MC9251 - Middleware Technologies - Sudharsan Engineering ...

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1

SUDHARSAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE,


Sathiyamangalam
-
622501.



Subject:

MDDLEWARE TECHNOLOGIES




Subject Code:
MC9251

Academic Year: 2013
-
2014







Semester:

V

Name of the Faculty: P.Suganthi






Department: MCA


UNIT


I


INTRODUCTION


Eme
rgence of Middleware


Objects, Web Services


Middleware Elements


Vendor
Architecture


Interoperability


Middleware in Distributed Applications


Types of Middleware


Transaction
-
Oriented Middleware


MOM


RPC.


PART



A


1.A.
1. Define architecture
.


It identifies the components of a problem space, shows the relationships among them, and
defines the terminology, rules, and constraints on the relationships and components.


1.A.
2
.

What is IT architecture?

The IT Architecture is an organized set of
con
sensus decisions

on policies & principles,
services & common solutions, standards & guidelines as well as specific vendor products used by
IT providers both inside and outside the Information Technology Branch (ITB).
It is a solution to
the problem “How do

I structure my IT applications to best suit the business?”


1.A.
3. What is a middleware?


Software that provides a link between separate software applications. Middleware is
sometimes called plumbing because it connects two applications and passes data be
tween them.
Middleware allows data contained in one database to be accessed through another.

It is
a
software

that is necessary in practice to build distributed applications.


1.A.4.
What
are the advantages

of middleware? Nov/Dec. 2012

Advantages of middle
ware:



Real time information access among systems



Streamlines business processes and helps raise organizational efficiency



Maintains information integrity across multiple systems



It covers a wide range of software systems, including distributed Objects and
components,
message
-
oriented communication, and mobile application support.



Middleware is anything that helps developers create networked applications









2

1.A.5.
What
are the disadvantages

of middleware?

Disadvantage of Middleware:



Prohibitively high develo
pment costs



There are few people with experience in the market place



There exists relatively few satisfying standards



The tools are not good enough



Too many platforms to be covered



Middleware often threatens the real
-
time performance of a system



Middleware

products are not very mature


1.A.6.
List the features of Middleware.



Ease of use



Location transparency



Message delivery integrity



Message format integrity



Language transparency


1.A.7.
List out the categories of middleware. Give one example for each.

Nov
/Dec. 2011


Types of Middleware

Middleware can be defined as software that acts as an intermediary between other software,
applications, or devices. This is a broad definition, used to group together various types of
middleware. In truth, there are several

types of middleware and each has its own unique definition.


1)

Message Oriented Middleware

This type of middleware is an infrastructure that supports receiving and sending messages over
distributed applications. It allows applications to be disbursed over p
latforms and allows the
process of creating software applications that span many operating systems and network protocols
much less complicated. It holds many advantages over not using middleware, and it is one of the
more traditional types of middleware th
at is still available and widely used.

2)

Object Middleware

Object middleware, also called an object request broker, makes it possible for applications to
send objects and request services via an object oriented system. In short, it manages the
communication
between objects. This is another of the simpler and more traditional types of
middleware available.

3)


RPC Middleware

This stands for Remote Procedure Call, and is exactly what it sounds like. It calls procedures
on remote systems. It is used to perform sync
hronous or asynchronous interactions between
applications or systems and is usually utilized within a software application.

4)

Database Middleware

This type of middleware allows for direct access to databases, and provides direct interaction
with databases. T
here are many database gateways and connectivity options, and you simply have
to see what will best work for your necessary solution. This is the most general and commonly
known type of middleware. This includes SQL database software.






3

5)

Transaction Middlewar
e

This type of middleware includes applications like transaction processing monitors. It also
encompasses web application servers. These types of middleware are becoming more and more
common today.

6)

Portals

This refers to enterprise portal servers. It is co
nsidered middleware because portals facilitate front
end integration. They are used to create interactions between a user’s computer or device and back
end systems and services.

7)

Embedded Middleware

This type of middleware allows for communication and integ
ration services with an interface of
software or firmware. It acts as a liaison between embedded applications and the real time
operating system.

8)

Content
-
centric Middleware

This type of middleware allows you to abstract specific content without worry of ho
w it is
obtained. This is done through a simple provide/consume abstraction. It is similar to
publish/subscribe middleware, which is another type of this software that is often used as a part of
web based applications.


1.A.8. What is MOM? Nov/Dec. 2011

Me
ssage Oriented Middleware (MOM).
This type of middleware is an infrastructure that
supports receiving and sending messages over distributed applications. It allows applications to be
disbursed over platforms and allows the process of creating software appl
ications that span many
operating systems and network protocols much less complicated. It holds many advantages over
not using middleware, and it is one of the more traditional types of middleware that is still
available and widely used.


1.A.9.
Illustrate

the uses of client/server system. Nov/Dec. 2012

1)

Cost savings
-

Investors want to be able to make money and managers want to show a
decent bottom line.

2)

Scalability
-

frequent changes within the IT infrastructure requires continued strategic
support for coo
perative mechanisms that render a forged cooperative database.

3)

Manage workflow
-

Interfaced logic and Legacy based solutions provide a undergirth
substructure endeavor.

4)

Provide multi
-
tier service
-

all triaxial units provide subforth instrumentation beyond

all
first level response units.

5)

Instrumentablity
-

Utilization of data resources must have exchange access quality of
service to maintain interoperability amongst
unified

systems.


1.A.10.

What is marshaling?


M
arshalling

(sometimes spelled
marshaling
, si
milar to
serialization
) is the process of
transforming the memory representation of an object to a data format suitable for storage or
transmission. It is typically used when dat
a must be moved between different parts of a computer
program or from one program to another.







4

Marshalling

is a process that is used to communicate to remote objects with an object (in this case
a
serialized object
). It simplifies complex communication, using custom/complex objects to
communicate
-

instead of
primitives
.


1.A.11.
What is the purpose of remote database access?


It provides the ability to read or write to a database

that is physically on a different machine
from the client program.


1.A.12
.
How remote

database access differs from RPC?

It is a run
-
time, not a compile
-
time,
interface
. There is no IDL or equivalent.

The procedure
itself
is typically written in a proprie
t
a
ry language,
although many database vendors allow stored
procedures to be written in Java.


1.A.13.
List some technologies for remote database access.

The technologies to access remote database access are
ODBC
,
OLE DB
,
ADO.NET
,
JDBC
,
and JDO


1.A.14.
Def
ine transaction.


A transaction usually means a sequence of information exchange and related work that is
treated as a unit for the purposes of satisfying a request and for ensuring database integrity. For a
transaction to be completed and database changes

to
make

permanent, a transaction has to be
completed in its entirety.


1.A.15.
What is message queuing?



