes sensors, and the
reliability/
ruggedness required.


Active systems usually perform better than passive systems in highly metallic environments and
rough

weather conditions. Because they carry a local power source, active RFID tags can be
expanded and

adapted to include additional memory and local processing. They can read, write,
and store significant

amount of data. They can be attached to sensors to store and communicate
data to and from these devices.


3.4

Sensing capabilities


One functional area of g
reat relevance to many supply chain applications is the ability to monitor
environmental or status parameters using an RFID tag with built in sensor capabilities.
Parameters of interest may include temperature, humidity, and shock, as well as security and
tamper detection.


The integration of environmental sensors with tags requires the use of local memory. The sensors
can record the measured phenomena to the tag’s memory, which later is retrieved by the RFID
interrogator

or transmitted to another node in
the case of active systems. The integration of
sensors increases the cost and complexity of the tags.


Because Passive RFID tags are only powered while in close proximity to
an

interrogator
, these
tags are unable to continuously monitor the status of a se
nsor. Instead, they are limited to
reporting the current status when they reach a
n

interrogator
.


Semi passive tags can be used to continuously monitor the status of a sensor by using the internal
battery to process and store the data into memory. The data

is transmitted when the tag
reache
s
the reading zone of
a
n

interrogator
.


Active RFID tags are constantly powered, whether in range of
an

interrogator

or not, and are
therefore able to continuously monitor and record sensor status, particularly valuable i
n
measuring temperature limits and container seal status.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
21

Additionally, Active RFID tags can power an internal real
-
time clock and apply an accurate
time/date stamp to each recorded sensor value or event.

An example combining data protocol
and sensors is

illustrated in
Fig.
9
.




Fig.
9
:

Combining
d
ata
p
rotocol
and

s
ensors

(example)
.



3.5

Attachment characteristics

The RFID tags are attachable, embedded or
insert able

according to the object a
nd purpose. Tags
can also be reusable or disposable according to the nature of use.


Attachable tags are defined based on their flexibility and attachment properties and can be
attached permanent, semi permanent or temporary.


Embedded tags are used for
permanent or long term implantations. Inserted tags have little or no
contact at all with the identified object. Without a specific attachment process or tamper
ing the
identified object, the

tags

run the identification process while leaving objects at thei
r original
state.


3.6

Communication protocol ta
g
-

interrogator


The communication protocols determine how information is communicated to and from the tag
and is implemented into the integrated circuit or embedded system by the designer of the RFID
tag devic
e.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
22

Different protocols use different ways to modulate the carrier, encode the data, structure the
read/write/verify commands, provide privacy/security services and read multiple tags without
interfering with one another.


The various air interface proto
cols have relative advantages and disadvantages, depending upon
the application being considered.




Fig.
10
:

Communication tag

-

interrogator (
reader
)

for a passive tag
.


The level of complexity of the communication depends on whet
her it is happening in half duplex
or full duplex mode. In half duplex, the RFID
interrogator

transmits a complete message and
does not know if the message has been received until the tag switches over and replies.


In full duplex, both ends of the commun
ication channel are sending and receiving at the same
time, enabling real time communication channel management and more complex protocols.
These protocols require more data processing capabilities on the tag side, which implies an
increase in power consum
ption and a higher cost.


3.7

Inductive and propagation coupling

The read range is determined by different factors, and one of the most important is the method
passive tags use to transmit data to the
interrogator
. LF and HF tags use inductive coupling,
wher
e the coil in the
interrogator

antenna and the coil in the tag antenna form an electromagnetic
field. The tag draws power from the field, uses the power to run the circuitry on the chip and
then changes the electric load on the antenna.


The
interrogator

antenna determines the change in the magnetic field and converts these changes
into the digital signals. Since, the coil in the tag antenna and the coil in the
interrogator

antenna
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
23

has to form a magnetic field, the two components has to be relatively close

to each other

(0.2
-
5
0cm)
, which limits the read range of these systems.




Fig.
11
:

Inductive and propagation coupling
.


The p
assive UHF systems use
propagation coupling, where a
n

interrogator

antenna emits
electromagnetic energy
R
F waves and the RFID tag receives the

energy from the
interrogator

antenna, and

the
integrated

circuit

uses the energy to change the load on the antenna and reflect
back

(backscatter effect)

an altered signal

that is th
e
n demodulated
.


The modulation sche
mes to communicate the “1” and “0” usually used are:



Amplitude shift keying (ASK) which

increase the amplitude of the

wave coming back
depending on the bit value.



