What is Biotechnology?

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NDSU

Extension

What is Biotechnology?


Phil McClean

Department of Plant Science

North Dakota State University

Biology 600

Biotechnology: Principles and Products

Delivered Live and via Videoconference

June 1
-
2, 2005

NDSU

Extension

The Latest Biotech News

ND GMO Planting Decisions (Winter 2005)




New law enacted during 2005 legislative session



Only the ND state government has the authority to ban


plantings of GMO crops



Response to laws passed at county level in other states

EU Approving GMO
-
free Zones (May 2005)



European Union GMO regulations permit regions



to declare themselves GMO



Otherwise approved GMO products can be grown



162 regions or provinces (=US states) have asked to be


GMO free



4500 total government units have made the request

NDSU

Extension

NDSU

Extension

What is Biotechnology
?

How about some definitions

General Definition

The application of technology to
improve


a biological organism


Detailed Definition

The application of the technology
to modify



the biological function

of an organism


by
adding genes from another organisms

NDSU

Extension



An organism showing a
novel

trait not normally found
in the species

What is the Result of Biotechnology
?


Extended shelf
-
life tomato


(FlavrSavr Tomato)

Herbicide resistant soybean


(Roundup Ready Soybean)

NDSU

Extension

Biotechnology Terms You Probably Heard

Transgene



the foreign gene added to a species

Ex
.


modified EPSP synthase gene (encodes a protein that

functions even when plant treated with Roundup)

Transgenic



an organism containing a transgene introduced
by technological (not breeding) methods


Ex
.


Roundup Ready Crops


NDSU

Extension

Biotechnology Develops

GMOs
-

Genetically modified organisms




GMO

-

an organism that expresses traits that result


from the introduction of foreign DNA




Also called
transgenic organism

NDSU

Extension

Important Terms




Breeding



Transformation

Source: USDA

Source: USDA



Beneficial gene added from the
same species



Gene delivered by
mating within the species



Beneficial gene added from
another species



Gene delivered by
plant genetic engineering

NDSU

Extension

Let’s Be Up Front




Breeding


䉩潴B捨湯汯杹



Breeding only exchanges genes found in the species



Breeding can transfer the transgene to other breeding materials



BUT

it is not the same as biotechnology




Biotechnology adds traits

not available in the species



Soybean does not have a gene to breakdown Roundup



The gene comes from bacteria


NDSU

Extension

Wheat

Rye

Triticale

X

Interspecific Cross

New species, but


NOT biotechnology


products

NDSU

Extension

ATTCGA

ATT
G
GA

Susceptible

Normal

Gene

Resistant

Mutant

Gene

Mutagenesis

Treatment

Mutagenesis: New Trait, No Foreign Gene



Mutagenesis

changes the sequence of a gene



New, useful traits can be obtained

NDSU

Extension

BASF Clearfield Products

Herbicide resistance


imidazolinones

Mutant AHAS enzyme


developed by mutagenesis

Crops



Canola, Corn, Rice, Sunflower, Wheat

In US



Not considered GMOs by USDA regulators



A
Major

marketing advantage



When some stacked with GMOs, the advantage lost

Mutagenesis Crops

NDSU

Extension

The Crop Biotech Market Is Dominated

By Five Countries
a

58.8%/118 ma

(63%/106 ma)

Top Five Countries = 96% of market

20 % increase in biotech acreage from 2003

a
2004 growing season data
.
http://www.isaaa.org/Press_release/Briefs30
-
2003/press/b30_english.htm

2003 in parentheses.

6.7%/13 ma

(6.0%/10 ma)

20.0%/40 ma

(21%/36 ma)

6.2%/12 ma

(3%/7 ma)

4.6%/9 ma

(3%/7 ma)

NDSU

Extension

Crop Biotechnology Grew Worldwide

In 2004



200 million acres (20% growth)



8.3 million farmers (18% growth)



17 mega
-
producing countries (>120,000 acres)



Up from 16 countries in 2003



US, Argentina, Canada, Brazil, China, Paraguay, India


South Africa, Uruguay, Australia, Romania, Mexico,


Spain, Philippines, Colombia, Honduras, Germany



Germany new in 2004

Historically, biotechnology is the most rapidly

adopted new agricultural technology

NDSU

Extension

Soybean
: 120.0 million acres (17% annual growth)



Corn
: 30.6 million acres (25% annual growth)



Canola
: 16.8 million acres (12 % annual growth)

Biotechnology Crops:

Worldwide Acreage 2004


NDSU

Extension

Economic Effect of Bt Cotton

In China



$200/acre increase in income



$750 million increase nationally

NDSU

Extension

Benefits to Hungarian Farmers


Trait

Total
benefit

Farmer
realized

Industry
realized

Bt corn (european cornborer


3 mill

76%

24%

Bt corn (Western corn rootworm)

16 mill

65%

35%

Herbicide tolerant maize

14 mill

73%

27%

Herbicide tolerant sugarbeet


3 mill

50%

50%

From:

Demont et al. 2005. Potential impact of biotechnology in eastern Europe: transgenic maize, sugar beet, and

oilseed rape in Hungary.

