Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 17 μέρες)

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Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Genetic sequencing

Recombination Produces New Genotypes

Figure 8.25

Genotype: abcde

Genotype: a
B
cde

Donor
DNA

Recipient DNA

(now has a new
phenotype

or ability, like being able to
use a sugar it could not
before)

Transformation: Absorption of Free DNA

Figure 8.24

In a lab setting, many
bacterial species are not
“competent” to take up donor
DNA. They are incubated in
CaCl
2

to make them
competent and then heat
shocked so they will suck up
DNA fragments from the
medium.

Plasmids: Autonomously Replicating Extrachromosomal DNA

Fertility (F) factor is a plasmid that can
direct the formation of a sex pilus and
DNA transfer by conjugation

Conjugation: Simple F
+

to F
-

Transfer

Figure 8.27a

Conjugation: Creation of an Hfr Cell

Figure 8.27b

Conjugation: Hfr to F
-

cell

Figure 8.27c

Transduction

Figure 8.28

Recombinant

Phage protein coat

Bacterial
chromosome

Bacterial
DNA

Phage
DNA

Recipient cell

Donor
bacterial
DNA

Recipient
bacterial
DNA

Recombinant cell

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Prophase I of
Meiosis


Genetic Recombination In Eukaryotes: Crossing Over

Figure 8.23

Double Infection By Two Viruses Can Produce a New Novel Virus By Recombination

(In eukaryotes, is this how new recombinations of influenza viruses arise)

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting

Figure 9.1.1

Biotechnology/DNA Technology: Genetic Engineering Scheme

Advantages &

Disadvantages

Figure 9.2

Restriction Enzymes Recognize and Cut at Recognition Sites

Vector: Something That Can Carry in New DNA and Be Stable in the Cell

Should have several restriction enzyme sites

Figure 9.3

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting

Genetic Engineering Involves Insertion of a Gene on a Plasmid


Avoid accidental release of supergerms



Genetically modified crops must be safe for
consumption and for the environment



Who will have access to an individual's genetic
information?



Do we have a right to move genes around, creating
new life forms (i.e. “playing God”)?

Safety Issues and Ethics

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Genetic sequencing

Polymerase Chain Reaction: DNA Replication in a Test Tube

Exponential Increase in the Number of DNA Molecules each Cycle

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Genetic Sequencing

Figure 12.12

DNA Fingerprinting Generates Banding Patterns Unique to Individuals

1.
Collect cells

2.
Extract DNA

3.
Cut the DNA in
fragments using
the same restriction
enzyme

4. Separate the
fragments using gel
electrophoresis

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Genetic sequencing


Comparing the
nucleotide
sequences of rRNA
genes(the 16S type)
in prokaryotes (and
eukaryotes) has
helped show
evolutionary
relatedness


Used to separate
prokaryotes and
eukaryotes into 3
Domains in the late
1980s

Genetic Sequencing

Gene Transfer: How New Strains Arise and Biotechnology


What special mechanisms allow bacteria to swap genes between cells?


Gene Transfer and Recombination


Donor and recipient; recombination


Prokaryotic Gene Transfer


Transformation


Transduction: Bacteriophage transfer


Conjugation


Plasmids: F factors, R factors


Eukaryotic Gene Recombination


Viral Gene Changes


Application of DNA Biotechnology


Fast, inexpensive, ethical methods


Strategies of Gene Manipulation/Analysis


Recombinant DNA and Cloning


Restriction enzymes


Steps of Cloning the Insulin Gene


Making many Copies: Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA Fingerprinting


Genetic sequencing