Plant Propagation

gooseliverΒιοτεχνολογία

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

108 εμφανίσεις

Plant Propagation

18.00: Apply different methods
of plant propagation as related
to horticultural plant production

Propagation


The multiplication of a kind or species.


Reproduction of a species.

Sexual Propagation


Propagation from seeds.


Pollen is transferred from the anther to
the stigma.


Fertilization occurs and seeds are
produced.

Germination Rates


Percent of seeds that sprout


75 out of 100=75%


Rate is affected by seed viability,
temperature and moisture.


Rates vary depending on plant and
quality of seed.


Seeds


Plant depth depends on the size of
seeds


larger seeds are planted deeper


water small seeds from bottom by soaking

Embryo

Endosperm

Seed Coat

Seedlings (small plants)


Transplant when first true leaves appear


Reduce humidity and water and make
environment more like outside to
“harden off” plants

Seeds to Seedlings

Advantages of Sexual
Reproduction


Fast way to get many plants


Easy to do


Economical

Disadvantages of Sexual
Reproduction


Some plants, especially hybrids, do not
reproduce true to parents


Some plants are difficult to propagate
from seeds

Asexual Reproduction


Uses growing plant parts other than
seeds


Types of asexual reproduction:


cuttings


layering


division or separation


budding


grafting


tissue culture

Rooting from Cuttings


Rooting media should be about 4 inches
deep


Best time of day is early mornings
because plants have more moisture


Types of cuttings:


stem


leaf


root


Stem Cuttings


Using a small piece of stem to
reproduce plants


using hormones and dipping in
fungicides help speed up rooting

Leaf cuttings


Using small pieces of leaves to
reproduce new plants


from herbaceous plants


vein must be cut

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 1

Gather all materials needed

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 2

Cut 3 to 4 inch shoot from
stem tip

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 3

Remove lower leaves from the
shoot

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 4

Dip cut surface in rooting
hormone

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 5

Thoroughly moisten rooting
medium

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 6

Stick one or more cuttings in
rooting media

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 7

Cover with plastic wrap or place on
a mist bench in a warm area away
from direct sunlight.

Stem Cuttings
-
Step 8

Once rooted, cuttings can be
separated carefully and
transplanted

Root Cuttings


Using small pieces of roots to reproduce
plants


should be three inches apart in rooting
area

Layering


Scarring a small area of stem to
produce new plants


air layering


trench layering

Trench Layering

Division or Separation


Cutting or pulling apart plant structures
for reproduction


bulbs


corms


rhizomes


tubers


runners


stolons


suckers

Bulbs

Grafting


Joining separate plant parts together so
that they form a union and grow
together to make one plant.

Wedge
Graft

Approach
Graft

Grafting Terms


Scion
-
the piece of plant at the top of the
graft


Rootstock
-
the piece of the plant at the
root or bottom of the graft

Methods of Grafting


If the scion and rootstock are the same
size


wedge


splice


whip and tongue


approach


If the scion is smaller than the rootstock


cleft


side


notch


bark inlay

Methods of Grafting

Budding


A form of grafting when a bud is used


patch budding


T
-
budding


Chip Budding

Chip
Budding

How to perform T
-
budding

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Tissue Culture


Using a small amount of plant tissue to
grow in a sterile environment


The most plants in a short time


True to parent plant

Advantages of Asexual
Production


Plants mature in a shorter time


Budding is faster than grafting


In trench layering, a plant forms at each
node on a covered stem


Some plants do not produce viable seed


New plants are the same as the parent
plant

Disadvantages of Asexual
Reproduction


Some require special equipment and
skills, such as grafting


Cuttings detach plant parts from water
and nutrient source


Some plants are patented making
propagation illegal

The Uses of Biotechnology in
Horticulture

What is Biotechnology?


The use of cells or components (parts)
of cells to produce products or
processes

Methods


Tissue culture or micropropagation


Cloning


Genetic Engineering


Tissue Culture


Uses terminal shoots or leaf buds in a
sterile or aseptic environment on agar
gel or other nutrient
-
growing media to
produce thousands of identical plants

Cloning


Genetically generating offspring from
non
-
sexual tissue

Genetic Engineering


Movement of genetic information in the
form of genes from one cell to another
cell to modify or change the genetic
make
-
up

Benefits of Biotechnology


Produce many identical plants in a short
time


Increase disease and insect resistance


Increase tolerance to heat and cold


Increase weed tolerance


Increase tolerance to drought


Improve environment


Increase production


Other genetic changes

Benefits of Biotechnology