Dissemination of Plant Biotechnology - an African Perspective

gooseliverΒιοτεχνολογία

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 18 μέρες)

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Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

Dissemination

of Plant Biotechnology
-

an African Perspective

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Aims of Modern Plant Biotechnology:


develop plant varieties with specific properties for survival


in their local regions

environmentally sustainable, higher yielding and less

expensive varieties

varieties endowed with more nutritious constituents than

the wild type species

varieties that help to limit post
-
harvest crop losses

novel plant varieties to boost biodiversity

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Dissemination of technology

availability of the tools and benefits to all

especially the less privileged

availability of the tools and benefits to

low
-
scale poor farmers

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


The need for plant biotechnology in Africa: why?

13% of world’s population live in 12%of global habitable surface area

rate of population growth out
-
balances that of food production

40% of Africa’s population live on less than USD1 per day

many countries in Africa depend on food
-
aid to fight starvation

healthcare services are most inadequate in Africa and many diseases

are still endemic in the Continent

Africa leads the world on the major health problem of our time

Amoako 2003

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003

The need for plant biotechnology in Africa: why?

and rural to urban youth migration has relegated farm work


to the women

farm work in Africa is still predominantly manual

courtesy of WARDA


to the uneducated old men,

courtesy of Harsch, Africa Recovery

courtesy of Monsanto, Africa

and to the children

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


The poor performance of agricultural biotechnology in Africa:

minimal R&D investment by governments of African countries

over
-
dependence on foreign aid and donor institution assistance

little interest in indigenous food crops from multinationals

improvement in these food crops is almost inexistent

global debate on the security of GM foods

protection of international trading interests

only South Africa was active as at 2001

inappropriate national legislation or no legislation

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


African success stories in plant biotechnology


Properties

Bollgard
R
cotton

higher yields

pest resistance

Courtesy of Monsanto Africa

and YieldGard
R

maize in South africa

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003

NERICA (New Rice for AfriCA) at WARDA in West Africa

possesses high yielding properties of Indian rice

SAHEL 108

short life cycle

therefore, double cropping

CISADANE

resistance to gall midge

African success stories in plant biotechnology (
contd
)

multiple stress resistance of African species

Courtesy of WARDA, W. Africa

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003

Immediate visible benefits of GM crops

less need for insecticide sprays

decreased requirement for chemical fertilizers

increased environmental conservation

less hours spent in farmlands

increase in yields and plant productivity

increased personal income earnings

poverty alleviation

overall social well being

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Status of plant biotechnology in Africa

adapted from Brink, J.A. et al 1998

North Africa

Morocco

Tunisia

micropropagation of forest trees, date palms

development of disease
-
free and stress tollerant plants

molecular biology of date palms and cereals

field tests for transgenic tomatoes

stress tollerance and disease resistance

tissue culture of date palms, prunus rootstocks and citrus

DNA markers for disease resistance

genetic engineering of potatoes

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Status of plant biotechnology in Africa
(contd)

adapted from Brink, J.A. et al 1998

West Africa

Cameroon

Nigeria

Senegal

tissue culture of theobroma (cocoa tree), hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), coffea

arabica (coffee tree), dioscorea sativa (yam) and xanthosoma mafutta (cocoyam)

in vitro culture for the propagation of banana, oil
-
palm, pineapple, cotton and tea

micropropagation of cassava, yam, banana and ginger and medicinal plants

genetic engineering of cowpea for virus resistance

marker assisted selection of maize and cassava: DNA fingerprinting

of pests and microbial pathogens

embryo rescue for yam

regeneration of cowpea, yam, cassava and banana

in vitro propagation of faidherbia albida, eucalyptus canaldulensis

sesbania rostrate and acacia senegal

production of rhizobial
-
based bioferttilizers

MICERN centre for the West African sub
-
region

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Status of plant biotechnology in Africa
(contd)

adapted from Brink, J.A et al 1998

East and central Africa

Burundi

Democratic Republic of Congo

production of rhizobial
-
based bioferttilizers

Kenya

tissue culture of medicinal plants

production of disease free plants

in vitro

selection for salt resistance in finger millet

in vitro

long
-
term storage of potato and sweet potato

MICERN providing biofertilizers to East African countries

transformation of potato with Feathery Mottle Virus coat protein gene

micropropagation of banana, potatoes, strawberries, sweet potato, citrus, sugar cane

micropropagation of ornamentals and forest trees

in vitro

propagation of potato, soybean, maize, rice and multipurpose trees

in vitro

production of ornamental plants
-

orchids; tissue culture of medicinal plants

micropropagation of potato, banana, cassava and yam

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Status of plant biotechnology in Africa

(contd)

adapted from Brink, J.A. et al 1998

East and Central Africa
(contd)

Uganda

micropropagation of banana, coffee, cassava, granadella, pineapple,

potato and sweet potato

in vitro

screening for disease resistance in banana

production of disease free plantlets of potato, sweet potato and banana

Southern Africa

Madagascar

tissue culture of disease
-
free rice and maize plantlets and medicinal plants

production of bioferttilizers for groundnut and bambara groundnut

Zimbabwe

genetic engineering of maize, sorghum and tobacco

micropropagation of coffee, cassava, tobacco,

ornamental plants, potato and sweet potato

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Status of plant biotechnology in Africa

(contd)

adapted from Brink, J.A. et al 1998

Republic of South Africa

Genetic engineering

Molecular marker applications

Tissue culture

Micropropagation of potato, ornamental bulbs and rose rootstocks

Embryo rescue of table grapes, sunflower and dry beans

Long
-
term storage of potatoes, sweet potatoes, ornamental bulbs and cassava

Forest trees, medicinal plants and indigenous ornamental plants

Production of disease
-
free plants: potato, sweet potato, cassava, dry beans,

banana and ornamental plants

Markers for disease resistance in wheat and forestry crops

Cultivar identification: potatoes, sweet potatoes, ornamentals, cereals and cassava

Fruits: apricot, strawberry, peach, apple, table grapes and banana

Cereals: maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, sunflowers and sugarcane

Vegetables and ornamentals: potato, tomato, cucurbits, ornamental bulbs


cassava and sweet potato

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


The road ahead


…..to commercial production

Africa lags dramatically behind other regions in implementation of biotechnology

This situation risks to exacerbate social inequities and plunge the Continent deeper into

misery and total dependence on the developed countries for subsistence

Governments of African countries must refocus attention on agricolture

Amoako 2003

Public funding of R&D in agricoltural biotechnology is mandatory to boost the overall

sustainable productivity of more nutritious food in the Continent


Plant biotechnology should pass from laboratory tests and feild trials

Courtesy of WARDA

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


Positive signals

Creation of ACCI at the University of Natal, South Africa for training scientists

in biotechnology of African crops adaptable to the African environment

Increased government budget for biotechnology research and development


in Nigeria

Similar initiatives in other countries of Africa would certainly turn around


the destinies of their citizens

Courtesy of WARDA

………and disseminate the smile in the faces of these children

Alexander E. Ochem

ICGEB Trieste, Italy

WIPO
-
UPOV SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Geneva, Switzerland, October 24, 2003


You can not rationally argue with the hungry on the potential


health risks that may derive from being overfed

If African countries fail to feed the present generation of their citizens


due to fears of the potential dangers deriving from GM foods,

then there would probably not be any future generations of

Africans to protect from such potential dangers

Responsible biotechnology is not the enemy; starvation is.

Without adequate food suplies at affordable prices,

we cannot expect world health, or peace

Jimmy Carter


Conclusions