BIOTECHNOLOGY L.C. Syllabus - Biology

gooseliverΒιοτεχνολογία

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

96 εμφανίσεις

Genetic
Engineering


(L.C. Syllabus)

BIOTECHNOLOGY

http://employees.csbsju.edu

Clipartguide.com

Clipartguide.com

Kerry Teacher Design Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee

BIOTECHNOLOGY L.C.
Syllabus

L.C. Biology Syllabus

Summary

2.5.9 Genetic Engineering


Manipulation and
alteration of genes




Three applications:
one plant, one
animal, one micro
-
organism


Process involving


isolation, transformation,


and expression

Humans are
made up of
trillions of cells

Each cell:


46 human
chromosomes


2 metres of DNA


3 billion DNA
subunits (A,T,G,C)


Approximately
30,000 genes


Genetic Engineering


Manipulation and alteration of genes


Artificially copying a piece of DNA from
one organism and joining this copy of DNA
into the DNA of another organism

www.clipartguide.com

Purpose of Genetic
Engineering


It allows genes from one organism to be
inserted into a cell of a different organism
of a different species.


Examples:


Human genes can be inserted into a
bacterium


Human genes can be inserted into cells
from other animals


Bacterium genes can be inserted into
plant cells


Outline of Process

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Cell Membrane

Target
Gene

www.encarta.msn.com

Process of Genetic
Engineering

4. Expression

1.
Isolation



2. Restriction (Cutting)

3. Transformation (Ligation)


Donor DNA

Genetic probe

(a) Isolation

of a specific gene from donor
e.g. human

1. Isolation


Cells broken open


Genetic probe added


Reveals position of the gene of interest

Position
of gene of
interest

1.Isolation (cont.)

Bacterial cell

Plasmid

(b)
Isolation

of plasmid from a bacterial cell

www.sci.sdsu.edu

2. Cutting


Restriction enzymes act as molecular scissors and
cut DNA at specific sites called restriction sites

Restriction site

Restriction
site

Restriction
ezymes

Clipartguide.com

2. Cutting (cont.)

Restriction
sites

Plasmid


Restriction site

Restriction site

Donor DNA

Restriction
enzymes

Cutting (Cont.)

Donor DNA

Sticky Ends

Plasmid

3. Transformation

Enzyme DNA ligase
bonds sticky ends
together

Plasmid
DNA with
sticky ends

Transformation (cont.)

Plasmid
DNA

Donor
DNA

Enzyme

DNA Ligase
bonds sticky ends
together

Next slide
for
animation

www.gch.ulaval.ca

Recombinant DNA

DNA Ligase

www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/ micro101/pages/Chap10.html
-

99k


Transformation (cont.)


Recombinant DNA introduced into
bacterial cell

Bacterial
chromosome

Bacterial
cell

Recombinant
DNA

4. Expression


Bacterial cell reproduces by Binary Fisson


Bacterial cell produces the polypeptide


Coded for by the donor DNA


Summary of steps

Donor DNA

Plasmid

1. Cut with
restriction enzymes

Donor DNA

Sticky
Ends

2. Ligase
bonds sticky
ends together

Recombinant
DNA

Brief Overlook of the Process
of G.E

www.encarta.msn.com

Applications (Animals)

https://www2.vaxserve.com/ index.cfm?event=get...




This protein is then
used to treat
haemophiliacs.


Sheep have been
genetically modified to
carry the gene




For the production of a
human blood clotting
protein.

Applications (Plants)

Can resist
infection by an
insect European
corn borer

Genetically
modified corn

www.farmbureaulaporteco.org

Applications (Micro
-
organisms)

Production of humulin

https://www2.vaxserve.com/ index.cfm?event=get...


Ethical Issues


Main concerns are in Genetically Modified
Foods.



Effects on Food Chains of genetically
modified plants and animals.



Religious conflicts in relation to human
cloning and stem cell research.