Exchange, access and benefit-sharing of animal genetic resources

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Livestock Keepers’ Rights

League for Pastoral Peoples and
Endogenous Livestock Development

History of

Livestock Keepers’ Rights


World Food Sovereignty Forum 2002

Clarified in further meetings

“Karen Commitment”
-

2003

Bellagio Brief
-

2006

Regional Pastoralists Gathering in
Yabello, Ethiopia
-

2006

LIFE
-
Network Meeting in
Sadri, India
-

2007

LIFE
-
Network

National
-
Level LIFE
-
Network Workshop

24
-
26 February, 2007

&

International Workshop


Livestock Keepers and the Management of Animal Genetic Resources: Roles,
Rights, and Responsibilities


26
-
28 February, 2007

Workshop Documentation


www.lifeinitiative.org

# 1: Recognition of livestock
keepers as
creators
of breeds
and
custodians

of Animal
Genetic Resources


LKR Cornerstones

# 2:
Recognition of the
dependency of the sustainable
use of traditional breeds on
the conservation of their
respective
eco
-
systems
.

LKR Cornerstones

LKR Cornerstones

#
3:

Recognition of traditional
breeds as
collective
property
, products of
indigenous knowledge and
cultural expression.

LKR Cornerstones



#
4:
The right of the livestock
keepers to make
breeding
decisions

LKR Cornerstones

#
5:
Right of livestock keepers
to
participate in policy
making

on Animal Genetic
Resources issues


LKR Cornerstones

#6: Support for training and
capacity
-
building

of
livestock keepers and
provision of services along
the food chain.


LKR= „Bundle of Rights“

# 1: Recognition of livestock keepers as creators of breeds and
custodians of AnGRFA

# 2:
Recognition of the dependency of the sustainable use of
traditional breeds on the conservation of their respective eco
-
systems

#3:

Recognition of traditional breeds as collective property,
products of indigenous knowledge and cultural expression.

#4:The right of the livestock keepers to make breeding
decisions

#5:
Right of livestock keepers to participate in policy making
processes on AnGRFA issues


#6: Support for training and capacity
-
building of livestock
keepers and provision of services along the food chain.






FAO International Technical Conference

on Animal Genetic Resources

for Food and Agriculture

Interlaken, Switzerland

1
-
7 September 2007

FAO International Technical Conference

on Animal Genetic Resources

for Food and Agriculture

Interlaken, 1
-
7 September 2007

Objectives

Conservation

sustainable use

fair and equitable sharing of
benefits from the use

FAO International Technical Conference

on Animal Genetic Resources

for Food and Agriculture

Interlaken, 1
-
7 September 2007

Outputs

Adoption of State of the
World Report

Global Plan of Action

Interlaken Declaration


Global Plan of Action

Main issues (1)

„Livestock Keepers‘ Rights“ not
mentioned

Intellectual Property Rights make no
distinction between patents and others,
e.g. geographic indication



Global Plan of Action

Main issues (2)

Incentives for conservation are
contentious because trade
-
distorting

Incentives for industrial production are
not addressed although trade
-
distorting


Global Plan of Action

Main issues (3)


Financing is contentious



Global Plan of Action

Pastoralists mentioned 14 times!

Aim 4:

„to
meet the needs of pastoralists

and farmers,
individually and collectively, within the
framework of national law, to have non
-
discriminatory
access to the genetic material,
information, technologies, financial resources,
research results, marketing systems, and
natural resources
, so that they may continue to
manage and improve animal genetic resources,
and benefit from economic development;“


Global Plan of Action

Recommended
actions

on

training and technical support for the
breeding activities
of pastoralist and
farming communities
;

Integrate agro
-
ecosystem approaches in
national agricultural and environmental
policies and programmes
of relevance to
animal genetic resources, where
appropriate, particularly those directed
towards pastoralist and rural small
-
holder
communities, and fragile environments.



Interlaken declaration, para 12


We recognize that access to, and the sharing of both,
genetic resources and technologies
, are essential for
meeting world food security and the needs of the
growing world population, and must be facilitated.
Access to and transfer of technology
, including that
protected by intellectual property rights, to developing
countries, in particular least developed countries, and
countries with economies in transition, shall be provided
and/or facilitated under fair and most favourable terms,
in particular in the case of technologies for use in
conservation as well as technologies for the benefit of
farmers, pastoralists and animal breeders in developing
countries, especially in least developed countries, and
countries with economies in transition, including on
concessional and preferential terms

where mutually
agreed,
inter alia
, through partnerships in research and
development. Such access and transfer shall be provided
on terms that recognize and are consistent with the
adequate and effective protection of intellectual
property rights
.


Patents on animals?

www.no
-
patents
-
on
-
seeds.org

Industrial production systems

Globally,

one third of pigs

50% of eggs

two thirds of milk

75% of broilers


are produced with industrial breeds

Who are livestock keeping
communities?


70% of the world‘s poor keep
livestock


640 million smallholder
livestock keepers


190 million pastoralists

(FAO)

Economic importance of

African indigenous breeds



In Southern Africa, the livestock
sector contributes 38% of GDP


not even including subsistence
economy, drought power and
manure

Sheep, goat, pig and poultry
almost 100 % indigenous

Cattle: 50
-
99% indigenous
breeds

Examples: Nguni cattle, Lesotho
pony, Tswana sheep, Boer goat

Smallholder pig farmers

Some use industrial breeds

Some give up

Niche markets

Globalization is much faster than the
European or US concentration process


Bangkok Post , 9 May 2007

Concentration in genetics industry

note: Erich Wesjohann Group, not Paul
-
Heinz Wesjohann Group (PHW)

Layer hens:


Broilers



Turkey



Concentration in genetics industry

PIC: World‘s largest pig breeder

+

ABS: World‘s largest cattle breeder

+

Sygen: World‘s largest shrimp breeder

=

Genus plc

Monsanto‘s livestock business

Cattle:


sorted semen Decisive™


performance evaluation in 170 US dairies

Pig:

Closed herd system

Access to pig genome through Metamorphix

Patent applications in 160 countries



Concentration in genetics industry





Livestock Genetics Companies

Concentration and proprietary strategies

of an emerging power in the global food economy

Susanne Gura


Liga für Hirtenvölker und Nachhaltige
Viehwirtschaft e.V.

League for Pastoral Peoples and
Endogenous Livestock Development

EU 7th Research Framework Programme


Knowledge Based Bio
-
Economy


55 billion


over 7 years


7 themes, incl. Livestock biotechnology
















Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform