019 GMO

gooseliverΒιοτεχνολογία

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 21 μέρες)

88 εμφανίσεις

GMO

What is a Genetically Modified Organism?


It involves the insertion of DNA from
one organism into another OR
modification of an organism’s DNA in
order to achieve a desired trait.


Suntory "blue" rose

How does this differ from Mendel and his peas?

GM vs Selective Breeding


Selective breeding


Slow


Imprecise


Modification of genes that naturally occur in
the organism


GM


Very fast


Precise


Can introduce genes into an organisms that
would not naturally occur!

Genetic engineering vs agricultural breeding


Artificial selection has influenced the genetic
makeup of livestock and crops for thousands of
years.


Proponents of GM crops say GM foods are safe.


Critics of GM foods say:


Traditional breeding uses genes from the same
species.


Selective breeding deals with whole organisms, not
just genes.


In traditional breeding, genes come together on their
own.

Agricultural breeding

Traditional breeding changes organisms through
selection, while genetic engineering is more like the
process of mutation.

Genetically modified organisms

Biotechnology is impacting our lives


Biotechnology
: the material
application of biological science to
create products derived from
organisms



Transgenic organism
: an organism
that contains DNA from another
species


Transgenes
:

the genes that have
moved between organisms

GMO in Medicine


Insulin (e.g.,
SemBioSys Genetics
Inc
-

saflower)


Clotting factors


Atryn (anticoagulant).


Banana vaccines


Cancer fighting eggs



GMO in Biofuel

Algenol Biofuels



Rapeseed (
i.e
., canola)

GMO in Bioremediation

Enviropig
i.e.,

“Frankenswine”


Able to digest and
process phosphate


Poplar trees remove
groundwater
contaminants

GMO in Pesticides


Kills caterpillars but
not poisonous to
humans

+

http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v12/n2/full/7290120a.html

GMO in Manufacturing


Produces silk in milk
to make Biosteel

+

Bt crops

Some genetically modified foods

Roundup ready crops

Some genetically modified foods

Soybean

Ice minus strawberries

Some genetically modified foods

Golden rice

Some genetically modified foods

Some genetically modified foods

Starlink corn

Some genetically modified foods

AquAdvantage salmon

Common GM Foods

Products



Corn


Canola


Potatoes


Tomatoes


Squash


Soybeans


Flax


Cottonseed oil


Sugarbeets


Common GM Foods

Genetically Modified Foods

Experts say 60% to 70% of processed
foods on U.S. grocery shelves have
genetically modified ingredients.


Common GM crops:


Soybeans


Corn


Cotton

Genetically Modified Foods

Cons


Introducing allergens and toxins to food


Accidental cross pollination


Antibiotic resistance


Creation of "super" weeds and other
environmental risks

Genetically Modified Foods

Pros


Increased pest and disease resistance


Grow food in harsh climate


Increased food supply (more food/acre)


More nutritional value


Make drugs

Ring spot virus

GMO Controversy in Hawaii

http://hawaiiseed.org/local
-
issues/taro/

GMO Controversy in Hawaii

http://hawaiiseed.org/local
-
issues/taro/


Undermines the genetic integrity of taro, sacred to the
Hawaiian people;


Threatens the taro market and livelihood of taro farmers.
Taro production yields over 6 million pounds annually
valued at $3.3 million.


Threatens the biodiversity of the taro plant;


Could cause new, unexpected problems in taro
cultivation;


Could contaminate traditional varieties of taro and take
away taro farmers’ ability to choose what they grow in
their lo’i; and


Overlooks the wealth of traditional knowledge about
growing taro that has been passed down through
generations.

Inquiry

1.
Provide three potential benefits
and drawbacks of GMOs.

2.
What benefit does golden rice
provide?

3.
What is a transgene?

4.
Which organism is most often
used in GM?

5. Dog breeds are an example of

A) Artificial selection

B) Natural selection

C) Genetic modification

Inquiry