Phase shift keying (PSK) which
shift the wave out of phase



Frequency shift keying (FSK) whi
ch
change the frequency


The
RFID
interrogators

receive

the signal and demodulate

the signal into digital format
.


For the LF and HF RFID systems using inductive coupling, the size of the
interrogator

field is
small (0.2
-
80cm) and can relatively easily c
ontrolled. UHF systems that use propagation
coupling are harder to control, because energy is sent over long distances. The wave
s can reflect
on hard surfaces
and reach tags that are not in the normal range. LF and HF systems perform
better than UHF system
s around metal and water. The
radio waves do reflect off metal

and cause
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



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22.03
.2010

Page:
24

false reads. And they are better able to penetrate water; UHF radio waves are attenuated by
water.


3.8

Frequency
r
ange

RFID devices operate at different frequencies, with each frequency

targeted for specific
geographical regions, applications and performance requirements.
Advantages and disadvantages
related to the choice of RFID frequency band are summarized in
Table
2
.


Table
2
:
Properties of the
RFID frequency band
s.

Frequency

Advantage

Disadvantages

125KHz and
135KHz

Generous regulation.

Relatively inexpensive
.

Water, tissue, wood
,

aluminium

(very thin)

penetration
.

L
arge
r

antennas

compared to higher frequency
antennas
.


Short range for passive tags
.

Relatively low data rate
.

Will not penetrate metals (i.e., iron, steel)
.


Some inductive systems can use metal as part of
inductive coil to apparently “penetrate” that metal.

13.56MHz

Water
, t
issue
penetration
.

Small, thin
ner antenna
.

Strict regulatory restrictions.

Hard
penetrate or travel around

metals (i.e., iron,
steel)
.

303.8MHz,
418MHz,
433MHz,
868MHz and
915MHz

Longer range
.

Higher data rate
.

Controlled read zone
through antenna
directionality
.

Reflected by metals.

Poor water/tissue penetration
.

Does not penetrate "lossy" (highly conductive)
materials
.

UHF spectrum crowded
.

Regulatory issues
.

2.45GHz and
5.8GHz

Small tag/antenna size
.

Good range
.

Very high data rate
.

Controlled read zone
through antenna
directionali
ty.


Spectrum crowded, and many sources of
interference require more sophisticated receivers.

More susceptible to

electronic
noise
.


Does not penetrate "lossy" (highly conductive)
materials
.

Attenuated by metals and hard surfaces.

Within permitted emission

regulations, tags usually
require batteries.


The general performance characteristics and the regulatory requirements associated with the
allowed frequencies for the region of operation are important.


The actual frequency of operation for the tag is de
termined by the tag’s antenna design, and the
IC used based on the applications requirements, operating conditions and environment
surroundings.


Low frequency signals penetrate liquids more easily because longer wavelength is less
susceptible to attenuat
ion. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) systems are suited for
tagging objects in environments containing water (like humans or animals).
Metal reflects
radiofrequency signals, creating potential interference.

Low frequency magnetic coupling
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
25

system
s can communicate in a metallic environment under certain conditions. A wide variety of
error
-
correcting coding techniques can be employed to try to
address

the effects of noise.


3.9

Read
-
Write and Read
-
Only RFID tags

Different types of RFID tags can be used.

Read
-
only RFID tags have the data programmed once
and the data cannot be changed for the life of the tag. Read/write tags allow changing the data
content of the tag according to application specific needs.
Depending on system design, it may
be possible to

permanently lock all or some of the tag memory and select the memory locations.


3.10

Range

The reading range depends on the frequency, type of tag active/passive and can be optimized for
maximum performance on specific materials and antenna shapes. The opera
tion range of RFID
systems is limited by law of physics and regulations (frequency and power regulations). Cost
considerations have an effect on

the performance and operation
and affect achievable ranges.



The range of operation of RFID systems depends o
n the type of technology used:
communication based on electromagnetic induction is associated with a shorter read range
compared with radio communication. The range of operation of RFID systems depends on a
number of factors including transmission power, r
eceiver sensitivity, antenna gain, orientation,
interference and noise.



ISO standards terminology defines inductive coupling
systems as either proximity or
vicinity
systems. Proximity cards are used in the up to 10 cm range (
e.g.
for use with a vending
machine,
shop checkout, public transport system etc) and vicinity cards are us
ed for the up to 1 m
(althou
gh can rarely reliably exceed 0.
8m). Active UHF and microwave tags have a considerably
longer range of operation than passive tags, because
the batter
y provides more power.


