Designing Advanced Fighter Aircraft

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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1

DESIGNING ADVANCED
FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

Burt Dicht

Managing Director
ASME Knowledge and
Community Sector

2


Fighter Aircraft Requirements


The Evolution of Stealth
Technology


The Advanced Tactical Fighter


The Design Process


The Future of Aircraft Design


Opportunities for ME’s in
Aerospace


ASME




TODAY’S AGENDA

3


MY BACKGROUND



Currently Director, ASME


Managing Director, Knowledge & Community


Started out as an ASME student member
-

just like you. A member for 27 years.


BS Temple University, Philadelphia


MA, CSUN, Northridge, CA


Staff of Congressman Jon Fox (PA/13)


Northrop Grumman


Lead Engineer


T
-
38 Talon • F
-
5E/F Tiger II • F
-
20 Tigershark • YF
-
23
Advanced Tactical Fighter, F/A
-
18E/F Super Hornet


Rockwell Space Systems Division (Boeing)


Space Shuttle Program


NASA Kennedy Space Center


Summer Intern
-

Space Shuttle Launch Facility Design


4

MODERN FIGHTER

AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS


Air Superiority



controlling the airspace within a limited area and
within a limited length of time


Stealth



seeing the enemy before they see you


Maneuverability



not top speed, but climbing performance,
acceleration and turning speed


Aerodynamics



wing loading


aircraft weight divided by wing area


one of the most important


Range



ability of the aircraft to reach the combat zone and cover it


Engine



thrust to weight ratio, favorable fuel consumption, low
infrared and smoke


Avionics



Vehicle and systems management, reduced pilot
workload, all weather capability


Armament
-

kind and quantity of stores on board


Reliability and Maintainability



systems have a high operational
rate and are easy to repair

5

THE EVOLUTION OF
STEALTH AIRCRAFT

Romulan “Bird of Prey”



Equipped with “Cloaking Device.”



Made the craft invisible to
Federation sensors.







From the earliest days,
deception and stealth have
been used to gain the
advantage over an enemy
in combat.



Early combat aircraft
used camouflage to make
visual detection difficult.



The advent of RADAR in
the late 1930’s and during
WWII enabled the early
detection of aircraft in
flight.


6

THE EVOLUTION OF
STEALTH

NORTHROP YB
-
49 BOMBER



Designed by Jack Northrop
in the late 1940’s.



Role was as a strategic
bomber.



Its unique wing shape
produced a low radar cross
section, although the goal
was improved performance.

7

THE EVOLUTION OF
STEALTH

DESIGN IN THE 50’S AND 60’S



Stealth in aircraft design does
not mean invisible


it means
“Low Observable,” reducing the
radar cross section.



Little effort in the 50’s and 60’s.
Integrating low observable
aspects meant compromising
performance


so designers
concentrated on speed,
maneuverability, and weapons.



A
-
12/SR
-
71 has rounded lines,
wing/body blending, conical
center bodies, fuselage chine
and canted twin fins to reduce
radar reflectivity.

Lockheed SR
-
71 Blackbird

8

RADAR CROSS SECTION

An object's Radar Cross
Section depends on its
size, reflectivity of its
surface, and the
directivity of the radar
reflection caused by the
object's geometric
shape.

RCS = Geometric cross
section
×

Reflectivity
×

Directivity

Typical RCS diagram B
-
26 Invader


(From Wikipedia)

9

STEALTH
CHARACTERISTICS




Airframe shaped for Low
Radar Cross Section


Use of Radar Absorbent
Material (RAM)


Minimized engine noise


Reduced infrared signature


Reduced visual signature


Use of electronic
countermeasures

10

THE FIRST STEALTH
AIRCRAFT

F
-
117A Nighthawk



USAF and DARPA studies
initiated in 1973


project
Have Blue


Air Force invites proposals
to develop technology
prototype


Lockheed and Northrop were
finalists and each built a
prototype for a “fly
-
off”