It is program
-
to
-
message queue.
A

message queue as a very fast mailbox since you can put
a message in the box without the recipient’s being active.




Me
ssage queues provide an
asynchronous

communications pro
tocol
, meaning that the
sender and receiver of the message do not need to interact with the message queue at the
same time. Messages placed onto the queue are stored until the recipient retrieves them.


1.A.16.
What is the disadvantage of message queuing?


The disadvantages of message queuing
are:




There

is no IDL and no
marshaling;



The

message is a string of bits, and is up to you to ensure that the sender and the
receiver know the message layout.


1.A.17.
What is the advantage of message queuing?


The ad
vantages of message queuing
are: it’s

a powerful and simple idea, i
t is also efficient
and has been used for applications that require sub
-
second response times.


1.A.18.

Mention any two
message queue software.


The sof
twares that
develop
ed for

message que
ue are

1.
MQSeries
,

2.
MSMQ from Microsoft






5

1.A.19.
What are the key characteristics of a component?

1.
It is a code file that can be either executed or interpreted
;

2.
The run
-
time code has its own private data and provides an
interface;


3.

It can be de
ployed many times and on many different machines
.


1.A.20.
What is object middleware?


It is built on the simple concept of calling an operation in an object that resides in another
system. Instead of client and server, there are client and object.

Automat
ic code generation based
on common design and implementation patterns: code for factories, code for assemblies and code
for storing and retrieving persistence object's states.


1.A.21.
What are the advantages of object middleware?

Synchronicity
-

MOM compr
ises a category of inter
-
application

communication software

that gen
erally relies on
asynchronous

message
-
passing
, as opposed to a
request
-
response

metaphor
.

Routing
-

Many message
-
oriented
middleware

implementations depend on a
message
queue

system
.

Transformation
-

In a message
-
based middleware system, the recipient's message need
not replicate the sender's message exactly. A MOM system with built
-
in intelligence can
transform

messages en
-
route to match the requirements of the sender or of the recipient.


1.A.22.
What are the types of EJB?

Session bean

-

An entity bean is a remote object that manages
persistent data, performs
complex business logic, potentially uses several dependent Java objects, and can be uniquely
identified by a primary key.

Entity bean

-

Entity beans are normally coarse
-
grained persistent objects, in that they utilize
persistent d
ata stored within several fine
-
grained persistent Java objects.


1.A.23.

What is a session bean?


Session bean does the work on behalf of the single client. It is not persistent hence relatively
short lived. It does not represent the data in
data store
, al
though can access and update such data.
There are two

types:


1. Stateless session beans

2. Stateful session beans


1.A.24.
What is an entity bean?


An entity bean is a remote object that manages persistent data, performs complex business
logic, potentiall
y uses several dependent Java objects, and can be uniquely identified by a primary
key. Entity beans are normally coarse
-
grained persistent objects, in that they utilize persistent data
stored within several fine
-
grained persistent Java objects. There are
two types
:

1. Bean
-
managed persistence

2. container
-
managed persistence


.







6

1.A.25.
Define web service.

A software system designed to support interoperable machine
-
to
-
machine interaction over
a network. It has an interface described in a machine processabl
e format (WSDL).


1.A.26.
What is SOAP?


SOAP
-

Simple Object Access Protocol. It is a combination of XML and HTTP.

SOAP is a
simple XML
-
based protocol to let applications exchange information over HTTP.


1.A.27. List some of
the characteristics

of Client
/
Server system.



Service



Shared resources



Asymmetrical protocols



Transparency of location



Mix and match



Message


based exchanges



Encapsulation of services



Scalability



Integrity


1.A.29. Compare

2


tier and 3


tier Architecture.

Instead of Fat clients an
d fat servers these terms can be used. It is all about how you split
the client/server applications into functional
units. These

functional units can be assigned to
either the client or to one or more servers.

The most typical functional units are:



User I
nterface



Business Logic and



the Shared Data

In 2
-
tier, the application logic is either buried inside the User Interface on the client or within the
database on the server (or both)

2
-
tier system examples: File Servers and Database Servers with stored proce
dure.

In 3
-
tier, the application logic (or) process lives in the middle
-
tier, it is separated from the data
and the user interface.

1.A.30. What are the functionalities of NOS.

Network Operating System

refers to

software

that implements an

operating system

of some
kind that is oriented to

computer networking
.

For example, one that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users,
groups, security, applications, and other networking functions


1.A.31.
What is Object reference
?

When an object is
passed by referen
ce
,
the object itself remains "in place" while an object

reference for that object is passed. Operations on the object through the object reference are

actually processed by the object itself.






7

1.A.32.
What is API?



Application

programming interface

(
API
)

specifies

how some

software components

should
interact with each other.


In practice in mo
st of the cases an API is a

library

that usually includes specification
for

routines
,

data structures
,

object classes
, and variables.


1.A.33.
What is Distributed

Computing?

A distributed computer system consists of multiple software components that are on
multiple computers, but run as a single system. The computers that are in a distributed system can
be physically close together and connected by a local network,

or they can be geographically
distant and connected by a wide area network. A distributed system can consist of any number of
possible configurations, such as mainframes, personal computers, workstations, minicomputers,
and so on
.


1.A.34
. What are the ad
vantages of middleware
?

Advantages of middleware
:

i.

Real time information access among systems

ii.

Streamlines business processes and helps raise organizational efficiency

iii.

Maintains information integrity across multiple systems

iv.

It covers a wide range of software

systems, including distributed Objects

v.

Components
, message
-
oriented communication, and mobile application support.

vi.

Middleware is anything that helps developers create networked applications

PART


B


1.B.1.
Explain the emergency of middleware technologies

in detail.



Introduction



RPC



Distributed Transaction Processing



Message
queuing


1.B.2.
Why the object middleware is used in instead of RPCs.
(o
r
)

Explain the concept of
object middleware in detail.



Introduction



Using object middleware



Pattern of OO Middle
ware


1.B.3.
Explain the elements of the middleware in detail.



The programmatic interface



The data presentation



Server Control



Naming and directory services



Security



System management






8

1.B.4. Explain

the vendor architecture in detail.



Vendor platform archi
tectures



Vendor
-
distributed
architectures



Using vendor architecture



Implicit architecture


1.B.5.
Explain the concept of middleware interoperability with neat diagram.



Three scenarios


1.B.6.
How
many

tiers are available in middleware and explain its funct
ionality in detail.

1)

The presentation tier

2)

The processing tier

3)

The
data

tier


1.B.7.
Explain the distributed architecture patterning detail.



Middleware bus
architecture



Hub
architecture



Web services
architecture



Loosely couples Vs. Tightly coupled


1.B.8.
Explain the MOM in detail
.



Definition



Properties of MOM



Usage of MOM



Advantages of MOM



Disadvantages of MOM


1.B.9.
Explain the concept of RPC in detail
.