3.11

Form factor and packaging

T
he tag form factor
and the packaging are important design factors, with

larger tags provid
ing

better range performance.


The size and shape has to respect the requirements of the RFID

application
(especia
lly in the oil
and gas industry)
and
a trade off

between the tag size
, materials used

and its range performance

is necessary
.
Also t
he chip bonding in itself need
s

attention and may be a challenge due to the
harsh environments. Solder bonding may be an alt
ernative.


4

RFID
i
nterrogators

(
reader
s
)


The RFID tag and the
interrogator

must comply with the same standard in order to communicate.
If the tag is based on a proprietary design, the
interrogator

must support the same communication
protocol to communicate

with that tag.


If proprietary tags are used, only proprietary RFID
interrogators

from the same vendor can be
used. This is recommended to be avoided. RFID
interrogator

characteristics that are independent
of tag characteristics are the p
ower output and
duty cycle, enterprise subsystem interface,
mobility, and antenna design and placement.


Different RFID air interface standards and RF regulations determine the permitted power output
and duty cycle of the RFID
interrogators
.

Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
26


Interrogators

that communica
te with passive tags need greater power output than those that
communicate with active tags because the signal must be strong enough to reach the tag and
enable the backscatter to return to the
interrogator
.


Even
interrogators

with greater power output an
d duty cycles can read tags more accurately,
more quickly, and from longer distances, the greater power output increase the risk of
eavesdropping and interference with other RF systems on the oil and gas installations.




Fig.
12
:

R
FID
interrogator

structure

(example)
.


4.1

Environment

The performance of the RFID systems depends on what materials are adjacent to the tag and
interrogators
. Environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity affect as well the
performance. Different
designs and use of materials capable of surviving the harsh environments
are necessary.


4.2

Types of
interrogators

Different types of RFID
interrogators

are used today from fixed, portal, mobile to hand held.


Portable RFID
interrogator

systems
are appropria
te to be

used in many oil and gas applications
where the
interrogator

is moved close to the tagged object. This is advantageous when large
objects or permanent placed objects are to be read.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
27

Integrating wireless LAN in the design, the
interrogator

can co
mmunicate with a central base,
and instantly save or present the data from the read tags. In addition the
interrogator

can receive
commands continuously even during field operation.
While a simple RFID system may comprise
just an interr
ogator, antenna, tag

and host, a

more comprehensive RFID system may involve a
central host, an RFID interrogator integrated into or combined with a portable computer, and a
WLAN network
.


Operating frequency, reading range, network range, security, sensor integration, etc. is

determined for each application specifically.


4.3

Power levels

The signal transmitted by RFID
interrogators

and tags is transmitted at a certain power level,
measured in watts. High power levels also increase the risk of interference with other radio
sensiti
ve equipment. Regulation imposes limitations on power levels to safeguard people’s
health and prevent interferences.
Magnetic induction systems respect the same rules but as the
power decays more quickly (more or less to a cube law, whereas propagated sign
als decay to a
square law) so power levels within the field can be higher because regulations measure
emissions at fixed distances away from source of the emission
.


4.4

Antennas

Low gain antennas emit radiations in all directions (
omni directional
). High gai
n antennas radiate
in particular directions (unidirectional) with a longer range and better signal.
For the case when

the transmitter or the receiver is
moving
, it may not be practical to use directional antennas at
both ends of the communications link.
An
tenna design, gain, and orientation also influences read
range.
RFID t
ag
’s

and
interrogator

s

antenna sizes are a key difference between induction and
radio wave RFID systems.
G
eneral
ly
, electromagnetic induction tags require a smaller antenna
than radio w
ave systems.


4.5

Portable RFID system for harsh environment

A portable RFID
interrogator

system for use in harsh environments requires several important
features.
The portable RFID either transfer the tag data immediately via radio communication
(such as WLAN
) or collect the data in a built
-
in memory. Data stored in the memory is
transferred to the central database or repository, when the device is placed in a docking station.
Other requirements, such as the degree of protection necessary for a device, are dic
tated by the
device’s intended purpose.


The equipment has to have a rugged design to withstand multiple drops, water, dust, and a large
operating temperature range.
Interrogators

and antennas at loading gates must be highly tolerant
as regards temperatur
e and must be protected against dust and damp. For integration in the
higher (software) layers of the RFID architecture, for configuration, and for diagnostics, the
RFID
interrogators

must support suitable interfaces.
The enterprise interface supports tran
sfer of
RFID data from the
interrogator

to enterprise system for processing and analysis.