Lockheed wins production
contract in 1976

Mission


covert reconnaissance
and covert surgical strikes

Subsonic


limited performance

11

STEALTH GROWS UP



1980 report concluded that B
-
1 bomber would be
unable to penetrate Soviet air space beyond 1990



Positive results from Have Blue (F
-
117) justified
launch of a full
-
scale low
-
observable bomber
program (Advanced Technology Bomber


ATB)



Lockheed/Rockwell team and a Northrop/Boeing
team responded to requests for proposals



Northrop relied on experience studying stealth
technology and its extensive experience with
flying wing designs and was awarded the contract

12

STEALTH GROWS UP

NORTHROP


GRUMMAN

B
-
2 SPIRIT



Length


69ft



Height


17ft



Wingspan


172 ft



Max Speed


Mach .85


Range 6300 nm



Armament


40,000 lbs in
internal weapons bays


Powerplant


four GE F
-
118
-
GE
-
100 turbofans


17,300 lbs

13

DEVELOPING A TRULY
STEALTH FIGHTER

WHY THE NEED?



Late 1970’s


Soviets building far more fighters than US



Massive Soviet surface to air missile threat



USAF looking to technology to counter Soviet numerical
advantage



In 1981 USAF issued a Request for Information (RFI) for the
Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF)



A RFI does not offer any money or production contracts, it
defines mission, the threat, service entry date and new features
that are desirable and feasible



Supercruise (the ability to achieve supersonic flight without
afterburner) and stealth were considered essential components,
although stealth was still considered an exotic technology

14

DEVELOPING A TRULY
STEALTH FIGHTER

THE ADVANCED TACTICAL FIGHTER (ATF) PROGRAM



Air Force opts to build a truly air
-
to
-
air fighter to follow the F
-
15
Eagle air superiority fighter
-

designed to enter service in mid 90’s



In 1983 USAF issues Request for Proposals (RFP) for ATF and the
Joint Advanced Fighter Engine (JAFE)



General Electric and Pratt & Whitney vie for engine contract



Lockheed, Rockwell, Grumman, McDonnell Douglas, General
Dynamics, Boeing and Northrop vie for aircraft contract



McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics were thought to have
the inside track because of F
-
15 and F
-
16



But stealth proved to be the deciding factor. Both Northrop and
Lockheed fell back on their stealth experience and proposed
stealthy fighters that could perform as well as non
-
stealthy fighters

15

DEVELOPING A TRULY
STEALTH FIGHTER

THE ADVANCED TACTICAL FIGHTER (ATF) PROGRAM



In October 1986 the USAF awards the contracts to
build prototype aircraft to Northrop and Lockheed



Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas to build the
YF
-
23A



Lockheed
-

Boeing
-

General Dynamics comprised the
other team to build the YF
-
22A.



Aircraft first flights in the Fall of 1990.



Lockheed Martin awarded contract in April 1991. The
F
-
22 is now in production.

16

YF
-
23A BLACK WIDOW II


Two Prototypes were built


PAV 1
-

two Pratt & Whitney YF119
engines


PAV 2
-

two GE YF120 engines


Wing Span 43.6 ft


Length 67.4 ft


Height 13.9 ft


Wing area 900 sq. ft.


Top Speed Mach 2+


Range 800 Nm


Altitude 65,000 ft


Air Superiority


Low Observable


Super
-
cruise
-

mach
1+ without afterburner

17

NORTHROP GRUMMAN

AN AIRFRAME MANUFACTURER


Responsible for the design,
manufacture and integration of aircraft
and aircraft sub
-
assemblies

Boeing (McDonnell Douglas/Northrop)
F/A
-
18F Super Hornet


F/A
-
18 Carrier
Takeoff

18

AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROCESS


Customer Requirements


Conceptual Design Phase


General size and configuration of the aircraft •
aerodynamics studies • thrust loading • wing
loading • wing sweep • general body, wing and
tail configurations


Preliminary Design Phase


Best conceptual design is chosen for testing •
inlet/engine/airframe integration • major loads
and stresses • weight • stability and control •
internal arrangement