IDL



Presentation layer



Session layer



















9

UNIT


II

OBJECT ORIENTED MIDDLEWARE


OOM


Developi
ng with OOM


Heterogeneity


Dynamic Object Request


Java RMI


COM+.


PART



A


2.A.
1.
What are the 4 dimensions of information retrieval?

Information retrieval

(
IR
) is the area of study concerned with searching for documents,
for
information

within documents, and for
metadata

about documents, as well as that of searching
relational databases

and the
World Wide Web
. The four dimensions of information retrieval are
Timelines
s
,
Usability
,
and Degree

of flexibility to the query
,
whether

user wants to get data or
wants to be informed when something changes


2.A.2.
What is dynamic object request?

Nov/Dec. 2011



Sometimes clients need to be built before their server interfaces are
defined



They need to defer request definition until they are executed



These are dynamic requests

Examples:



Object browser



Generic bridges



Scripting language interpreter


2.A.3
. What is

content present

in the presentation layer?

The conten
t of the presentat
ion layer are
:

All end
-
user formatting
,
All navigation on the
system
,
Security authentication
,
Build and transmit messages to the processing tier
.


2.A.4
. List the types of message for the back
-
end server.

Real
-
time



Real
-
time programs must execute within

strict constraints on response time

Deferrable



To

put off; postpone



Ad hoc queries



Ad hoc queries are those that are not already defined that are not needed on a
regular basis, so they're not included in the typical set of reports or queries pro
vided with the
software. They're typically queries that the user can create on their own outside the scope of the
delivered software.


2.A.5
. What are the two types of unsolicited message for the presentation layer?

The two types of unsolicited messages fo
r the presentation layer are s
imple push messages


messages to the layer above.
Reports
-

give periodic report about web


2.A.6
. What is the purpose of processing tier?

Middleware is the enabling technology of
enterprise application integration
. It describe
s a
piece of software that connects two or more software applications, allowing them to exchange
data.








10

2.A.7
. What is a business intelligence service?


It is a service used for retrieval and searching, such as a data warehouse, data mart,
decision suppor
t system, or management information system.


2.A.8
.
What are the three common distributed architecture patterns in use?

Nov/Dec. 2011

The architecture patterns for common distributed architecture are:

Middleware bus

(or ring)
architecture
,
Hub
-
and
-
spoke ar
chitecture
,
Loosely coupled architecture
.


2.A.9
. What are the advantages of middleware bus architecture?

The advantages of middleware bus architecture
are:

Fast
:

Quick response for the user query

Secure
:

Free from danger or attack

Flexible:

easy
to use

an
d modify


2.A.10
. What is the purpose of hub?

It can be used to bridge different networking or middleware technologies.

It is used to

insert a
protocol analyzer

into a n
etwork connection. When a switch is accessible for end users to
make connections, for example, in a conference room, an inexperienced or careless user (or
saboteur
) can bring down the netw
ork by connecting two ports together, causing a loop.


2.A.11
. Define coupling.


The degree to which components depend on one another.


There are two types of coupling, "tight" and "loose". Loose coupling is desirable for good software
engineering but ti
ght coupling may be necessary for maximum performance.

Coupling is
increased when the data exchanged between components becomes larger or more complex.


2.A.12
. What are the 4 steps in recovery?

The four steps in recovery process
are: Detect

the failure
,
Clean
-
up

work in progress
,
activate

the application on the backup system
,
and Reprocess

“lost” messages


2.A.13
. List the benefits of good resiliency analysis.

Resiliency refers to your ability to quickly recover from change. The
resiliency

analysis
bene
fi
ts are
: it h
elps
to
prevent overengineering
,
h
elps
to
prevent underengineering
,
and it h
elps
to
test the integrity of the business process model


2.A.14
. What are the 3 ways to improve performance?

The ways to improve the performance in middleware are:
Hav
ing

a faster processor
,
i
mprov
ing

the hardware architecture

and p
ush the application leftward, down the slope
.


2.A.15
. How do you push the application down the slope?

The ways to push the application down the slope are:
1.
Reduce the active memory
footpri
nt
, 2.
Reduce the number of task switches
, 3.
Reduce lock contention
, 4.
Reduce the number
of IOs
, 5.
Reduce the number of network messages sent or received
, 6.
Reduce the number of
memory overlays
.






11

2.A.16
.

Explain protocol dependency.

A
dependency

identifie
s a
set

of model elements that
requires

o
ther model elements for
their
specification

or
implementation
. The complete
semantics

of the depending elements is either
semantically or
structurally

dependent upon the definition of the supplier element(s).
Both
di
stributed programs must use the same middleware standard, and they must use the same
protocol. This is achievable with web services.


2.A.17
. Explain configuration dependency.

When networks grow, inevitably there comes a time when you want to add or change

service names, domain names, and network addresses. The solution is to rely on a directory
service. In web services,
a UDDI service provides

this facility.


2.A.18
. Explain message format dependency.

There is no concern about integer or floating point lay
outs. The fields can be reordered.
Lists can be of any length. Because
web services use

XML, it has a degree of format
independence.


2.A.19
. What do you mean by security dependency?


A
dependency

identifies a
set

of model elements that
requires

other model elements for
their
specification

or
implementation
.
The applications must have a common understanding of the
security policy.


2.A.20
. Wh
at do you mean by business process dependencies?


In the travel reservation example, suppose a loyalty card is introduces. Several services
may operate a bit differently for these customers and they must interact correctly.


2.A.21
. What do you mean by bus
iness object dependencies?


If two applications communicate with one another and one identifies products by style
number and the other identifies products by catalogue number, there is scope for major
misunderstandings.


2.A.22.
Define object serialization
.

Serialization is the conversion of an object to a series of bytes, so that the object can be easily
saved to persistent storage or streamed across a communication link. The byte stream can

then be desterilized
-

converted into a replica of the original
object.















12

PART


B


2.B.1.
Explain the concept of
dynamic

object request in detail
.



Object browser



Generic request
-
level bridges



Dynamic invocation



Principles



2.B.
2
.
Explain the dynamic invocation in COM in detail
.



The COM IDispatch Interface



COM
ID
ispatch Interface



Principles


2.B.
3
.
How to resolve the
heterogeneous

programming language
.



Mapping object models



Implementation of language bindings



Access transparency


2.B.
4
.
How to resolve the heterogeneous middleware environment
.



Three reasons



Inter
operability



Bridging



Internetworking


2.B.
5
.
How to resolve the heterogeneous data representation
.



Example heterogeneity



Mappings between native and standard data representation



Resolution in the application layer



Resolution by platform


2.B.
6
.
Explain the

concept of OOM.



Interface Definition Language



Presentation layer implementation



Session layer implementation


2.B.
7
.
How will you develop
distribute
d

objects using OOM.