NDSU

Extension

Transgenic Crops Increasing In the US
a

Crop
(% total acreage)

Soybean
b

Corn
c

Canola
d

Year

US

ND

SD

US

ND

SD

US

ND

SD

2001

68

49

80

26

25

48

61

75

-

2002

74

50

86

32

18

65

64

80

-

2003

81

74

91

40

-

75

-

-

-

a
Source
: NASS Planting Reports, 2001, 2002.

b
2002 US acreage = 73 million; ND acreage = 2.6 million

c
2002 US acreage = 79 million; ND acreage = 1.2 million

d
2002 US acreage = 1.6 million; ND acreage = 1.3 million

NDSU

Extension

Impact of Transgenics on

Major Crop Production

Soybean




86


56


55


Cotton





32


28


21


Canola



23


19


16


Maize



140


14


11

Ha 2004

%

2004

%

2003

Transgenic versions of the big four crops

are grown on 30% of their acreage

NDSU

Extension

Impact of Transgenics on

Worldwide Crop Production

Transgenic crops are grown on
5%

of the
3.7

billion acres of cultivated land in the world

NDSU

Extension

Location
a

Arthur, Grandin,
Northwood

Wyndmere, Mooreton,

Great Bend

Soybean type

Ave.Bu/A

% Yield

Ave. Bu/A

% Yield

Conventional

46.6 (27)
b

91 %

45.5 (26)

100 %

Roundup Ready

51.5 (78)

100 %

44.1 (80)

97 %

a
Data collected by Dr. Ted Helms, NDSU

b
# of varieties in trial in parenthesis

Roundup Ready Soybean

No Yield Drag or
(
Advantage
)

North Dakota 2002 Data

NDSU

Extension

Roundup Ready Soybean

Reduces Expenses
a



Soybean type

Herbicide cost

(per acre)

Conventional

$27.65

Roundup Ready

$15.90

a
Data provided by Dr. Duane Burgland, NDSU.

NDSU

Extension

Biotech Crops Can Be Environmentally

(and Yield) Friendly

Table 1.
Cotton yield and insecticide results from a large (157 sites) trial
in India during 2001.


*Means within a row are significantly different at the 5% level

From: Science (2003) 299:900

NDSU

Extension

Agriculture Products On the Market

Source: USDA


Insect resistant cotton

Insect resistant corn

Normal

Transgenic



Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm



toxin gene from a
bacteria



Bt toxin kills the European corn borer



toxin gene from a
bacteria



Rootworm GM approved (2/26/03)


NDSU

Extension

Virus resistance

Source: Monsanto

Herbicide resistant crops



current
: soybean, corn, canola



coming
: sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry,


alfalfa, potato, wheat (
on hold
)



resistance gene from
bacteria



papaya, squash, potato



resistance gene from a
virus

NDSU

Extension

Biotech chymosin

Source: Rent Mother Nature

Source: Chr. Hansen

Bacterial and Animal Biotechnology Products



enzyme used to curdle milk products



gene from
yeast



harvested from GE bacteria



replaces the calf enzyme



increases milk production



gene from
cow



protein harvested from GE bacteria



replaces cow protein originally


harvested from pituitary glands


of slaughtered cows

bST

(bovine somatotropin)

NDSU

Extension

Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products

Source: Minnesota

Microscopy Society

Golden Rice

Sunflower



Increased Vitamin A content



Transgenes from bacteria and daffidol



Controversory: large amount needed to


solve problem



White mold resistance



Resistance gene from wheat

NDSU

Extension

Turfgrass

Bio Steel




Herbicide resistance



Slower growing


reduced mowing = reduced pollution



Spider silk strongest known protein



Protein expressed in goat milk



Protein used to make soft
-
body,


bullet proof vests (Nexia)


NDSU

Extension

Field Testing Permits Tell Us What is Coming

Field Trial Data: Jan 2001


Today (n=2540)

2001
-
03 data; collated from
: Information Systems for Biotechnology


(http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

Organization

# 2002
-
03 trials (%)

Monsanto

1480 (58%)

Universities



329 (13%)

Scotts


84 (3%)

Aventis


78 (3%)

Sygenta


69 (3%)

Dow


63 (2%)

USDA/ARS


60 (2%)

Prodigene


25 (1%)

NDSU

Extension

HA #1

1,437 (17)

PR #3

1,063 (13)

Where Are the GM Crops Tested in the US?

IL #2

1,292 (16)

IA #4

1,022 (12)

CA #5

990 (12)

ND #23

230 (3)

Data: 1993
-
present: State rank, # trials, % total trials

Information Systems for Biotechnology (http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

NDSU

Extension

Corn is the Current Main Focus

2001
-
03 data; collated from
: Information Systems for Biotechnology


(http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

Crop

# 2002
-
03 Trials (%)

Corn

1424 (56%)

Cotton

193 (8%)

Rice

146 (6%)

Wheat

141 (6%)

Soybean

124 (5%)

Alfalfa

121 (5%)

Turfgrass


89 (4%)

NDSU

Extension

The Traditional Traits Predominant

2001
-
03 data; collated from
: Information Systems for Biotechnology


(http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

Trait

# 2002
-
03 Trials (%)

Insect resistance

791 (31%)

Herbicide resistance

736 (29%)

Plant quality


400 (16%)

Pathogen resistance

171 (7%)

NDSU

Extension

But Some Novel Traits Are Being Tested

2001
-
03 data; collated from
: Information Systems for Biotechnology


(http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

Trait

# 2002
-
03 Trials (%)

Yield

105 (4%)

Amino acid content


94 (4%)

Sugar content


44 (2%)

Oil content


42 (2%)

NDSU

Extension

What’s Coming for Wheat??

