683 Explores the Edge

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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683 Explores the Edge

Other perspectives

and

open opportunities to
advance the state of
knowledge

The World Is Flat
, Thomas L. Friedman,

First edition cover art

2005, Farrar, Straus and Giroux

2


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Domain Specific

Response
-
Able System Principles


Natural Systems

The Nine Laws of God


1.
Distribute being

2.
Control from the bottom up

3.
Cultivate increasing returns

4.
Grow by chunking

5.
Maximize the fringes

6.
Honor your error

7.
Pursue no optima;

have multiple goals

8.
Seek persistent disequilibrium

9.
Change changes itself

Enterprise Systems

VISA Chaordic Principles


1.
Equitable ownership

2.
Equitable rights & obligations

3.
Open to all qualified participants

4.
Distributed power, function,
resources

5.
Distributed authority

6.
Everything (possible) is voluntary

7.
Fees are budgeted, not assessed

8.
Malleable yet durable

9.
Change induced, not compelled

10.
No re
-
org that alienates/ousts

Birth of the Chaordic Age
, Dee Hock

Out of Control
, Kevin Kelly

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Enterprise SoS

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Enterprise SoS


Cracking the Code

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The genetic DNA code has sub
-
segments known as chromosomes,


that determine the nature of a resultant union

when mated with chromosomes from

another genetic code


Systems have similar chromosome
-
like characteristics

that interact with their counterparts

in a union of systems

to determine the nature and stability of the resultant SoS.


6


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Interoperability Mediation

New Ideas



High performance interoperation



Rich interoperation dimensions



Multiple factors within dimensions



Interoperation compatibility logic



Interoperability optimization



Impact



Net
-
centric warfighter interoperability



Urban
-
situation local data rapid
-
access



Emergency responder collaboration



Web services negotiated relationships



M&A success
-
likelihood measures



Project partnership evaluations



Some Application & Research Potential



Semantic interoperability



Security interoperability



Governance compatibility



Other Key dimensions: culture, ethics,
behavior, activity speed, …



Key factors within dimensions



Optimization functions



Mediation

Mapping the interlocking codes

of system
-
of
-
system compatibilities

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Leadership

Power

Structural

Strategic

Relationship

2) Factors

Interoperability Mediation

Mapping the mating codes

of system
-
of
-
system compatibilities

Process

Semantics

Security

Culture

Governance

Ethics



Factors

Factors

Factor
s

Factors

Factors

Factors

1) Dimensions

3) Compatibility Math

Enterprise A

Dimension
n

Factor
m

Enterprise B

Dimension
n

Factor
m

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Leadership

Power

Structural

Strategic

Relationship

2) Factors

Interoperability Mediation

Mapping the mating codes

of system
-
of
-
system compatibilities

Process

Semantics

Security

Culture

Governance

Ethics



Factors

Factors

Factor
s

Factors

Factors

Factors

1) Dimensions

3) Compatibility Math

Enterprise A

Dimension
n

Factor
m

Enterprise B

Dimension
n

Factor
m

Extended Enterprise

Simulation Project

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Systems
-
of
-
Systems Mediation Layer


Semantic Interoperability is the Glue

Enabling network
-
speed FCS, SOA, and Semantic Web deployment necessity

Critical

Infrastructure

Performance

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Three Dimensions of Semantic Computing

The workhorse tool for semantic interoperability is the ontology:

“a description (like a formal specification of a program) of the concepts and
relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents …
Pragmatically, a
common ontology

defines the vocabulary with which queries and
assertions are exchanged among agents.”

[GRUB 07]


From Daconta, Obrst, Smith 2003 [DACO 03]; Adapted by Richard Murphy [SICoP 05]


11


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Adaptive Information


Improving Business Through Semantic Interoperability, Grid Computing, and Enterprise Integration

Jeffrey T. Pollock and Ralph Hodgson, John Wiley & Sons, 2004

12


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Complex Adaptive Systems


Self Organizing Systems


Systems of Systems


Swarm Systems







Evolving Systems


...and more

SDOE 683

Design of Agile Systems and Enterprises

Self Organizing Systems of Systems

Autonomous Agent Systems

Open Community Systems

Network Systems

Willful Systems

HIT Systems



Resilient Systems

13


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A Framework with

Requisite Variety, Parsimony, and Harmony

1)

A robot may not injure a
human being or, through
inaction, allow a human
being to come to harm.

