addressed in this study is the lack of suitable definition and measures for evaluating the
quality of Islamic websites. This study aims to identify and examine both design and content features
that relates to Islamic websites. The study has evaluated 50 se
lected Islamic websites. Nine (9) design
features have been identified which are: navigation, interactivity, and attractiveness) and content
features (i.e. legitimacy, objectivity, authority, relevance, credibility, and reliability). A heuristic
evaluation

method involving single
-
user was used to evaluate the selected Islamic websites. The results
revealed that Islamic websites demonstrates significant quality on their design & content features over
time. The results also indicated that the overall Islamic
website’s quality varied significantly
between different Islamic websites. In addition, the results suggested that new additional features
influence the overall quality of Islamic websites. Thus, we propose a working definition and a new
model for evalua
ting the quality of Islamic websites.

P
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58

The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicle Tracking
System for Rental Car Firms

Akram Zeki
,
Omarah Omar Alharaki, Fahad Saleh Alaieri, Akram M. ZekiOmarah Omar Alharaki,
Fahad Saleh Alaieri, Akram M.
Zeki

Department of Information System
,
Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology

International Islamic University

Malaysia

GPS tracking system developed that transmit vehicle’s data in real time via cellular or satellite
networks to a remote
computer or data center. Vehicle tracking system signifies the monitoring and
management of vehicle, trucks, etc by using GPS system to get the current location, situation, history
and control them. The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking

system (tracking device and
web
-
based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various
applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate
with each other via the GPS navig
ator. The system should be developed by applying new features in
GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied
to the GPS Navigator. It also shows the benefits that the customers and staff will get
from this system.

P
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65

Development of Concept Design for Folding Bicycle Frame System

M Abdul Maleque
,
M NizamM Nizam

Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Light weight materials have become a popular material substitution for automotive, sports, medical,
aerospace and other engineering fields due to high strength and stiffness and less energy consumption.
This paper deals with the development of concept desi
gn of a folding bicycle by using light weight
material. A systematic and step
-
by
-
step approach of full design is shown for better understanding of the
Science, Engineering and Technology


design concept of folding bicycle. The methodology of conceptual stage and evaluation systems are
discuss
ed for selecting the best concept. The materials selection process involve in making the best
candidate material for the folding bicycle. The best material according to functional requirement will be
chosen as the material for this folding bicycle. The det
ailed design of the folding bicycle is prepared
with some improvement from existing concept. The finite element analysis is done on the frame design
to know the performance on real application.

P
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68

A new way to improve product surface quality by an
innovative
chatter suppression technique in End Milling processes

A.K.M. Nurul Amin
,
Dr. A.U. PatwariDr. A.U. Patwari

Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Abstract:

Chatter is defined as self
-
excited violent relative dynamic motion between the cutting tool and work
-
piece. Chatter is undesirable due to its adverse effects on the product quality, operation cost, machining
accuracy, tool life, machine
-
tool bearings, and
machine
-
tool life. A new technique was developed to
remove all the adverse effects on machining by controlling the chatter formation considering the
instability of the closed
-
loop system formed by machine tool structure and metal
-
cutting process.

One of t
he most challenging issues in machining process is to know the chatter characteristics. Modal
analysis is a process whereby a structure may be defined in terms of its natural characteristics which are
the frequency, damping and mode shapes –its dynamic p
roperties. Several control approaches to the
active suppression of chatter during machining are examined using a specially constructed milling
experiment by other researches. An innovative approach was proposed using ferrite magnet for
suppressing chatter
during end milling operations.

It has been observed that magnetic force within the area of cutting processes reduces the chatter
vibration almost 68% and improve the surface roughness 40%. This innovative approach will be an
effective tool to improve the
surface quality of the machined surface.


P
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69

An innovative cost effective Silicon machining Technique by
Applying High Speed End Milling

Dr. A.K.M. Nurul Amin
,
A.K.M. Nurul Amin1, Anayet U. Patwari, Dali M, Musa M.I.A.K.M. Nurul
Amin1, Anayet U.
Patwari, Dali M, Musa M.I.

Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Machining of silicon is a big challenge and expensive affair because of it inherent brittleness which
is a major limitati
on as the process of removing the material can generate subsurface damage. Silicon is
conventionally finished using grinding followed by polishing and lapping to achieve required surface
finish and surface integrity. Numerous research works attempted to co
nduct ductile mode grinding to
avoid cracking and subsurface damages. However, it has been revealed that sub surface damages and
micro cracks can’t be avoided if grinding is performed. As a result, lengthy etching operations need
to be performed to remov
e the surface defect crated by grinding. Hence, it is extremely important to
develop alternative techniques to improve surface finish and avoid/minimize subsurface damages in
order to lower the cycle time in machining and finishing of silicon chips.

An attempt has been made in this work to investigate the effect of high speed end milling on surface
finish and integrity of silicon to minimizing the amount of finishing requirement in machining of
silicon, with the objective of reducing cost and increasi
ng effectiveness of silicon manufacturing
process. This work aimed at machining silicon using small diameter (2 mm) diamond coated tools in
ductile mode regime by employing high speed end
-
milling employing high rpm of the spindle (up to
80,000 rpm). A spec
ial fixture was designed and fabricated for holding the silicon work piece during
machining. Low values (micro
-
meter level) of feed and depth of cut employed during machining helped
to ensure nano
-
level surface finish that is able to avoid the need of fur
ther grinding and even polishing.

Science, Engineering and Technology


This new route of machining employing high speed end milling is expected to be more cost effective
since the need for the costly and time consuming finishing operations like grinding and polishing could
be avoided and the

time for final etching could be substantially lowered.


P
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74

Can AnnAt1 of Arabidopsis thaliana contribute to Pb
phytoremediation?

Ing Chia Phang
,
Ing Chia PhangÂ-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-, Gregory B. ClarkÂ-Â-, H. Harry TaylorÂ-Â-Â-Â-,
Ashley GarrillÂ-Â-Â-Â-, David

W.M. Leung.Ing Chia PhangÂ-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-, Gregory B. ClarkÂ-Â-, H.
Harry TaylorÂ-Â-Â-Â-, Ashley GarrillÂ-Â-Â-Â-, David W.M. Leung.

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Because of increasing anthropogenic outputs, le
ad (Pb) has gained attention as a potent
environmental health hazard. Pb, a non
-
essential element, is persistent and cannot be degraded from the
environment. This heavy metal contaminant is likely to enter human’s food chain, where it poses a
hazard to p
ublic health. Phytoremediation has emerged as a potential remediation tool to remove heavy
metal pollutants from the environment. The concept of plant
-
based environmental remediation is
technically and economically attractive, compared to the conventional
remediation methods.

Although the response of different plants to different stressors varies, there are common stress
-
related genes that are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This experiment was
undertaken to further understand the

molecular mechanisms plants employ to deal with Pb stress,
focusing on the possible role of annexin 1 (AnnAt1) in Pb tolerance. Annexins are reported to be related
to heat shock proteins, which are the most extensively characterized stress
-
response genes.

Additionally,
annexins have emerged as a key player in abiotic stresses, and are likely to play a role in Pb exposure.
Using a quantitative real
-
time RT
-
PCR, the present study detected up
-
regulation of AnnAt1 in seedlings
exposed to 100 μM Pb(NO3)2, by 2
.12
-
fold, in comparison to the control plants. The relative
contribution of AnnAt1 in defence against Pb stress will be discussed.