Design



Interface definitions



Client stub



Server stub



Implementation of server objects



Server registration






13




2.B.
8
.
Explain the COM distributed object
development’s

basic concepts
.



Meta
-
object model and Interface Definition



Objects



Types



Attributes



Operations



Requests



Failure handling

2.B.
9
.
Explain the architecture of COM
.



Introduction



Ar
chitecture


2.B.1
0
.
E
xplain the

Architecture
of Java/RMI
.



Architecture




F
aulting references



Activators


2.B.1
1
.
E
xplain the concept involved in Java/RMI
.



Meta
-
data

Model and interface de
finition



Objects



Types



Attributes



Operations



Requests



Failure handlin
g





















14

UNIT



III

COMPONENT OBJECT RESOURCE BROKER ARCHITECTURE (CORBA)


Naming


Trading


Life Cycle


Persistence


Security


CORBA.


PART


A


3.A.
1. What are the functional categories of system management?

The functional categories of syst
em management
are:

Administration

-

Operation
,
Fault
tracking and resolution
,
Performance management and accounting
,
Security
.


3.A.
2. What do you mean by fault tracking and resolution?

Information about faults not immediately resolved must be recorded and

used to trigger
subsequent activity to fix them.


T
racking error

is a measure of how closely a portfolio follows the index to which it is
benchmarked. The most common measure is the
root
-
mean
-
square

of the difference between the
portfolio and index returns.


3.A.
3. What is the primary function of systems administration group?

1.

To ensure that changes to the configuration
-
what is running
-

are made in a secure and
orderly fashi
on.


2.

Analyzing
system logs

and identifying potentia
l issues with computer systems.

3.

Introducing and integrating new technologies into existing
data center

environments.

4.

Performing routine audits of systems and software.


3.A.
4. Define authentication.


It is about identifying the users; it is about checking that p
eople are who they say they ar
e:



Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who
or what it is declared to be.



In private and public computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is
commonly done through the use of
logon

passwords.


3.A.
5.
Define authorization.


It is about giving users the authority to use a resource in a specified way.

The process of
granting or denying access to a netwo
rk resource. Most computer
security systems

are based on a
two
-
step process.

1.

The first stage is
authentication
, which ensures

that a user is who he or she claims to be.

2.

The second stage is authorization, which allows the user access to various resources based
on the user's
identity
.


3.A.
6. What is meant by protectio
n?


It is about stopping unauthorized access to resources.

This includes the definition of correct
security policies at various abstraction layers, and also the unified and correct management and
enforcement of the correct security policy at all relevant p
laces in the system.







15

3.A.
7. Define confidentiality.


Confidentiality is the p
rotection against disclosure.

Confidentiality has also been defined
by the
International Organization for Standardization

(ISO), as "ensuring that information is
accessible only to those authorized to have access" and is one of the cornerstones of
information
security
.

Confidentiality is one of the design goals for many
cryptosystems
, made possible in
practice by the techniq
ues of modern
cryptography
.


3.A.
8. Define integrity.


Integrity is defined as p
rotection against tampering
. The concept of network integrity is a
useful means for limiting the sco
pe of network security metrics to a tractable subset of what can be
measured.


3.A.
9. Define nonrepudiation.


Nonrepudiation is the p
rotection against one kind of fraud.

N
onrepudiation refers to the
ability to ensure that a party to a contract or a communi
cation cannot deny the authenticity of their
signature on a document or the sending of a message that they originated. To repudiate means to
deny.


3.A.
10. What do you mean by denial of service?


Denial of service is the p
rotection against malicious servi
ce blockage.

A
denial
-
of
-
service
attack

(
DoS attack
) or
distributed denial
-
of
-
service attack

(
DDoS attack
) is an attempt to make a
computer resource unavailable to its intended users.


3.A.
11. What is meant by physical protection?


Physical protection is t
he p
rotection against unauthorized people walking up to the
computer and doing their worst.

Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware,
programs, networks, and data from physical circumstances and events that could cause serious
losses or d
amage to an enterprise, agency, or institution. Physical security is often overlooked in
favor of more technical and dramatic issues such as hacking,
virus
.


3.A.
12
.
What do you mean by security management?


Security management
is about how security is administered and how security breaches are
reported.

A basic concept of security management is the
information security
. The primary goal of
information security is to guarantee
safety

of
inform
ation
. When protecting information it is the
value of the information that has to be protected. These values are stipulated by the
confidentiality
,
integrity

and
availability
. Inferred aspects are privacy, anonymity and verifiability.


3.A.
13.
Explain onion model.


In this model, ea
ch concentric ring represents a protective screen. Each ring contains one or
more resources. The rectangles represent access points. Each access point makes a number of
services available to the outside world.








16

3.A.
14. Define security tokens.



The user’s i
dentity can be embedded in the message. These embedded items are called
security tokens
.




Security tokens
may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is
given to ease
authentication
. The term may also refer to
software tokens
.



The token is used in addition to or in place of a password to prove that the customer is who
they
claim to be. The token acts like an electronic key to access something
.


3.A.
15. What are the 2 forms of encryption?

Asymmetrical or public key

-

In
cryptogra
phy
, a public key is a value provided by some
designated authority as an
encryption

key

that, combined with a private key derived from the
public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and
digital signature
s. The use of
combi
ned public and private keys is known as
asymmetric

cryptography. A system for using public
keys is called a public key infrastructure (
PKI
).

Symmetrical or private
key
-

A
cryptographic

system that uses two
keys

--

a
public key

known to
everyone and a
private

or
secret key

known only to the recip
ient of the message. When John wants
to send a secure message to Jane, he uses Jane's public key to
encrypt

the message. Jane then uses
her private key to
decrypt

it.


3.A.
16.
What is meant by SSL?


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
allows

any user to send secure messages over the internet. It
uses both symmetric and asymmetric encryption.

SSL provides a mechanism to verify the identity
of an internet client and/or server, and to encrypt the messages sent between them. Thus it can be
used to provide authentication and confidentiality for web services that run directly

between a
client and a server.
It uses a public key infrastructure (PKI
) system based on digital certificates.


3.A.
17. Explain asymmetric encryption.


An encryption system that utilizes two keys, one called a public key (which is known to
both the sender and the recipient of encrypted data), and the other, called a private k
ey (known
only to the individual sending the data). Note: Data are encrypted with the private key and
decrypted with the public key. Asymmetric encryption allows for the secure transfer of data.
It
uses a different key to encrypt than to decrypt.


3.A.
18.

What are the a
dvantages and disadvantages of asymmetric encryption?



The advantage is that you can publish your key and anyone can send you secret messages.



The disadvantage is that asymmetric algorithms are slow
.

eg. RSA.