2)

A robot must obey orders
given it by human beings
except where such orders
would conflict with the First
Law.

3)

A robot must protect its own
existence as long as such
protection does not conflict
with the First or Second Law.

The Three Laws

of Robotics

(Isaac Azimov)

BANTAM BOOKS

This is a generative framework, the basis of emergence

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Evolving Framework


“In science fiction, the Three Laws of Robotics are a set of three rules
written by Isaac Asimov, which almost all
positronic

robots

appearing
in his fiction must obey.
Introduced in his 1942 short story
"Runaround"
, although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories, the Laws
state the following:


A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a
human being to come to harm.


A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings except where
such orders would conflict with the First Law.


A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection
does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity,
or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws
are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.

According to the
Oxford English Dictionary
,

the first passage in
Asimov's short story "
Liar!
" (1941) that mentions the First Law is the
earliest recorded use of the word
robotics
. Asimov was not initially
aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with
mechanics,

hydraulics,

and other similar terms denoting branches of
applied knowledge.

The Three Laws form an organizing principle and unifying theme for
Asimov's fiction, appearing in his
Robot

series

and the other stories
linked to it, as well as his
Lucky Starr series

of science
-
oriented
young
-
adult fiction
. Other authors working in Asimov's fictional
universe have adopted them, and references (often
parodic
) appear
throughout science fiction and in other genres.

Wikipedia, 9/4/07



This image, the cover to
a now out
-
of
-
print
edition of
I, Robot,

illustrates the first scene
in Asimov's corpus
which uses all three
Laws, though earlier
stories presumed robots
had various built
-
in
safeguards. As such,
this cover depicts an
important moment in the
history of science
fiction, and it is
therefore of
considerable scholarly
utility.

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z(n+1) = z(n)
2

+ c

THE MANDELBROT SET


INFINITE VARIETY FROM A SIMPLE EQUATION

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Another Generative framework

“Companies seeking an “empowered” or decentralized
work environment should first and foremost impose a
tight ideology, screen and indoctrinate people into that
ideology, eject viruses, and give those who remain the
tremendous sense of responsibility that comes with
membership in an elite organization. It means getting
the right actors on the stage, putting them in the right
frame of mind, and then giving them the freedom to ad
lib as they see fit. It means, in short, that cult
-
like
tightness around an ideology actually
enables

a
company to turn people loose to experiment, change,
adapt, and


above all


to
act
.”

Built to Last
, pg. 139, Collins and Porras

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Pattern Languages



Alexander suggests using
Pattern Languages


A dictionary of terms laying out a set of basic design decisions


Alexander presents over 250 examples, including:


'alcoves'

'entrance transition'

'ceiling height variety'



'secret place'

'cascade of roofs'

'wings of light'



'something roughly in the middle'


Design discussions are conducted

using this language


Design at all levels springs

from this common base

o
Not every room will have 'alcoves'

or 'ceiling height variety'

o
Many will


The common language promotes

commonality of design



The pattern language does not tell you

how

to design anything


It helps you decide
what

should be designed


From "Design Patterns" Aren't” by Mark Jason Dominus,
mjd
-
perl
-
yak+@
plover.com

http://perl.plover.com/yak/design/


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Scientific American, March 2000, pps 72
-
79

What can SoS learn from swarms?


Are they willful?


Does Nature care if they succeed?

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An Army of Small Robots,

Grabowski, R., Navarro
-
Serment, L.E., Kholsa, P.K

Scientific American, Nov 2003, pps 62
-
67

Maybe some swarms

can and do consist

of self
-
sufficient units

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Group Consensus?