P
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76

Electron Beam Irradiated Nanocomposite for Gas Barrier
Application

Hazleen Anuar
,
Hazleen Anuar, Nur Ayuni Jamal,
Shamsul Bahri Abdul RazakHazleen Anuar, Nur
Ayuni Jamal, Shamsul Bahri Abdul Razak

Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Nanocomposites with balance in mechanical, thermal
and gas barrier properties are the main target
for developing this system. The nanocomposites systems were first prepared via intercalation technique
with different organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) loading. Two types of crosslinking techniques
were appl
ied namely; maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) and electron beam (EB) irradiated
system. The effectiveness of these systems were then compared with control specimen and analyzed
based on the mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties as well as morph
ological examinations. The
mechanical tests revealed that control, MAPE and EB irradiated systems had attained the optimum
mechanical properties at 4 vol% OMMT content. In this study, the introduction of 4 vol% organophilic
montmorillonite (OMMT) was found

to further enhance the barrier property of nanocomposites. EB
irradiated system at dose rate of 100 kGy showed excellent mechanical, thermal and gas barrier
properties with highest crosslinking degree which were proved by gel content analysis. X
-
ray diffr
action
(XRD) analysis confirmed the existence of delamination structure with MAPE and EB irradiation
techniques based on the disappearance of characteristic peak. The degree of delamination was further
investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM)
. On the other hand, field emission scanning
electron microscope (FESEM) revealed the stacking condition of OMMT particles was greatly reduced
with crosslinking agents particularly with EB irradiated system as evidenced by finer surface.

Science, Engineering and Technology


P
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77

Kenaf: Renew
able Source for Biopolymer

Hazleen Anuar
,
Hazleen Anuar, Maizirwan Mel, Nurhafizah Mohamed Seeni, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir,
Mohd Adlan Mustafa KamalbhrinHazleen Anuar, Maizirwan Mel, Nurhafizah Mohamed Seeni, Nur
Aimi Mohd Nasir, Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbhrin

Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Nowadays, most polymers are derived from non renewable resources such from crude oil which is
not environmental friendly. This has led

to the research on producing biodegradable polymers which is
polylactic acid (PLA) from 100% renewable sources such as plant with good properties. Lactic acid
(LA) is the basic building monomer in PLA construction. Traditionally, the raw material that bee
n used
in LA production are obtain by using starch or cellulose from the plant. The common types of starch
used are from field corn, wheat and many more which considered as less economical since they have to
compete with the food sources industries. Kenaf
(Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) is found to be the best
alternative plant to substitute the raw material for LA production due to its short period of harvest time
and process high quality cellulose. It is a lignocellulosic material which is naturally resistant t
o
breakdown to its structural sugars that will inhibit microorganisms to be accessed through. Thus, it
needs to undergo pre
-
treatment process either by mild acid hydrolysis or base hydrolysis in order to
liberate glucose. Three solvents namely sodium hydro
xide (NaOH), sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and
ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were used to determine the best method for pre
-
treatment process.
Sulfuric acid was found to give highest percentage of glucose conversion which is 9.83% or 2.95 g/L
glucose. Further, the o
ptimization process was carried out by using sulphuric acid as it main solvent.
From this process, 8.65 g/L of glucose have been produced, which equivalent to 21.63% of glucose
conversion. Then, the fermentation process was conducted by using Lactobacillus

rhamnosus as
microbes to produce lactic acid. After the fermentation process, the lactic acid will be then purified and
synthesis into polylactic acid via polycondensation method.

P
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78

Injection Moulded Lightweight Kenaf Fibre Thermoplastic
Elastomer Com
posite for Automotive Components

Hazleen Anuar
,
Hazleen Anuar, Zuraida Ahmad

Hazleen Anuar, Zuraida Ahmad


Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) blends have been developed offering various advantages and
required no state
-
of
-
the
-
art processing machinery, while scrap and rejects are recyclable. The use of
thermoplastic and elastomer however posses several limitations
due to the increasing prices of plastics
and natural rubber over the past few years. Hence, effort has been taken by combining kenaf natural
fibres with thermoplastic elastomers. In this project, 20 vol% kenaf fibre was incorporated into
thermoplastic elas
tomer. Two types of impact modifier were blended with polypropylene (PP) namely;
thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) and polypropylene/ethylene
-
propylene
-
diene
-
monomer
(PP/EPDM). Both composites were produced via double melt blending method using Haake int
ernal
mixer before they were injection moulded. The ratio of thermoplastic:elastomer was 70:30 for both
polymer blends. Maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a compatibilizer between
matrix and reinforcement. The tensile strength for TPNR was
about 12% higher than the PP/PPDM
matrix. The present of kenaf fibre (KF) and MAPP however has significantly increased the tensile
strength of PP/EPDM composite by approximately 81% while only 55% increment attained in TPNR
-
KF
-
MAPP as compared to unreinfor
ced TPNR. Flexural properties and impact strength are greatly
improved for treated kenaf fibre composite. MAPP has successfully forming a linkage bridge between
kenaf fibre and polymer matrix thus enhanced of strength and stiffness of treated thermoplastic