3.A.
1
9
. Explain symmetric encry
ption.


An
encryption

system in which the sender and receiver of a message share a single,
common
key

that is used to encrypt and decry
pt the message. Contrast this with
public
-
key
cryptology
, which utilizes two keys
-

a public key to encrypt messages and a private key to decrypt
them.
It uses the same key to enc
rypt and decrypt the message. It is fast.



Eg. DES







17

3.A.
20
. What is Kerberos?


It is the best known ticketing security infrastructure. A ticket is attached to every message
and identifies the user and either gives to or withholds from that user the author
ity to use the
service.


3.A.21.
What is persistency?

The

Java Persistence API
, sometimes referred to as

JPA
, is a

Java programming
language

framework

managing

relational data

in applications using

Java Platform, Standard
Edition

and

Java Platform,
Enterprise Edition
.


3.A.22.
What are the roles of a skeleton and a stub In CORBA?

CORBA IDL stubs and skeletons serve as the ``glue'' between the client and server
applications, respectively, and the ORB. The transformation between CORBA IDL definitions

and
the target programming language is automated by a CORBA IDL compiler. The use of a compiler
reduces the potential for inconsistencies between client stubs and server skeletons and increases
opportunities for automated compiler optimizations.


3.A.23.
Define IIOP?

IIOP stands for Internet Inter

ORB protocol. The mapping of GIOP to TCP/IP is referred
to as the internet Inter
-
ORB protocol. The interoperable object reference (IOR) is the mechanism
through which objects are accessed through the IIOP and be
tween ORB vendors. The IOR includes
the Orb’s internal object reference, Internet host address, and port numbers. It is managed by the
interoperating Orbs and is not visible to application programmers.


3.A.24. W
hat

is the purpose of a mapping?

The most co
mmon mappings provide synchronous calls, in that the routine returns when
the object operation completes. Additional mappings may be provided to allow a call to be
initiated and control returned to the program. In such cases, additional language
-
specific r
outines
must be provided to synchronize the program’s threads of control with the object invocation.


3.A.25.
What are the design goals of CORBA?


No need to pre
-
determine:



The programming language



The hardware platform



The operating system



The specific ob
ject request broker



The degree of object distribution

Open Architecture:



Language
-
neutral Interface Definition Language (IDL)



Language, platform and location transparent

Objects could act as clients, servers or both

The Object Request Broker (ORB) mediate
s the interaction between client and object







18

3.A.26
.

What is static binding?

Name binding

is the association of objects (data and/or code) with

identifiers
.
[1]

An
identifier bound to an object is said to

reference

that object.


3.A.27
.
What is lat
e Binding?

Late binding
, or

dynamic binding
,
[1]

is a computer programming mechanism in which the
method being called upon an object is looked up by name at runtime.


3.A.28
.

W
hat is

the purpose of IDL in CORBA?

The
Interface Definition Language (IDL)
is a standard language used to define the
interfaces used

by CORBA objects. The IDL specification is responsible for ensuring that data is
properly exchanged between dissimilar languages
.

For example, the IDL long type is a 32
-
bit signed integer quantity, which can map to a C++
long (depending on the platform) or to a Java int. It is the responsibility of the IDL specification
--
and the IDL compilers that implement it
--
to define such data

types in a language
-
independent way.


3.A.29
. What is CORBA? Nov
/Dec. 2012

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard developed by
the Object Management Group (OMG) to provide interoperability among distributed objects.
CORBA is t
he world's leading middleware solution enabling the exchange of information,
independent of hardware platforms, programming languages, and operating systems.

CORBA is essentially a design specification for an Object Request Broker (ORB), where
an ORB prov
ides the mechanism required for distributed objects to communicate with one another,
whether locally or on remote devices, written in different languages, or at different locations on a
network.


3.A.30.

What is the purpose of IDL in CORBA? NOV/Dec. 2012

T
he CORBA Interface Definition Language (IDL) is used to define interfaces to objects in
your network. This chapter introduces the features of CORBA IDL and illustrates the syntax used
to describe interfaces.


The first step in developing a CORBA applicatio
n is to define the interfaces to the objects
required in your distributed system. To define these interfaces, you use CORBA IDL.

IDL allows you to define interfaces to objects without specifying the implementation of
those interfaces. To implement an IDL
interface you must:

1)

Define a Java class that can be accessed through the IDL interface.

2)

Create objects of that class within an Orbix Java server application.


PART


B


3.B.1.
Explain the object

naming concept in detail
.



Principle of naming, composite n
ames



Behavior

requirements for name servers



Documenting name space







19

3.B.
2
.
Explain

the CORBA name service in detail
.



Definition of
structures




Naming

interface



Using CORBA naming



Assessment of CORBA naming


3.B.
3
.
Explain COM monikers in detail
.



Moniker in
terface



Using moniker



Assessment


3.B.
4
.
Explain Java/RMI registry
.



Registry interface



Using
registry



Assessment


3.B.
5
.
Explain the concept of abject trading and hoe CORBA define it
.



Principle of object trading



Service type specification



The trading proce
ss



Constraint definition



Federated traders



CORBA trading service


3.B.
6
.
How to create distributed object explain in detail
.



Client

designers perspective on creation



Server designers perspective on creation



Administrators perspective on creation


3.B.
7
.
H
ow to migrate the distrib
uted object to remote

locations. E
xplain in detail
.



Copy and move operation



Client

designers perspective on creation



Server designers perspective on creation



Administrators perspective on creation



Location and migration transparen
cy


3.B.
8
.
How to delete the distributed object.
Explain

in detail
.



Client

designer’s

perspective on creation



Server
designer’s

perspective on creation



Administrator’s perspective

on creation









20

3.B.
9
.
Write a brief notes on object persistence
.



Introductio
n



Stateful a
n
d stateless objects.



Transparency of persistence


3.B.1
0
.
Explain the persistence state services in detail.



Data stores



Storage types



Storage

homes



Keys



Session


3.B.1
1
.
Explain the persistence state services
used in

CORBA.



Introduction



Persis
tence state service definition language



Implementation of storage home and storage types in PSS


3.B.1
2
.
Explain the persistence state
services architecture.



Architecture components and their
interactions



Generating architecture component


3.B.1
3
.
Explain
the persistence in the file system in detail
.



CORBA
externalization

service



Objects serialization in Java



Structure

storage in COM


3.B.1
4
.
Explain persistence in relational database in detail
.



Mapping objects into tables



Embedded

queries



Relational datab
ase for naming context

3.B.1
5
.
Explain persistence in object database in detail
.



Object definition language



Programming language bindings



Implem
entation




object query language


3.B.1
6
.
E
xplain the security attacks in detail
.