"Anyone taken as an individual is tolerably sensible and
reasonable


as a member of a crowd, he at once becomes a
blockhead.

[Bernard Baruch, Speculator]


"The mass never comes up to the standard of its best member, but
on the contrary degrades itself to a level with the lowest.

[Henry David Thoreau]


"Madness is the exception in individuals but the rule in groups.

[Friedrich Nietzsche]


"I do not believe on the collective wisdom of individual ignorance.

[Thomas Carlyle, Historian]


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Emergence?

The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind
, Gustave Le Bon:

"... it is stupidity and not mother wit that is accumulated.

"... can never accomplish acts demanding a high degree of intelligence.

"... always intellectually inferior to the isolated individual.



"A crowd, Le Bon argued, was more than just the sum of its members.
Instead, it was a kind of independent organism. It had an identity and a
will of its own, and it often acted in ways that no one within the crowd
intended. [James Surowiecki,
The Wisdom of Crowds
]


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Doubleday, 2004

Examines three kinds of group problems:

-

Cognition

-

Coordination

-

Cooperation


Groups work well under certain conditions...

-

Need rules to maintain order and coherence

-

Individuals think and act independently

-

Individuals talk
-
to/learn
-
from each other

-

But, too much communication is bad


Conditions necessary:

-

Diversity

-

Independence

-

Decentralization
-

with aggregation


Lesson:

-

Even the author can't accept the truth

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Barrett
-
Koehler, 1999, www.bkconnection.com

Cooperative Enterprise

SoS Concepts


-

Such as VISA




Wisdom:










Lessons:


aggregation not centralization


minimal rules of order/coherence


non
-
interference (independence)


self
-
selection (decentralization)


explicit synergy (collective value)



High growth to large group, but then...


Backslid to conventional structure

24


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Will

Control
-
System Model of Human Goal Pursuit

...Studies in Human and Organization Interaction

Amity and Enmity
-

I
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

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2
-
Partner Unconscious Attitude Linkage

Amity and Enmity
-

I
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

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Complexity and Systems of Systems

Amity and Enmity
-

I
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

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Cooperation Against an Enemy

Amity and Enmity
-

II
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

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Stability of Cooperation vs Intelligence/Speed

Amity and Enmity
-

II
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

29


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Is Selfless Interest Super Natural?

Amity and Enmity
-

II
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

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Amity and Enmity
, Rudolf Starkermann, 2003

Editions a la Carte, Zurich, Switzerland

www.editions.ch, info@copycenter.ch

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Fast, Cheap and Out of Control

"Ghengis was a robot that could walk over anything in its path as it followed a person.
Ghengis had six legs, bumper antennas, and infrared sensors for following the heat
signature of the person it is following. The software for Ghenghis was not organized as a
single program but fifty
-
one parallel programs Brooks called Augmented finite
-
state
machines, which can send numbers to components on fixed wires. The first forty eight
AFSMs allow Ghenghis to scramble around rough terrain. The
walk machine

uses six
outputs that sequence the six legs to take steps. The
Infrared Sensors machine

receives
input from six pyroelectronic sensors and each one has an on or off state that feeds into the
Prowl or Steer machine
. The
Prowl machine

is connected to inhibit the outputs of the
Walk
finite
-
state machine
. If the robot detected some infrared activity, it walked toward it. If the
sensors had been rotated to the back of the robot, it would walk away. ... The insect
-
like
Ghengis was a turning point for robotics. Ghengis followed an emergent trajectory that was
a product of both of its actions and its situation in the terrain of the world.

(Amazon
Reviewer: D. Nishimoto)

[Rodney Brooks heads the CSAI Lab at MIT]

Attila, MIT (1989

91)

© MIT, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory


Genghis

www.amazon.com/Flesh
-
Machines
-
Robots
-
Will
-
Change/dp/037572527X

www.britannica.com/eb/article
-
219109/artificial
-
intelligence

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Paraphrasing a comment Brook's made...



I don't think humans can write

predictable emergent programs.


