Plant Propagation Techniques

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William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Plant Propagation
Techniques

A Lesson Plan for

10
th
/11
th

Grade Biology

Borderlinks Presentation

May 30, 2002


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William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Introduction


All plants are living organisms.


Man depends on plants for many
purposes:


Basic to all mankind is the need
for food and fiber production.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Introduction, cont.


Most of the world has a diet that is high
in fruits and vegetables.





To a lesser extent, the
protein portion of a typical
diet is supplied by meat.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Intent of Lesson

To discuss methods of
propagating plants for the
purpose of food and/or fiber
production.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Definitions

What is Propagation?

Reproduction and growth in
plants


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Why Propagation?


To Understand, Know the History

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

History of Plant Propagation


In nomadic times, man would
move from place to place. He
harvested plants or hunted
animals that he encountered
along the way.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS


Quite by accident, someone would drop
some seeds, probably from refuse, in a spot
that provided the requirements for plant
growth.


adequate moisture


fertile soil


temperature


protection from the elements.



Later in the season or year, on a return trip,
someone would notice that plants were
growing, and then harvest the fruits, seeds,
and/or foliage.


An Accident?!?!

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Propagating and cultivating
begins


Man could now provide for himself
without the need for constant
movement.


Less movement meant less danger to
the clan and a steady supply of nutrient
materials.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

In the beginning…

Man became the crudest of farmers.

As time passed, man
had the need to
increase the amount of
materials produced.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Development of Society

As society developed man moved
from the
agricultural age







to the industrial age.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Moving Populous


As mankind moved from the
country

to the
city
, so too did
the need for

greater production
of foodstuffs
.



William L. Love, Calipatria HS

The Agricultural Age

Majority of population lived in the country


During the time of the agricultural age, fully
one
-
third of a farms production went to:


supplying the needs of the farmer


his family


farm workers, and


maintenance of the animals that were used to
produce the food.

We have always assumed that production from the
farm was sold, for use off of the farm.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Population moved from the country to the cities.


Population levels increased.

Need for higher production yields increased
dramatically with the increased population.


This was enhanced by a
global economy
.

Food and fiber was exported to countries that were
technologically incapable of producing for
themselves.

Industrial Age

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

In the beginning of the century a typical
American Farmer produced enough
food for himself and 7 other people.

Who is the Typical American
Farmer?

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

At the close of the century the
ratio had increased to 1
farmer for every 500+ people.


In addition to the numbers being fed
increasing;

the number of farmers
decreased
.


1990 census, the number of farmers
was reported as an
insignificant
percentage of the population

(less
than 2%).


Less Than 100 Years Later

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Today , all over the world….

Yet all of the United
States and many
foreign people
depend on the US
farmer as their
source of food and
fibers.



William L. Love, Calipatria HS

The producer.


The goal of every producer: increased
production

Who Recognized this?

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Mother Nature and Plant
Production

Generally, man has depended on Mother
Nature to supply the means for plant
production.

However, with an increased population
and a declining number of producers,
Mother Nature needs a helping hand.

The birth of biotechnology!!!

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Plant Production

You place a seed in the ground

nurture it and in a short time…



a plant can produce fruits,
seeds or fibers.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Along the way, man
developed different methods
to help Mother Nature…

Grafting techniques
-

a method of
producing plants that are difficult to
grow from seeds or as the method of
inventing new or better plants.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Grafting is Biotechnology!


Grafting of a tomato plant.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Grafting


In grafting a live plant is cut in such a way to
allow the implanting of live tissue from
another plant. This in essence, creates a
new plant that has desirable effects greater
than either of the donor plants.


An example is the Walnut Tree, a cross
between a Black Walnut and an English
Walnut.


Nectarines are another example.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Biotechnology progresses

With the
discovery of
the DNA
molecule man
has been able
to invent a
new method
of producing
superior
plants.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering is the manipulation of
the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule to
change the traits that are expressed by the
molecule in an organism.


The manipulation involves the “cutting” of the
molecule and “inserting” another portion of a
DNA.


All of this is possible due to the identification
of parts of the DNA molecule and the traits
that each portion produce.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Cloning

This method is cloning. Cloning
produces, what some would call, “super
plants”.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

What is a “Super Plant?”