Insecurity

of distributed syste
m



Threads

-

L
eakage, tampering, resource
stealing
, vandalism



Methods of
attacks

-

Masquerading
, eves dropping, request tampering, replaying



Infiltration






21

3.B.1
7
.
Explain encryption in detail
.



Private
Key

encryption



Public key encryption


3.B.1
8
.
Explain the k
ey
distribution

in detail
.



Distribution secret
key




Distribution

public key



N
eed /
Schroder

protocol for public key distribution


3.B.1
9
.
Explain

the higher level security service in detail
.



F
irewall



Authentication



Access

control



Non

reputation



Security

auditing


3.B.
20
.
Explain

the access control in detail
.



Access

control concept



Client

designer’s

perspective on access control



Server
designer’s

perspective on access control



Administrator’s perspective

on access control


3.B.
2
1.
Explain the security ser
vices in object oriented middleware
.



Introduction



Authentication



Access

control



Non

reputation



Auditing


3.B.
22
.
Explain

the concept involved in CORBA
.



Meta
-
object model and Interface Definition



Objects
,
Types



Attributes
,
Operations



Requests
,
Failure handl
ing



Inheritance
,

polymorphism


3.B.
23
.
Draw the architecture of CORBA and explain in detail
.



Introduction



Architecture










22

UNIT



IV

WEB SERVICES


Introduction


XML Web Services standards


Creating Web Services


Extending Web Services


Messaging Protoc
ol


Describing


Discovering


Securing.


PART



A


4.A.1.
What is a business rule?

Information in a database is facts about the real world. Business rules define the structure of
those facts and define how those facts can be processed.

A
Business rule

i
s a statement that defines
or constrains some aspect of the business. It is intended to assert business structure or to control or
influence the behavior of the business. Business rules describe the operations, definitions and
constraints that apply to an
organization.


4.A.2.
What are the five rule patterns in business rule?

The five rul
e patterns of business rule are
:

Constraints
,
List constraints
,
Classification
,
Computation
,
and Enumeration.


4.A.3.
What is connected Architecture in ADO. NET?

The arch
itecture of ADO.net, in which connection must be opened to access the data
retrieved from database is called as connected architecture. Connected architecture was built on the
classes’ connection, command, data reader and transaction.



4.A.4
.
What are the

benefits of .NET?

A
dvantages of .NET:

1)

Maintainability

2)

Deployment

3)

Security

4)

Cross platform
: service
-
oriented Architecture

5)

Interoperation with existing applications

6)

Integration with legal systems

7)

Code management

8)

Robustness

9)

All libraries in one place

10)

Localiza
tion

and
globalization

11)

Less complexity and consistent programming model

12)

Rapid application development

13)

Scalability


4.A.5
.
What is the difference between proxy and stub?

In a nutshell
speaking, the

difference between Dynamic Proxy and Generated Stub is the
implementation of Remote Interface,

since the Remote Interface of Dynamic Proxy is generated
dynamically at runtime.

The Stub of Dynamic Proxy is generated wh
ile
"javax.xml.rpc.Service.getPort()" was executed.






23

4.A.6
.
What are the two classes of programmers
?

Lowly maintenance programmer



a person
who

writes
computer

programs
; a


person who
programs

a device, especially a computer.

Superior new application development programmer

-

A person who analyzes


and designs information
systems and
designs and writes the app
lication programs


for the system
.


4.A.7
.
What are the three roles of component development?

The programmer



who writes reusable components

The assembler



who writes scripts that call the components

The administrato
r



who writes the deployment descriptors and configure the

production system,
.


4.A.8
.
Define use case description
.

It is a description of a task, so the implication of the approach for model
-
driven development is
that you organize the iterations so that

each iteration completes one or more tasks.


4.A.9
.
Define process

The process is a series of activities that delivers something, be it concrete or
abstract, a solid thing or information.

A co
-
ordinated set of actions that produce a business
result, eithe
r within a
single organization or across several.


4.A.10
.
What is the difference between process and activity?


Process

Activity

The process delivers something, usually
some goods or a service
.

Activities can be processes in parallel

A process follows
a plan that defines the
order of the activities
.

Activities can be conditional, that is,
process plans can have path choices.

A process can start another process. The
process may loops back on itself.

Activity can be a process in its own right
or it can b
e a task.


4.A.11
.
List out the processes in business?

The process which is happening in business are p
aying employees
,
p
rocessing


expense claims
,
t
aking on a new employee
, p
aying taxes
,
g
enerating annual
accounts
.


4.A.12
.
List out the categ
ories of information used in business computer
.

Plan objects



Information about the process plans
.

Tracking objects



Information about where an
individual

process has got to in

its
execution
.

Resource objects



Information about the resources
.

Result obj
ects



Information that is a process deliverable
.








24

4.A.13
.
What are the patterns in key decision in business process design?

Single Centralized application



would be to have one application and one

database

Tracking multiple centralized application



wou
ld be to hav
e multiple
applications

Pass through



each application does its job and passes the data to the next application

Copy out/copy in



one application sends data to another application, which


implements its subprocess.


4.A.14
.
What
are the advantages of patterns in business process design?



The information would need to be stored in the database only once and thereafter not have
to be moved anywhere
.



High levels of security and reliability can be achieved in centralized data centers
.


4.A.15
.
What are the seven areas for analysis?

Once the process
-
level design i
s

clarified, the next step is to analyze it. There are seven
areas of analysis like
p
erformance
,
r
esiliency
,
e
rror handling
,
d
ata accuracy
,
t
iming
constraints
,
m
igration
,
and fl
exibility.


4.A.16
.
Write the three approaches for error handling

Error handling

refers to the anticipation, detection, and resolution of
programming,
application, and communications errors. The three approaches for error handling are f
ix what
needs to be

fixed and try again
,
l
eave the whole problem
for manual reconciliation later,
r
evert
to another process


4.A.17
.
What are the forms of flexibility?



You may be able to alter the design to minimize the impact of change
.



Is to consider in building the applic
ation to handle many kinds of products.


4.A.18
.
What is the information to be provided in the integration design?

1.

An identification of which applications need to be written from scratch or

m
odified

2.

The lists and a description of the tasks these applicatio
ns support

3.

A list of which databases need to be designed or modified and which tasks use which
database

4.

An identification of the data that needs to be sent from one application to another


4.A.19
.
What are the areas of analysis?

Analysis encompasses those
tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet
for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting
requirements

of the
various
stakeholders
, such as beneficiaries or users.


Scalability and performance
,
End
-
to
-
end data integrity
,
Security
,
System management
,
Enterprise data consistency
,
Ease of imple
mentation
,
Flexibility for change
,
IT strategy
compliance
.









25

4.A.20
.
What are the advantages of loosely coupled application?

The advantages of loosely coupled application ar
e
:

They are resilient
,
They are scalable
,
They perform well
.


