The Plant World and Genetic Engineering

gooseliverΒιοτεχνολογία

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

105 εμφανίσεις

The Plant World

and

Genetic Engineering

Jana Klose, Greg Lampard

UBC Biotechnology Laboratory


Part I

Transgenic Plants


Biotechnology in the past


making bread and cheese, brewing beer


crossbreeding plants

What Is Biotechnology?


Harnessing the natural biological processes
of living systems for the benefit of mankind


Modern biotechnology


genetic engineering

Genetic Engineering


The process of manipulating and transferring
instructions carried by genes from one cell to
another

Why do scientists want to change gene
instructions?


to produce needed chemicals


to carry out useful processes


to give an organism desired characteristics

DNA IS
EVERYWHERE


Genes

=

the coding system for instructions


A gene

=

is a segment of
DNA

Guanine

(G)

Cytosine

(C)

Adenine

(A)

Thymine

(T)

bases

DNA

DNA and Genes

gene

Genes and Proteins

Gene

(a piece of DNA)

trait

protein

translation

mRNA

transcription

Restriction enzymes

As
biological
scissors

Plant Genetic Engineering

Transgenic Plants


the product
of plant genetic engineering

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)


the label
for transgenic plants

Genetically Engineered Organism (GEO)

Plant Genetic Engineering Process

Cell

Extracted DNA

Cell division

Transgenic plant

A single
gene

Transformation

Plant cell

How are Transgenic Plants
Produced?


Agrobacterium tumefaciens


Gene Gun / Biolistics


Electroporation

Commonly Used Methods:

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Ti plasmid

Agrobacterium

Genomic DNA

Plant cell

Genomic DNA
(carries
the gene of
interest
)

+

Ti plasmid with the gene of interest

Gene of
interest

Empty
plasmid

Restriction
enzyme
A

Restriction
enzyme
A

Agrobacterium

Ti plasmid with
the new gene

Plant cell

cell’s
DNA

Transgenic plant

Cell division

The new
gene

+

Transformation

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

“Gene Gun” Technique

DNA coated
golden particles

Gene gun

Cell division

A plant cell with

the new gene

Transgenic plant

Plant cell

Cell’s DNA

Duracell

DNA containing

the gene of interest

Plant cell

Protoplast

Electroporation
Technique

Power supply

DNA inside the
plant cell

The plant cell with

the new gene

Next Generation of Transgenic
Crops


Plant
-
based vaccines


Enhanced nutritional content


Functional foods and phytoceuticals


Transgenic plants for phytoremediation



Plant
-
derived plastics and polymers