elastomer composites. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) revealed that the improvement achieved
Science, Engineering and Technology


in mechanical properties was due to the interaction between both matrix systems and kenaf fibre.

P
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79

Eco
-
Friendly PLA
-
Kenaf Fibre Biocomposite for Food Pac
kaging

Hazleen Anuar
,
Hazleen Anuar, M.R. Kaiser Faizah Fuad, Zuraida AhmadHazleen Anuar, M.R. Kaiser
Faizah Fuad, Zuraida Ahmad

Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

More

than 100,000,000 polyethylene terephtalate (PET) bottles are used in Malaysia, Singapore and
Brunei yearly. Out of this huge figure, 85,000,000 PET bottles end up as garbage and caused the
landfills to be filled by the PET bottle toxic wastes that leach i
nto the soil. This may pollute and
endangers our environment particularly our drinking water. In light with these emerging problems,
polylactic acid (PLA) is a strong candidate to substitute conventional petroleum based polymers. It
shows very good adhesio
n with natural fibres during the fabrication of biocomposite since they are
hydrophilic in nature. Apart of costly, PLA is also rigid and less ductile which in turn limits its
application. A tropical crop available in Malaysia, kenaf (Hibuscus cannabinus,

L.) fibre has potential
to enhance mechanical, thermal and physical properties of PLA biopolymer. PLA
-
KF biocomposite was
extruded and then injection moulded for mechanical characterization. Tensile properties and flexural
properties significantly improve
d at 20 wt% kenaf fibre content. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM)
of tensile fracture specimen has revealed the interaction between fibre and matrix, which supported the
increment in mechanical properties. Thermal analysis by means of differential scanni
ng calorimetry
(DSC) shows that the amourphous state of PLA was remain unchanged with kenaf fibre content and
imply that kenaf fibre does not facilitating nucleation of PLA. From dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA), storage modulus (E’) of the biocomposite

is higher as compared to unreinforced PLA,
whereas the mechanical loss factor (tan ï
•¤) decreases with kenaf fibre content which associated to the
compatibility of PLA matrix and kenaf fibre. This could suggest that kenaf fibre is a viable source that
may

be incorporated into PLA to reduce mass of the end product and considerably reduced the cost of
raw materials.

P
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90

WiFi/WiMAX Seamless Convergence with Adaptive Vertical
Handover for continuity of Internet Access

Rashid A. Saeed
,
Aisha Hassan, Frahat
Anwar, Othman Khalifa, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin
Mohd. Ali and Mazlan AbbasAisha Hassan, Frahat Anwar, Othman Khalifa, Hafizal Mohamad,
Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali and Mazlan Abbas

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

Intern
ational Islamic University

Malaysia

The next generation of the wireless networks will consist of several overlapping tiers. Provision of
undisrupted communication to mobile users is a challenging task. Handover delay is one of the
problematic issues that
users are faced in the heterogeneous networks. However, in the case of both the
WiMAX and the WiFi technologies which are located at the same base station (BS), the vertical
handover (VHO) delay will be less as compared with the two conventional WiMAX/WiF
i
heterogeneous networks with two different wireless Internet service providers (WISP). Nevertheless,
protocol conversion is still adding delay and jitter for data exchange between the needed two
technologies. In this paper, In order to reduce the delay in

the protocol conversion, a new industrial
design for WiWi (WiMAX and WiFi) adaptation layer is proposed. The realization of the interworking
between these two standards is discussed and evaluated. The results show that the proposed scheme
-
with the scenar
io under study
-

has better performance than other related works.