4.A.21
.
Define Integ
ration Design
.

It is a short design task used to identify the elements of a distributed solution and ensure
that the solution hangs together as an integrated whole.


4.A.22
.
What are the processes of design process?

The design is an outline, sketch, or pla
n, as of the form and structure of a work of art, an
edifice, or a machine

to be executed or constructed.

Th
e process of design process are
u
nderstanding the requirements
,
b
rainstorming solutions
,
c
larifying one or more chosen solutions
,
a
nalysis
.


4.A.23
.

What
are the two types of
integration design?



Loosely coupled integration



dependency between the module is less



Tightly coupled integration



dependency between the module is more


4.A.24.
Define XML schema
.

Nov/Dec. 2011

The purpose of an XML Schema is

to define the legal building blocks of an XML document, just
like a DTD.


An XML Schema:



defines elements that can appear in a document



defines attributes that can appear in a document



defines which elements are child elements



defines the order of child e
lements



defines the number of child elements



defines whether an element is empty or can include text



defines data types for elements and attributes



defines default and fixed values for elements and attributes


4.A.25. W
hat is an XML
?



XML stands for EXtensi
ble Markup Language



XML is a markup language much like HTML



XML was designed to carry data, not to display data



XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags



XML is designed to be self
-
descriptive


4.A.26.
What is Delegates?

When an object rec
eives a request, the object can either handle the request itself or pass the
request on to a second object to do the work. If the object decides to pass the request on, you say
that the object has

forwarded

responsibility for handling the request to the se
cond object.







26

4.A.27.
What are the characteristics of entity bean transactions?

Entity beans differ from session beans in several ways. Entity beans are persistent, allow
shared access, and have primary keys.


4.A.28.
Give the code to establish a stateful
session bean object in EJB applications

This section demonstrates a complete example application, including:



home and remote interface code



the bean implementation code



the deployment descriptor



client
-
side code


4.A.29.
What is CTS?

Achieved through into
product ion of Common Type System (CTS
).
CTS, much like Java,
defines

every data type as a Class. Every .NET compliant language must
stick

to this

definition.
Since CTS defines every data type as a class; this means that only Object

Oriented (or Object
-
Bas
ed) languages can achieve .NET compliance.


4.A.30.
Define polymorphism.

Polymorphism is an important

Object oriented concept

and widely used in Java and oth
er
programming language.

Polymorphism in java

is supported along with other concept
like

Abstraction
,

Encapsulation

and

Inheritance
.


4.A.31.
What is an event?

An event generally occurs when something changes within a graphical user interface. If a
user clicks on a button, clicks on a combo box, or types characters into a text

field, etc.. then an
event will trigger.


4.A.31.
Differentiate proxy and stub.

Nov/Dec. 2012


Stub



A routine that doesn't actually do anything other than declare itself

and the parameters it
accepts. Stubs are used commonly as placeholders

for routines t
hat still need to be
developed.



The stub contains just

enough code to allow it to be compiled and linked with the rest of
the

program.

Proxy



A server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser,

and a real server.



It intercepts all reques
ts to the real server to see

if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it
forwards the request

to the real server
.


4.A.32.
Define Frame work.

A

programming

infrastructure created by

Microsoft

for building, deploying, and
running

applications

and services that use

.NET

technologies, such as

desktop

applications
and

Web services
.








27

The .NET Framework contains three major parts:

1.

T
he

Common Language Runtime

2.

T
he

Framework Class Library

3.

ASP.NET
.


4.A.33.
List the bene
fits of NET.

Nov/Dec. 2012



Less Code
.



Reliability



Mobility



Manageability
.

PART


B


4.B.
1. Explain the
creation of web services
.



Roadmap to ASP.NET



Building servers



Example with test page


4.B.
2. Explain the
anatomy of a Web service
.



ASP.NET



HTTP Handlers



HTTP Modules



Process of ASP.NET



ASP.NET Handlers



XML Serializer



SOAP Action


4.B.
3.
Write notes on Building document literal services
.



XML Web Services



SOAP Specification



XML Constructs



XML Serialization



XML Attributes



Purchase Order Response


4.B.
4. Expl
ain
about building document encoded
services
.



Web Service



WSDL



SOAP Specification



Encoded SOAP Message



SOAP Document Method Attribute



ID Property







28

4.B.
5.
Write

short notes on one
-
way services
.



XML
-
Based Message



XML Web Services



One
-
way Operation



One
-
way Me
thod



Requst Message for a one way Operation


4.B.
6.

Write

brief notes on using SOAP headers
.




SOAP Messages



Out
-
of
-
band Information



Authentication Information



Using SOAP Headers



Request Message with
Authentication Headers



A Response Message



Example


4.B.
7.

Write short notes on SOAP fault
.



Sample Code for SOAP Fault with explanation


4.B.
8.
Explain how to extend the Web services.



SOAP extensions



Description formatters



Overriding

proxy class behavior


4.B.
9
. W
rite brief notes on HTTP modules.



SOAP Requests



Si
milar to ISAPI Filters



User Agent


Cool User Agent



Implements the IHTTP Module Interface



Implement Init Function



Call Complete Request Method


4.B.
10. Explain
the remote method calls with SOAP
.



Encoded XML



Remote method calls



Encoding style attribute


4.B
.
11
.
Explain the major goals of WSDL in detail.



Extensibility



Abstraction



Structure








29

4.B.
12
.
Explain the anatomy of WSDL
.



Abstract message operations



Concrete operation information


4.B.
13
.
Explain the anatomy of UDDI in detail
.



Business entity



Business s
ervice



tModel



Programmers API


4.B.
14
.
What is WS
I
nspection
?



Anatomy of WS
-
Inspection



Root Element with Local Name Inspection



Listing Services



Referenced Name Space Attribute



WSDL Document


4.B.
15
.
What is adhoc discovery
?



Description Information



Service
Location



Contact

and
Service API Documentation



Service Classification


4.B.
16
.
Explain the security technologies and
standards

in detail.



Authentication



Confidentiality



Integrity

4.B.
17
.
Explain about encryption in detail
.



Private
Key

encryption



Public key

encryption


4.B.
18
.
Explain the XML encryption in detail
.



Content of an
element



Element and its sub
element



Entire XML document


4.B.
19
.
Explain briefly about the XML signature
.



XML Signature Format

4.B.
20
.
Explain briefly about the WS
-
security.



Security
Token



Claim



Subject



Policy






30

UNIT


V

OTHER TYPES OF MIDDLEWARE


Real
-
time Middleware


RT CORBA


Multimedia Middleware


Reflective Middleware



Agent
-
Based Middleware


RFID Middleware.



PART


A


5.A.1.
What are the factors that influence the overall
design?