Detailed Design Phase


Configuration frozen • Detailed structural design •
Detailed system design and installation •
Production drawings


Development Phase



Manufacturing and assembly

19


AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING
GROUPS



Aerodynamics


Advanced Design


Avionics (airborne electronics)


Crew Station (cockpit)


ECS (environmental control system)


Electrical


Flight Test


Fuel Systems


Hydraulic Systems


Propulsion Integration (engines)


Reliability and Maintainability


Safety


Structures


Vehicle Management (flight control)

20

CONFIGURATION/

SYSTEMS

INTEGRATION


Responsible for overall internal
and external systems
arrangement


Work with every design group
and coordinate and integrate
their designs into a single
aircraft design


Final Product:


Inboard Profile Drawing •
Aperture Arrangement • Three
Views • Zone Drawings

F
-
20A Tigershark

21

INBOARD PROFILE

F
-
23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

Profile View

22

APERTURE
ARRANGEMENT

YF
-
23A Prototype Air Vehicle


Plan View

23

AIRCRAFT DESIGN


IS A COMPROMISE


It is the task of the aircraft design engineer
to balance the customer requirements with
the physical constraints, cost and time
-
scale, in order to produce the most
effective aircraft possible.


Aircraft Design Requires Teamwork


No “one” design group is more important
than the others.


Note: All Engineering involves
Compromises!

24

LOOK WHAT HAPPENS WHEN

DESIGN GROUPS HAVE THEIR WAY

25


ENGINEERING JOB
DESCRIPTIONS



Design
-

From Concept to Production



Good understanding of engineering principles


See things in 3
-
D (Geometry, Graphics, Kinematics)


Like to solve problems, come up with better ways of doing things


Analysis
-

Verify engineering designs (Stress, Thermal,
Aerodynamics, Dynamics)


Engineering Theory and Mathematics


Problem solving


Test
-

Verify functionality of design


Basic understanding of engineering theory and design principles


Lab work and strict guidelines and procedures


Operations
-

Maintaining and operating final product


Basic understanding of engineering design and systems


Understand how and why things work

26

YF
-
23A BLACK
WIDOW II

27

LOCKHEED
MARTIN F
-
22A
RAPTOR


Wing Span 44.5 ft


Length 62 ft 1 in


Wing area 830 sq. ft.


Top Speed Mach 2+


Range 800 Nm


Altitude 65,000 ft


Air Superiority


Low Observable


Two Pratt & Whitney
F119
-
PW
-
100 Turbofans
@ 35,000 lbs

28

LOCKHEED MARTIN X
-
35 (F
-
35)
JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER

29

Bureau of Labor Statistics
-

Aerospace Outlook



.




Employment Change 2004
-

2014


Aerospace engineers held about 76,000 jobs in 2004.



Aerospace engineers are expected to have
slower
-
than
-
average

growth in
employment over the projection period. Although increases in the number and
scope of military aerospace projects likely will generate new jobs, increased
efficiency will limit the number of new jobs in the design and production of
commercial aircraft. Even with slow growth, the employment outlook for
aerospace engineers through 2014 appears favorable: the number of degrees
granted in aerospace engineering declined for many years because of a
perceived lack of opportunities in this field, and, although this trend is reversing,
new graduates continue to be needed to replace aerospace engineers who retire
or leave the occupation for other reasons.



Mechanical engineers held about 226,000 jobs in 2004.



Employment of mechanical engineers is projected to grow
at an average

rate for
all occupations though 2014.



30

AEROSPACE & ME
SALARIES


Average starting salary for Bachelor’s degree
candidates in aerospace engineering is
$53,471 a year. (2006)


Average starting salary for Bachelor’s degree
candidates in mechanical engineering is
$52,165 a year. (2006)

31

BOEING 787 DREAMLINER

THE FUTURE

32

AIRBUS A380

THE FUTURE

33

Northrop Grumman X
-
47B Pegasus Unmanned Combat Air System
Demonstrator (UCAS
-
D).