P
-
91

Design and Evaluation of Lightweight IEEE 802.11p
-
based TDMA
MAC method for Road Side
-
to
-
Vehicle Communications

Rashid A. Saeed
,
Rashid A. Saeed, M. Abakar, Aisha Hasan, Omer Mahmoud, Othman Khalifa, Frahat
Science, Engineering and Technology


AnwarRashid A. Saeed, M. Abakar, Aisha Hasan, Omer Mahmoud, Othman Khalifa, Frahat Anwar

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Wireless
vehicular communication (WVC) has been identified as a key technology for intelligent
transportation systems (ITS) for the past few years. IEEE 802.11p is the proposed standard for the
physical and MAC layer of the WVC devices. The main objective of the st
andard is to change the frame
format in order to increase the delay spread tolerance introduced by the vehicle mobility, in which the
channel bandwidth is scaled from 20 MHz, i.e., 802.11a to 10 MHz, i.e., 802.11p. This paper proposes
the TDMA technique wi
th fixed time slots and a guard band between the slots to ensure interoperability
between the wireless devices to communicate in rapidly changing environment where transactions must
be completed in small timeframes. The new TDMA sub
-
layer is proposed to be

on top of the
conventional 802.11p CSMA/CA MAC. We have found that 802.11p
-
based TDMA can achieve much
higher throughput compared with the conventional 802.11p
-
based CSMA/CA, as the distance, vehicle
speed and numbers increase. Ns
-
2 simulation results pre
sent the performance analysis and validate the
efficiency of the proposed scheme.

P
-
93

Animal Sound Activity Detection Using Multi
-
Class Support Vector
Machines

winda Astuti
,
W. Astuti, A.M. Aibinu, M. J. E Salami, R. Akmelawati, and Asan Gani Abdul
MuthalifW.
Astuti, A.M. Aibinu, M. J. E Salami, R. Akmelawati, and Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif

Department of Mechatronics Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

It has been reported that relatively few number of
animal died during most natural disasters such as
Tsunami, earthquake, landslide, etc. prior to the occurrence earthquake of these disaster, available
evidence show that the animal sometime migrate to the higher level or leave the scene areas en masse. It
is not an overstatement to say that with just 1 10 minutes warning, trains could move out of tunnels and
people could move to safer part of the building or flee unsafe building while with an hour warning,
people could shut off water and gas lines coming in
to their homes and move to safety and most probably
with a day’s warning, people could collect their families and congregate in a safe location, bringing
food, water and fuel with them. This research, support vector machine (SVM) for animal sounds activi
ty
detection has been developed. The research start with detailed review of existing signal applicable to
animals present in Malaysia. SVM is proposed for classification of artificial intelligent based extracted
features from recorded animal sounds. The re
sult of classification shown that SVM can be used for
animal sounds activity detection.

P
-
102

Estimation of Aerodynamic Parameters of IIUM Low Speed Hybrid
Airship

Amelda Dianne Andan
,
Amelda Dianne Andan, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf A. OmarAmelda Dianne Andan,
Waqar Asrar, Ashraf A. Omar

Department of Mechanical Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Hybrid airships have been acknowledged as a potential means of alternative transportation. It
integrates advanced technology and demand principles such as aerodynamics and stability and control.
A great deal and rapid research has been directed to the flig
ht performance of hybrid airships, there are
moderate studies intended for its aerodynamic or aerodynamic stability. Hybrid airship such as a
winged
-
hull airship invites detail aerodynamic examination since it is unique according to its
unconventionality.
Thus, a research is done to investigate the aerodynamic parameters of a preliminary
IIUM low speed winged
-
hull airship design. The objective is to study the aerodynamic parameters of the
winged
-
hull airship and to find the necessities of attaching wings to

the existing IIUM low speed
airship. In theory, the winged
-
hull airship is expected to contribute higher lift force compare to
conventional airship due to the existing wings. Also, the longitudinal and directional stability are
expected to be statically s
table. However, it maybe statically unstable in lateral axis due to the side gust
Science, Engineering and Technology


against the gondola and wings. The research methodology involved in the use of numerical simulation
and laboratory testing to study fluid flow over a 5 m3 winged
-
hull airship
. The aerodynamic parameters
of the design are first computed by computational fluid dynamics with the aid of STAR CCM+
(4.04.011) software. The research work continues in laboratory testing with wind tunnel and six
component balances as the main tool. The

total forces and moment coefficients are then collected at a
selected range of angles. The results obtained were as predicted, lift forces increases tremendously with
reasonable increase in drag. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to
be statically
stable, slight modifications was done on the model to improve its lateral static stability. The overall
study shows that attaching wings to the existing IIUM low speed airship is feasible.