The interface may be a wired (e.g., Ethernet) or wireless (e.g., Wi
-
Fi or satellite) link.
Wireless
LAN for direct communication is needed, preferably integrated. T
he system has to be able to
read tags mounted on metal surfaces, different frequencies and protocols/standards should be
used, and with a reading distance adapted to the application.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
28

In addition the RFID
interrogator

should be able to read both passive a
nd
/or

active tags. A list
with the important features for the portable RFID
interrogators

is presented below:



RFID
-
frequency

(depends on application).



Standards support

(depends on application).



Bar Code:
Omni directional

1D and 2D imaging or
Omni directi
onal

1D scanning



Communication: IEEE 802.11, 2.4GHz Compact Flash radio. Bluetooth SD I/O radio
2.4GHz (up to 5m range). GSM/GPRS radio.



Interface: RS232, USB, power out, portable docking module



Operating System

(depends on application).



Operating Tempe
rature:
-
40ºC to +8
5
ºC



Drop Spec: 1.
5
m Multiple drops to polished concrete



Environmental Sealing: IP65 anti
-
static, corrosion proof housing, protects against water and
dust, IEC60529, classification



Environmental Sealing: IP65 Anti
-
static, corrosion proof

housing



Delivery time



Price.


4.6

Directional portals for RFID system used in harsh environment

Highly directional, high
-
gain antennas are used for RFID
interrogators

that are required to be
used for large read distances. Regulatory authorities usually limit
the maximum power emitted in
a given direction (the transmission power plus the antenna gain). As a result, the transmission
power emitted from the
interrogator

to the antenna must also be regulated accordingly. One
advantage of highly directional antennas

is that the
interrogator

power often has to be emitted
only to the spaces in which the tags that are to read are located. Highly directional antennas are
not appropriate for all scenarios, particularly not in the case of warehouse doors equipped with
inte
rrogator

antennas.


Multi
-
directional RFID
interrogator

system can be used where multi
-
directional
interrogators

can
be place
d

on opposing sides of a space. The
interrogators

can be operable to detect an RFID tag
associated with an object/person as well as

its direction of movement are required for specific
applications.


4.7

Non
-
directional portals for RFID system used in harsh environment

Portals may be covered with non directional antennas (if small enough) or antenna arrays that
cover a large area
.

Directio
n of flow is best ascertained by using multiple interrogators in
different places
.


4.8

RFID
middleware

RFID tags and
interrogators

are components of RFID system
s
, which, is a component of the
enterprise information technology infrastructure, interconnected wi
th other information systems
and networks, including via the Internet. Different types of RFID systems can be considered
according to their level of connectedness with other systems:



Standalone RFID systems not connected to other information systems and n
etworks,
including within the
oil and gas companies
.



Closed loop RFID systems that track objects that never leave the
oil and gas
company or
organisation.



Open loop RFID systems that involve multiple partners, like a retail chain and its suppliers.


Norwegian Oil and Gas Association

Guideline No. 112

Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)
in the oil and gas

industry

Part 3 RFID technology

No: 112



Enter into force:
22.03
.2010

Page:
29

Sta
ndardiz
ation and interoperability factors play a key role in the implementation of RFID
systems. This is importa
nt to recognise in a global
economy especially for oil and gas

companies

where the supply chain spans across a range of partners who
are

spread
all over the globe.


An important component of RFID infrastructures is the RFID

specific software
called
RFID
middleware that

translates the raw data from the tag into useful enterprise

information. This
information can then be fed into other databases and

applications for further processing. In the
case of read

write tags,

software is also required to control whether data can be written to the tag,
which tag

should contain the data and to initiate the process of adding data to, or changing data
in

the tag.


RFID tags can be embedded into
any

products, animals or even people, widening possibilities

for
RFID applications.

RFID middleware software features are presented below:




Device abstraction and device management



RFID event processing models



Integrated de
velopment environment



Open APIs



Base set of tools for lifecycle management



Pluggable architecture for customizable components



Flexible, extensible and scalable framework with support for standards


4.9

RFID security

Security involves data protection and secur
ity mechanisms are needed to maintain the desired
level of protection, and the right security measure should be evaluated against RFID project cost
target and specific performance requirements. Security mechanisms include the encryption of
data and wireles
s transmissions, strong authentication, and access policies. The databases and
servers, which hold the RFID data, has to be protected, the collected RFID data and business
data
has to be kept
safe
and protected and not
share
d

with the outside world

without


authentication
.


There are many elements that can disrupt an RFID system. They can be interference or