2001
-
03 data; collated from
: Information Systems for Biotechnology


(http://www.isb.vt.edu/)

Trait

% 2002
-
03 Wheat Trials

Roundup Ready

57%

Protein content

10%

Yield


8%

Fusarium resistance


8%

NDSU

Extension

Some Ag Biotech Products Are Discontinued

Poor Quality



FlavrSavr

tomatoes (Calgene)


Negative Consumer Response



Tomato paste (Zeneca)


Negative Corporate Response



NewLeaf (Monsanto)


Universal Negative Publicity



StarLink corn (Aventis)


Why???

NDSU

Extension

Environmental Applications


Bioremediation

Indicator bacteria



cleanup contaminated sites



uses microbes designed to degrade


the pollutant



contamination is detected in the environment



microbes sensitive to certain pollutants

NDSU

Extension

Land Mine Detection


Without this effort,


that is dangerous to our military,


children are

maimed.

NDSU

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Land Mine Detection


How biotechnology helps



Patented transgene added to plants



When metal from mine is detected



Plant turns from green to red



Technology developed by
Aresa Biodetection

Mine detected

NDSU

Extension

Biotechnology and Health

Product

Use

Insulin

Diabetes

Interferon

Cancer

Interleukin

Cancer

Human growth hormone

Dwarfism

Neuroactive proteins

Pain

NDSU

Extension

What is Biopharming
?

Biopharming Definition

Growing transgenic crops that express


pharmaceutical products


Examples:


Drugs

Antibodies

Proteins

NDSU

Extension

Familiar Production Systems

Why use this technology?



Genes introduced into field crops (
mostly corn
)



New productions systems not needed



Producer can use traditional growing strategies


Reduced End
-
Product Cost



Animal system: $1000
-

$5000 per gram protein



Plant System: $1
-

$10 per gram protein




Source
: The Roanoke Times, 2000

NDSU

Extension

Edible Vaccines


A Biopharming Dream

Biotech Plants Serving Human Health Needs



A pathogen protein gene is cloned



Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato)



Humans eat the plant



The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein



Human are
“immunized”

against the pathogen



Examples:


Diarrhea


Hepatitis B


Measles

NDSU

Extension

Tooth decay

Future Health
-
related Biotech Products

Vaccines



Herpes



hepatitis C



AIDS



malaria



Streptococcus mutans
, the mouth bacteria



releases lactic acid that destroys enamel



engineered
Streptococcus mutans


does not release lactic acid


destroys the tooth decay strain

NDSU

Extension

Nutritional Genomics

(Nutrigenomics: a coming

Biotechnology innovation)


Concepts of Nutrigenomics


Certain diets can cause severe health risks in individuals



Refined sugars, dairy products, fatty foods


Certain diets enhance disease susceptibility in individual’s

with a specific genetic makeup



Diabetes, lactose intolerance, high cholesterol


Diets based on an individuals genetic makeup are preferred



No refined sugars, minimal dairy products


or fatty foods

NDSU

Extension

Nutritional Genomics

(Nutrigenomics)


Goal of Nurtigenomics


Identify specific genetic makeups



What combination of genes places a person at risk?


Develop dietary recommendations



What diets are best suited for certain at
-
risk individuals?

NDSU

Extension

Top Biotechnologies

In The Future


Molecular Diagnostics



Treatments exist, but diagnositic tools are lacking



Expensive, hard to implement



Cost effective diagnostic procedures needed


Recombinant Vaccines



Vaccines have effectively eradicated small pox, polio, etc



Other diseases need to be addressed



More effective and low
-
cost vaccines are needed



Genetic engineering can solve these problems

NDSU

Extension

Vaccine and drug delivery



Vaccine injections can cause serious infection



New delivery forms, such as slow release drugs, are needed


Bioremediation



Water, air, and soil pollution is a problem



Plants can breakdown much of these pollutants



Plants that are safe to the environment and reduce pollutants


are needed

Top Biotechnologies

In The Future


NDSU

Extension

Female Controlled Protection Against STDs



Incidence of sexually
-
transmitted disease is high



Women are most affected



Vaginal microbicides needed



Topical application best solution

Top Biotechnologies

In The Future


Nutritionally Enriched Crops



Malnutrition is widespread



Malnutrition is associated with many diseases



Modification of staple crops necessary


to solve the problem

NDSU

Extension

Answers

depends upon
your perspective

on the value

of the technology


What will support your opinion?




Economics



Safety of products



Needs of human

The Question for the Future:

Should We Live A Biotech Free Lifestyle??