The answer may lie in

humans providing the initial seeds,

which are then improved by genetic algorithms.


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Will They Attack Boston By Mistake?

Current swarms are remote controlled. Future swarms will be autonomous.

Patrolling the eastern seaboard. Evolving toward willfulness.

www.military
-
aerospace
-
technology.com/article.cfm?DocID=686

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Aberrant behavior arising in a stable social system

is detected and opposed

Example: Female penguin attempting to steal a replacement egg
for the one she lost is prevented from doing so by others.

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Complex Adaptive Systems

The Biology of Business, John Henry Clippinger III, Editor, Jossey
-
Bass, 1999, p 9.

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The Roessler Attractor

“This figure is a plot in three
-
dimensional phase space of a set of differential
equations in their chaotic regime. The line that twists through this figure indicates
the trajectory of this system, a trajectory that is so intertwined that arbitrarily

small differences in initial conditions can lead to widely

varying outcomes.


For instance, if the system starts

at location “A,” it is in principle

impossible to predict whether at

a specified future time it will be at

location B or location C.


However, in spite of its detailed

unpredictability, the system

is confined to a highly

structured envelope, and it

is impossible for it to visit

the point D.



[“Making Swarming Happen,” Conference on Swarming and C4ISR,

Van Parunak, 3 Jan 2003, www.newvectors.net/staff/parunakv/MSH03.pdf].



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Some Research Possibilities

What are the differences between


Complex Systems,


Wicked Systems, and


Systems of Systems?




CS

WS

SoS


Behavior



Fixed

Changing

Changing




Cause

Generating

Generating

Generating



Function

Function

Function





Effect

Bounded

Unbounded

Bounded




Intriguing thought at this point


to be explored.

38


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Ad by Accenture

Scientists have investigated this
question of expertise
--

specifically,
skill at a level that seems unobtainable
by normal, motivated individuals. In
one case, Researchers at Florida State
University studied musicians at a
Berlin conservatory.

The results were clear
-
cut, with little
room for any sort of inscrutable God
-
given talent. The
elite musicians had
practiced far more than the others
.
"That's been replicated for all sorts of
things
--

chess players and athletes,
dart players," says Ericsson.


"The only striking difference between
experts and amateurs is in this
capability to deliberately practice."


The group even determined the number
of hours musicians must play to
compete at the highest professional
level
--

about 10,000, the equivalent of
practicing four hours a day, every day,
for almost seven years.

Mastering Expertise

Aug 21/28, 2006

39


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Effortful, Self
-
Critical Study

Studies

of

the

mental

processes

of

chess

grandmasters

have

revealed

clues

to

how

people

become

experts

in

other

fields

as

well
.

Effortful

study

is

the

key

to

achieving

success

in

chess,

classical

music,

soccer

and

many

other

fields
.

New

research

has

indicated

that

motivation

is

a

more

important

factor

than

innate

ability
.



Psychologists

found

a

second

attribute

in

elite

players

that

is

less

obvious

than

sheer

hours

of

practice
.

While

most

of

us

think

of

practice

as

the

repetition

of

tough

spots,

elite

musicians,

they

found,

took

a

different

approach
.

They

were

intensely

self
-
critical,

identifying

weaknesses

at

an

incredibly

detailed

level
.

They

examined

the

pattern

in

which

they

put

their

fingers

down,

the

way

their

muscles

tensed

--

and

they

continually

experimented

with

ways

to

improve
.

In

other

words,

they

were

not

only

musically

creative,

they

were

creative

about

solving

problems
.


Photo: Ethan Hill

Scientific American, Aug 2006

Aug 21/28, 2006

Scientific American, Aug 2006

40


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Marin Civic Center

Frank Lloyd Wright

Zen and the Art of System Design

41


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Frank Lloyd Wright

...only when we know what constitutes a
good building...when we know that the
good building is not one that hurts the
landscape, but is one that makes the
landscape more beautiful than it was
before that building was built.