Plants that are genetically
identical to its predecessors.


Plants are selected


based on the most


desirable characteristics


such as

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Super plants advantages


Higher yields


Resistance to diseases


Pest resistance


Drought tolerance


Heat tolerance

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Super plants disadvantages


Decrease in the gene pool


Allergies of man to altered plant genetics


Some of the disadvantages are not
proven and can only be speculated

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Standards Addressed

Tenth/eleventh

Grade Science:

Focus on Genetic engineering
and the application to
industry and agriculture

(4) c.
Students know

how genetic
engineering (biotechnology) is
used to produce novel biomedical
and agricultural products


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Standards, cont.

Plant and Soil Science Career Path Cluster

3.14
Students will understand

the principles of
biotechnology in relation to plant protection and
improvement.

3.14.1 Demonstrate an understanding of micro
propagation and genetic engineering.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

3.15
Students will understand

the use of
technology in plant production.

3.15.1 Describe how changes in technology affect
plant production and management.

3.15.2 Describe the ways to keep informed about
advancements in technology that affect plant and
soil science.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Instructional Objectives


Students will be able to identify lab
equipment to be used throughout this
activity.


Student will be able


identify the


advantages and


disadvantages of


super plants.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Instructional Objectives


student will be able to identify
advantages and disadvantages of super
plants.


Student will be able to work in the
laboratory settings with confidence and
success.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Student Activities


Introductory Activity


Review
Safety Precautions

in the laboratory. Not
following safety procedures can have bad effects.


Identification of materials and tools.


Safety concerns when working with biological
materials


Health concerns


Environmental concerns

Proper disposal is important



Understand basic chemical properties of biological
materials.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Enabling Activity


Follow step
-
by
-
step process for setting up
exercise on an individual basis.


Record observations.


Sterilize area to work in.


Prepare receptacle for placing collected
tissue with nutrient agar.


Collect tissue from donor plant.


Implant tissue


Cover and place in appropriate growth
chamber.


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Culminating Activity


Check speciums on a regular basis.


Record observations.


Check pH and CO
2

levels, make
adjustments if necessary.


Submit reports as required.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Assessment


Lab Report


Lab No. ____


Underline

or highlight all questions (5)


Report is written in blue or black ink (5)


Data table is neat and complete (5)


Data table in filled in accurately (10)


Correctly answer all questions (15)


All illustrations are labeled correctly (5)


Overall neatness (5)


Total Possible Points (50)


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Assessments
-

classroom


Throughout the unit of instruction there are
a series of quizzes and tests.


Included is a safety test. The safety test
must be passed with a 90% or better score
and if not passed is retaken until passed.
All safety tests are kept on file in the
student data folder.


Tests are combinations of True
-
False,
Multiple Choice, and Short Answer.

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Textbooks


Plants from Test Tubes

An introduction to micro propagation 3
rd

edition.
Kyte, Lydiane and Kleyn, John. Timber Press,
Portland. Oregon. 1996. ISBN 0
-
18892
-
361
-
3.


Biology The Web of Life

2
nd

edition. Strauss, Eric and Lisowski, Marylin.
Scott Foresman


Addison Wesley
Publishers. 2000. ISBN 0
-


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Web Resources

Biotechnology Terms Dictionary

http://www.ncbiotech.org/aboutbt/glossary.cfm


The Amazing DNA Molecule: Its History,
Structure and Function


by Monique Yvonne Gisser

Http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1999
/5/99.05.02.x.html#c


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

How Cloning Works

by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.

http://www.howstuffworks.com/cloning1.htm


An Overview of LifeLine
TM

Products for Plant
Tissue

Culture

http://www.osmotek.com/LifeRaftDescription.ht
ml


Chapter 38: Plant Propagation and
Development, Power point 36
-
37
-
38
-
39

http://205.187.104.8/users/thiele/web/apbio/not
es/plants2/chp38_rev.html


William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Learning Objectives for General Biology II


http://www.sau.edu/biology/gb2ob1.htm#38


Agricultural Biotechnology: Principles of Plant
Science, Tissue Culturing and Genetic
Engineering


http://agbiotech.tamu.edu/ag_bio_teks.html


Web Resources, cont’d

William L. Love, Calipatria HS

Goals for Next Review