Introduction to Biotechnology

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 17 μέρες)

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1.
What do you think biotechnology is and
how does this industry impact our lives?


Introduction to
Biotechnology

Biotechnology

is the use of living systems
and organisms to make products for a
specific use.


Biotechnology
companies and institutions
apply what we know about cells,
genetics, and development to make
products such as drugs, foods, and fuels.

Applications of Biotechnology


Analyzing human DNA


Finding and Identifying genetic diseases


DNA fingerprinting


Forensics/Crime Solving


Cloning Plants and Animals


Creating new combinations of genes in
organisms to increase our food supply
(Genetically Modified Organisms)


Facilitating Pregnancy (In vitro fertilization)


Stem Cell Therapy



Stem Cells


One area of
biotechnology includes
the research of
stem
cells.


Stem cells

are cells that
can
differentiate

into a
variety of cell types


Stem cells are
pluripotent
, which
means they can
develop into any type
of tissue in the body.

Stem Cells


Stem cells are used for
a variety of
applications including:

-
Regenerative Medicine
(Replacing diseased or
damaged tissue in
patients with cancer,
Parkinson’s disease,
spinal cord injuries,
etc.)

-
Used to test the safety of
drugs




Genetic Engineering


Definition: introducing a set of genetic
information directly into an organisms DNA


How is this done?


With use of restriction enzymes

Recall…


What defines function of a protein?


SHAPE

DEFINES FUNCTION!!


The most major class of proteins are enzymes


Enzymes work like pieces of a puzzle…each is
specifically shaped for whatever molecule it
acts on

Restriction Enzymes


Proteins originally
made to protect
against viruses


RE’s chop DNA at
specific
sequences called
recognition sites

Which will produce
blunt ends and
which will produce
sticky ends?

The “Ends”


Two types of RE cuts…


“Sticky” ends leave exposed bases ready to hydrogen
bond


“Blunt” ends leave NO bases exposed


DNA ligase joins “the ends” of cut DNA together

DNA Recombination


DNA fragments cannot function all by
themselves


They must become a part of the genetic
material of LIVING cells before the genes
they contain can be activated


DNA fragments + DNA from a living cell =
Recombinant DNA

Plasmids


Circular double
-
stranded DNA (bacterial)


Used in biotechnology because they are
circular, small, and replicate on their own


Useful for creating recombinant DNA

Back to Genetic Engineering:

Creating Recombinant DNA

Steps: using insulin (for sufferers of diabetes) as
an example


a) Cut open
plasmid

and
DNA with
gene encoding for insulin

with same RE


b) Mix cut
plasmid

with cut
DNA

(they
have the same
sticky

ends)


c) Seal with
ligase


d) Insert recombinant DNA into bacteria


e) Recombinant DNA replicates and
bacteria divides


f) DNA is transcribed and translated =
insulin

Engineering New Organisms


Transgenic
Organisms:


Organisms that
contain “foreign”
DNA are termed
transgenic


May be bacteria,
plants, or animals

This All Involves One Thing…


DNA Sequencing
:
reading or
identifying the
sequence of bases
along the length of
a DNA molecule
AND understanding
what that
sequence codes
for…