Still
regarded as the greatest 20th Century
house ever built
. Responding to the
geological strata of the site, his mastlike
tower of stacked shale stone seemingly
held aloft three cantilevered levels
hovering over Bear Run, a tiny river.

He expressed the rocky site by
metaphorically lifting the stones out of the
riverbed to create the interior floor planes,
using the largest rock, the Kaufman's
choice spot to sunbathe, as the
hearthstone for the living room fireplace.
And instead of orienting the structure to
face the falls, Wright floated the entire
structure over the falls,
merging the house
inseparably into the total natural picture
.

Excerpted from David Jameson,

www.architechgallery.com/arch_info/artists_pages/frank_lloyd_wright.html

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43


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Value Propositioning

as a System



Requisite Variety

Parsimony

Harmony

44


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SDOE 675

SDOE 678

SDOE 679

SDOE 683

675

678


679


683

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675

Thinking

678

Engineering

679

Architecting

683

Designing

science

rationale

strategy

vision

fundamentals

agile systems and enterprises

architecture

infrastructure

shape

art

architecting

process

application

elegance

strategy

performance

683
-

Designing Agile Systems and Enterprises:


Design Quality and Self Organizing Systems

Common themes converge here in a study of agility
across a wide variety of system types, characterized by
aspects of complex adaptive systems expressed as self
-
organized systems of systems. Studies will explore 4
th

generation warfare, swarm systems, systems of systems
with willful components, resiliency and vulnerability in
infrastructure networks, emergent behavior,
interoperability, open
-
community systems, attractors and
generating functions as behavior boundaries,
evolutionary systems, and similar issues at the moving
edge of agile system and enterprise knowledge.


46


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What do sexually transmitted diseases, the World Wide Web,
the electric power grid, Al
Queda

terrorists, and a cocktail party
have in common? They are all networks. They conform to
surprising mathematical laws which are only now becoming
clear. Albert
-
Laszlo
Barabasi

has helped discover some of
those laws over just the past five years, and though they are
some pretty abstruse mathematics, he has written a clear and
interesting guide to them.

Not only has he attempted in this book to bring the math to non
-
mathematicians, he has shown why the work is important in
down
-
to
-
earth applications. It is important for those multitudes
who have no taste for math to know that this is not a book full of
equations;
Barabasi

knows that for most of his readers, doing
the math is not as important as getting a feel for what the math
does.

He explains the basic history of network theory, and then shows
how his own work has turned it into a closer model of reality, a
model that most of us will recognize. Networks are all around
us, and they are simply not random. Some of our friends, for
instance, are loners, while others seem to know everyone in
town. Some websites, like Google and Amazon, we just cannot
avoid clicking on or being referred to, but many others are
obscure and you could only find them if someone sent you their
addresses.
Barabasi

calls these "nodes" with such an
extraordinary number of links "hubs," and he and his students
have found laws of networks with hubs, showing such things as
how they can continue to function if random nodes are
eliminated but they fragment if the hubs are hit.

Barabasi

is currently doing research to show what intracellular proteins interact with other proteins, and
true to form, some of them are hubs of reactions with lots of others. Finding the hubs of cancerous cells,
for instance, and developing ways of taking them out, show enormous promise in the fight against cancer.
And finding the hub terrorists in Al
Queda

in order to take them out would be the best way to eliminate the
network
.

[
Amazon reviewer Rob Hardy]


47


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Review By


C. W. Richards

(Atlanta, GA United States)




Global guerrillas practice something Robb calls "open source
warfare," which means that in the modern environment,
people even on different continents can form or join groups,
train, and carry out operations much more quickly than in the
past or than the major legacy states can today.


As the groups learn from each other (and a sort of Darwinism
selects out the unfit), a larger pattern forms,
an "emergent
intelligence,"

similar to a marauding colony of army ants, no
one of which is very sophisticated, but
operating together
according to simple rules, they are survivable, adaptable, and
in a suitable environment, invincible
.

To construct this model, Robb employs a number of concepts
that may be new to people unfamiliar with modern systems
theory:
close
-
coupled systems, self
-
organization, emergent
properties (particularly "intelligence"), stigmergy, and the
concept of complexity arising from simple processes.