THE FUTURE

34

THE FUTURE


BOEING 797 FLYING WING
PASSENGER JET

35

SCALED COMPOSITES


SPACESHIP ONE

(Building Spaceship Two for Virgin Galactic)

http://www.scaled.com/index.html


THE FUTURE

36

SPACE EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGIES


FALCON 1LAUNCH VEHICLE

http://www.spacex.com


THE FUTURE

37

THE FUTURE


ORION CREW EXPLORATION
VEHICLE

38

THE FUTURE


ARES I
Launch
Vehicle (5
segment
shuttle SRB
for the 1
st

stage and a
liquid fueled
J2X engine for
the second
stage)


ARES V Launch
Vehicle (two
-

5
segment shuttle
SRBs and a 33 ft
diameter liquid
fueled booster
with 5 RS
-
68
engines for the 1
st

stage and an Earth
Departure Stage
with a single J2X
engine)

39

THE FUTURE


LUNAR SURFACE ACCESS MODULE

40

THE FUTURE


ORION AND LSAM

41

AEROSPACE WEB SITES



Bureau of Labor Statistics


http://www.bls.gov/




About Aerospace/Aviation
-

Links to many aerospace
employers
http://aerospace.about.com/industry/aerospace/cs/aviationjobs/index.htm



SpaceJobs.com
-

Aviation and Aerospace business news
and job search


http://www.spacejobs.com/index.shtml



Aircraft Design Sites


http://www.aircraftdesign.com/other.html



Aerospace Industries Association


sign up for AIA Update


http://www.aia
-
aerospace.org/




42

AEROSPACE WEB SITES


AOL Hometown
-

Aerospace Job Search


http://hometown.aol.com/aerojobs/Welcome.html


Nation Job
-

Job database and search engine


http://www.nationjob.com/aviation/


NASA
-

Job and internship information


http://www.nasajobs.nasa.gov/


http://www.nasajobs.nasa.gov/stud_opps/


Aerospace Mall
-

A directory of many aerospace/aviation
related companies (From airframe to suppliers, from military
to general aviation)


http://www.aerospacemall.com/


Internships


http://www.Tech
-
Interns.com

43

DOING YOUR HOMEWORK

NASA to lose 8,600 jobs with shuttle retirement.

The
New York Times

(4/2, A24, Leary) reports, "Retiring the space
shuttle in 2010 could result in the loss of 8,000 jobs among NASA
contractors and 600 Civil Service workers at the agency, NASA said
Tuesday." Associate administrator for space operations William
Gerstenmaier said that "the job losses might appear worse than they
would end up," because "a potentially large number of employees could
transfer to new openings developing, building and operating
Constellation spacecraft and rockets." Private companies and retirees
are other areas that might lessen the impact of the job losses. The two
facilities hardest hit would be the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the
Michoud Assembly facility, losing 6,400 of 8,000 and 1,300 of 1,900
employees respectively.



44

MORE ABOUT THE

AEROSPACE INDUSTRY


ASME’s Professional
Practice Curriculum


Industry Series

http://professionalpractice.asme.org/

The Aerospace Module:


Industry Scope


Industry Sectors


Industry Operations


Job Functions


Industry Outlook


Mapping Your Career


Industry Resources

45

ASME STUDENT MEMBERSHIP



Founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, today ASME
International is a nonprofit educational and technical organization serving a
worldwide membership of 100,000 members and 20,000 student members.



ASME offers students a wide range of technical and non technical benefits that
will enable them to grow professionally, learn about the engineering profession,
and gain valuable skills needed in today;s highly competitive work environment.



Any student enrolled in any curriculum leading to a degree in engineering at a
regionally accredited school is eligible to join. You don’t have to be a Mechanical
Engineering Student.



Dues, $25 per year (10/1 thru 9/30) Freshmen can join for free.



http://www.asme.org/students

or call 800
-
843
-
2763



46

FOR MORE INFORMATION


Burt Dicht, Managing Director


Knowledge and Community Sector


dichtb@asme.org


ASME Headquarters


Three Park Avenue, M/S 23S1


New York, NY 10016


212
-
591
-
7074