Genetic Engineering - Strogen

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Biotechnology

The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell
components to make a product:



Foods



Vaccines



Antibiotics



Vitamins



Biodegradation

Genetic Engineering


Manipulating an organism’s
genome to:


alter microbes, plants, and animals
for our benefit


correct genetic defects in humans

Ex: Golden Rice


Created to provide
people with Vitamin A


Developed to help the
very poor

Ex: Flavr Savr Tomato


Created to prevent the
softening of the tomato


Made more resistant to
rotting


Could be “vine
-
ripened”

Ex: Glofish


Inserted fluorescent
gene from a jellyfish
into zebrafish


Sold as a pet

Ex: Roundup Ready Soybeans


Soybeans that are
resistant to Roundup
herbicide


Created to reduce the
application of harmful
herbicides

Bioethics Warm
-
Up


Which human traits do you think
are

acceptable to genetically modify?







Which human traits
aren’t

acceptable
to genetically modify?

Bioethics Warm
-
Up


Would you want to know if you
were genetically predisposed to a
certain disorder (like heart
disease or diabetes)?



What if it was for a disorder that
has no known treatment?

Glowing Animals

Other Uses of Genetic Technology


Used to identify individuals:


Suspects in a crime (“DNA fingerprinting”)

Other Uses of Genetic Technology


Used to identify
individuals:


Relation between
individuals:


Ex: paternity tests

Other Uses of Genetic Technology


Used to identify
individuals:


Relation between
individuals:


Ex: University of
Arizona Shoah Project
to identify and reunite
the families of
Holocaust victims

DNA


DNA is universal


the genetic information
from one species will work in another
species


“DNA is DNA”

DNA 101


Quick Refresher


DNA formed from units called
nucleotides


Each nucleotide is made of:


5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)


Phosphate group


Nitrogenous base


Adenine


Guanine


Cytosine


Thymine


DNA 101


Quick Refresher


In all DNA:


A pairs with T


C pairs with G


Weak hydrogen
bonds form between
complimentary base
pairs

Bioethical Question


Should a company be allowed to patent
(and own the exclusive rights of) a
genetically modified organism?

Useful Properties of DNA


Restriction Endonuclease


enzymes used
to cut apart DNA strands



Useful Properties of DNA


Restriction enzymes
can cut DNA at specific
sites, leaving “sticky
ends” for insertion of
new DNA


Ligase



enzyme used
to “glue” strands
together



DNA Manipulation

Restriction Endonucleases


Also called
restriction enzymes


1962: “molecular scissors” discovered
in in bacteria


E. coli

bacteria have an enzymatic
immune system that recognizes and
destroys foreign DNA


3,000 enzymes have been identified,
many are purified and available
commercially

Restriction Endonucleases


Named for bacterial genus, species,
strain, and type




Example: EcoR1





Genus:
Escherichia





Species:
coli





Strain: R





Order discovered: 1

“Sticky Ends” vs. “Blunt Ends”


Restriction Endonuclease


Restriction enzymes recognize specific
palindromic sequences and cut them


Palindromes: words that are the same
forwards and backwards


Ex: Stanley Yelnats


Ex: Go hang a salami, I’m a lasagna hog


Ex: Anna


Ex: A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!


Ex: Wet sanitary rat in a stew.


Bioethical Issues


Should we be able to
insert non
-
human
DNA into human
DNA?


Would this change
what it means to be
“human”?



Should humans be
able to alter our
intelligence via
genetic engineering?


Warm
-
Up


If there aren’t any risks associated with
GM foods, should companies be required
to label foods made with GMOs?

Recombinant DNA


Recombinant DNA
:
DNA from two or
more species that
has been joined
together


Transgenic
:
organisms altered by
genetic engineering


Warm
-
Up


Genetic pollution
: undesired and uncontrolled
gene flow from GMOs into wild populations


What are the implications of “genetic pollution”?


Should we try to prevent “genetic pollution”?


Other Uses