He also introduces new tools for understanding how systems
work in the modern world: open source insurgency, global
virtual states, superempowerment, systempunkts, and "black
swans."

Robb's general strategy is to
improve resilience by any means
possible.

I could imagine, for example, that instead of building
new power plants that, along with their distribution systems,
are vulnerable to disruption, the government provides market
incentives to improve resilience. The government could
increase subsidies to utilities and require all of them to buy
electricity from homeowners during the day and sell it at
reduced rates at night. As more people add power generation
capability to their houses
-

solar, wind, geothermal,
hydroelectric, whatever
-

resilience improves. This may not be
the most efficient solution, but in the age of open source
insurgency, too much efficiency can be dangerous.



Robb makes a compelling case that this model will also work
for national security. It is certainly working very well for the
groups we are fighting.


Order emerges from chaos
-

ready or not

Publisher: Wiley (April 20, 2007)

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Whether or not you care about leaderless, borderless
and/or decentralized organizations, labeled as starfish
organizations, they probably affect your life in some way or
another whether you have downloaded music or avoided it,
dealt with
PETA
, looked up something in Wikipedia, had
actions of al
-
Qaeda affect your life in some way like stricter
restrictions at the airports, etc. In that sense, you might as
well get to know something about them to make better use
of them or be prepared to deal with them effectively when
you have to. If you read this book, you will likely not just
want to know or know more about them, but get involved to
see what they're all about or get more involved.

Written from both an overview and hands
-
on approach,
this book is not only useful as a reference but also as a
manual on the issue. The book identified the qualities of
starfish organizations and what makes them effective, how
anyone and everyone could start, sustain and/or get
involved in these organizations, the types of people key to
such organizations and how to combat them if you're on
the other side. Guidelines are offered and useful real life
examples illustrate what otherwise be just concepts.

…it did not address how government could use this book to decentralize since …
government is the epitome of centralization. I work for government, and felt government
badly needed this, but had to think it through myself to come up with uses for attracting
colleagues to my Starfish and Spider for Lunch (and Learn) voluntary book review session.
When I did, though, not only was I excited at the possibilities, but also at the challenge to try
to convince senior management of this, although that will take time. …if nothing else, my
ability to customize an application to government should tell you something about the
book's effectiveness as a manual.


Amazon Review by
Minh Tan

49


rick.dove@stevens.edu, attributed copies permitted

There is a lot of good stuff in here. The
descriptions of the patch procedure and
simulated annealing, for instance, are very
nice. This book can be useful to the
motivated general reader, and to a scientist
who wants to see the very basics of some
novel ideas. It can also be useful for those
familiar with complexity as an account of
how different pieces fit together.

It's important to remember that the book is
not a text in, say, biochemistry. Rather, it's
about a way to see the world. At this stage
of the idea development life cycle and in a
basic treatment like this, it would be
counterproductive to insist that these
modeling tools reproduce everything we
know or start at the level of complication of
a mature science. If the book deals in toy
examples that relate to a different view for
pieces of the world and how they relate, it
has done most of its job.

[Amazon reviewer]


$12.89 new, on Amazon

50


rick.dove@stevens.edu, attributed copies permitted

"Sync" is a dissertation on synchronization
and its place in the universe. Standard
entropy theory has always indicated that a
system that is orderly will, over time, move
to a position of less and less organization.
However, that is not always consistent with
observations in real life.

Steven
Strogatz

does an inspired job of
describing how synchronization exists in
such small areas as fireflies and plant
leaves to much larger concepts of the
universe and the asteroid belt in our solar
system.

One of the more fascinating sections of the
book deals with synchronization in human
beings.

…for those with a keen interest in the cycles
of the natural world and current research
into this emerging field this is one of the
foremost texts on the subject. It is a highly
recommended read for anyone with a desire
to learn about how natural tendencies
toward synchronization move us to
spontaneous order.
[Amazon Review by Harold McFarland]