The factors the influence the overall design are i
nformation access
,
i
nformation
accuracy
,
s
hared data or controlled redundancy
,
i
ntegration with existing databases


5.A.2.
How the information is processes before loading in to the target system
?

It

can be reformatted



Internal codes can be changed to meaningful text

It can be filtered



Unwanted rows can be thrown out

Data from several

databases can be merged
etc
.,


5.A.3.
What is process improvement?

Process improvement is a
Systematic approach

to
closing

of
process

or

system

performance

gaps

through st
reamlining and
cycle time

reduction
, and identification and elimination of
causes

of
below
specifications

quality
, process
variation
, and non
-
value
-
adding
activities
.
Process
improvement starts by analyzing the dynamics of the busin
ess process



5.A.4.
What are the requirements for information access?

Information access

is the area of study concerned with searching for documents, for
information

within document
s, and for
metadata

about documents, as well as that of searching
relationa
l databases

and the
World Wide Web
.

The requirements are varied
,
t
he requirements are
changed constantly
,
Many of the reporting requirements are reports about business process
es.


5.A.5.
What is the need for information accuracy?

The need for accurate information is consistent across all copies of the data
.
Information

technology

facilitates

a
redistribution

of resources from

technical

services to front of

house'
operations
,

bu
t it
is

suggested that staff who are moved from
technical

services are not always the
most
suitable

for client
-
centered

services
.


5.A.6.
What are the sources of information inaccuracies?

The sources of information inaccuracies are i
nformation is out of da
te
,
i
nformation is
duplicated and you don’t know which
the right version is

and the

i
nformation was input
incorrectly
.


5.A.7.
What are the major problems to overcome in information accuracy?

The major problems to overcome in information accuracy are :
Ho
w do you know you are
talking about the same object?
,
How do you know whether an attribute is the same?
,
If the data for
one attribute of the same object is different in the two databases, what then?






31

5.A.8.
What are the two approaches two keep the data in
common?

Shared data



implies a common database which separate from other databases

Controlled duplication



implies the same data in two or more databases


5.A.9.
What are the three ways to implement shared data?

Remote database access



Database will be
in a remote location

Embedded call on shared data component



In side the database the shared


component will be available

Front
-
end call on shared data component



User interface will make a call to


the shared data component


5.A.
10.
Define controlled duplication
.

It has the same data in two or more databases. That is you can match object in one
database with an object in another

A method by which names and addresses from two or
more lists are matched (usually by computer) in order

to eliminate or limit extra mailings to
the same name and address.


5.A.11.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of controlled duplication?

Advantages:

Better resiliency
,
Better performance

Disadvantages:

The data is slightly out of date
,
The applica
tion is more complex


5.A.12.
What is the basic assumption in creating consistency in existing databases?

The basic assumption is that you want to convert existing
applications that have

data in silos to use either data sharing or controlled duplication of

common data
.


5.A.13.
What are the three problems in creating consistencies?

Technical problem



Step to identify all the code and updates of the data

Data migration problem



ability to migrate applications to use the new
Database

Business process proble
m



no amount of technology will change that


5.A.14.
What are the issues to convert the applications into web

services?

The issues to be considered when

converting the applications into web services are:
What
needs to be done to the existing production co
de
?

Wrapping the old technology with new
,
t
he
impact on the business processes


5.A.15.
What are the steps to convert the applications into services?

The terminal forms
-
handling code and the menu traversal are taken out of the application
,
Security code is

taken out of the application
,
any

remaining session state must be reviewed and if
necessary stored in the database


5.A.16.
Define wrapping

Wrapping is for creating new interfaces for an application by installing some software that
converts the old interf
ace to the new interface
. The technology aspect of taking a mainframe
transaction processing applications giving it an interface to the world of components.






32

5.A.17.
What are the advantages of core server model?

The advantages of core server model are: t
he
core server itself is a stateless server
,
t
ore
process rules are implemented in one place and, once implemented
,
d
ifferent core activities can
be physically located on different servers


5.A.18.
What are the advantages of the reuse model?

It is fast
-
data i
s stored locally for the duration of the
dialogue;

Processes are easier to
change

since you don’t have to ensure that your changes are compatible with the core process
implementation.


5.A.19.
What are disadvantages of reuse model?

Processes are easier to
change
,
It is impossible to mix presentation modes in business
process, It

may hard to reuse components and modules

because different presentation servers may
be using different technology.


5.A.20.
What are the benefits of RPC?

The use of components helps

reuse in the server
,
the

use of object interfaces may simplify
the client code
,
the use of distributed transactional processing makes it possible to call many
operations in one transaction,
TCM software has performance features

like connection pooling etc


5.A.21.
What do you meant by I Dispatch?

I Dispatch

is the

interface

that exposes the

OLE Automation

protocol.
[1]

It is one of the standard
interfaces that can be exposed by

COM

objects. COM distinguishes between three interface
types:

custom

that are VTABLE
-
based I Unknown interfaces,

dispatch

that are I Dispatch
interfaces supporting introspection, and

dual

interfaces supporting both types.


5.A.2
2.

What
do you mean by Unmanageable Code?

To simplify, unmanageable let's say we have a team that has set up the formatting, naming and
other style rules beforehand. Will it save from ugly
code?
No (but it undoubtedly helps). And so
we have a group of professional
s who have agreed on what a good code is, looking at the bad code
they wrote.


5.A.
2
3.
Define Moniker.

A moniker is an

object

(or

component

) in Microsoft's Component Object Model (

COM

) that
refers to a specific

instance

of another object. Monikers o
riginated in Microsoft's Object Linking
and Embedding (

OLE

) technology as a means of linking objects.

PART


B


5.B.
1.
Write

notes on real
-
time middleware.



Introduction



Data distribution se
rvice



Routing service



Database integration service



Microsoft excel






33



Persistence service



Monitor, Analyzer, Recording and Replay


5.B.
2.
Discuss briefly about RT CORBA
.



Introduction



Basic real
-
time Architecture



Threads



Scheduling and resource Management



Prio
rity Mapping



Real
-
time

ORB



Exceptions


5.B.
3
. Write notes in multimedia middleware
.



Introduction



How it works



Advantages



Specification


5.B.
4.
Explain the concepts involves in reflective middleware.



Basic reflection technology



What is reflective
middleware
?



Importance of reflective middleware



Principles of reflective middleware



Dynamic TAO and



Open ORB


5.B.
5.
Write notes on Agent
-
based middleware.



Introduction



Agent
-
interaction

interface



Common message structure



Agent
-
interaction

protocol



What are Agents?



Properties of Agents



Agent
-
based middleware


5.B.
6.
Discuss briefly about RFID middleware.



Introduction



Application

requirements



Constraints impose by the characteristics of RFID



RFID middleware



RFID middleware functionality



Difficulties and Risk



Advantag
es of RFID middleware