P
-
106

Feedback control of scanner vibrations and cro
ss
-
couplings can

drastically improve speed and accuracy of an AFM

Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood
,
Dr. Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza MoheimaniDr.
Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza Moheimani

Department of Mechatronics
,
Kulliyyah of

Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Recently a new generation of Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) that utilizes position sensors to
measure displacements of the scanner in three dimensions has emerged. These AFMs are equipped with
feedba
ck loops that work to minimize the adverse effects of hysteresis, piezoelectric creep and thermal
drift on the obtained image using standard PI controllers. However, these feedback controllers are often
not designed to deal with the highly resonant nature
of an AFM's scanner, nor with the cross
-
coupling
between various axes. In this paper we illustrate a drastic improvement in accuracy and imaging speed
that can be achieved by proper design of a feedback controller. Through our modifications, we are able
to

scan beyond the 30 Hz scanning frequency limit set by the current AFM controller.

P
-
107

An easy way of precise identifying living fossil (Horseshoe crab) and
its larval stages.

kamaruzzaman Yunus
,
Akbar John B, Kamaruzzaman BY, Jalal KCA, Zaleha K.Akbar

John B,
Kamaruzzaman BY, Jalal KCA, Zaleha K.

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in
delineating the members horseshoe
crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made.
A total of 10 samples were sequenced (including the larval stages) using Megabase sequencer and all
the possible sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Informa
tion (NCBI)
which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class:
Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram using advanced
software predictive tools showed that beetles are c
losely related with horseshoe crabs than common
crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were
distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance
(GD
) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe
crab species.Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with
Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD)

value was higher in 3rd codon
position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was
observed inL. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude
that COI sequencing (barcoding)
could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness
with closely related species and in precisely identifying various developmental stages of animals.

P
-
108

Fast Spiral
-
scan Atomic Force Microscopy

Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood
,
Dr. Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza MoheimaniDr.
Science, Engineering and Technology


Iskandar Al
-
Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza Moheimani

Department of Mechatronics
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

In today’s commercially available AF
Ms, images are generated by scanning the sample’s
surface in a raster pattern. A raster pattern is attained by applying a triangular waveform to the fast axis
(x axis) and a staircase signal to the slow axis (y axis) of the AFM scanner. A drawback of usi
ng a
triangular waveform is that, it contains odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency that will inevitably
excite the mechanical resonance of the scanner if a high frequency triangular waveform is applied to the
scanner. In this work, we describe a new
scanning method for fast atomic force microscopy. In this
method, the sample is scanned in a spiral pattern. A Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) spiral scan can
be produced by applying single frequency cosine and sine signals with slowly varying amplitudes t
o the
x and y axes of the scanner respectively. The use of single frequency input signals allows the scanner to
move at high speeds without exciting the mechanical resonance of the device. Alternatively, the
frequency of the sinusoidal inputs can be varie
d to maintain a constant linear velocity while a spiral
trajectory is being traced. Thus, producing a Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) spiral scan.

P
-
109

Antibiotic resistance microbes in tropical mangrove sediments in
east coast peninsular, Malaysia

Ahmed

Jalal Khan Chowdhury Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
,
Jalal KCA, Akbar John B, Nur Fatin
UT, Mardiana MA, Kamaruzzaman YB, Shahbudin S, Muhammad Nor OmarJalal KCA, Akbar John B,
Nur Fatin UT, Mardiana MA, Kamaruzzaman YB, Shahbudin S, Muhammad Nor Omar

Biotech
nology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The study has been conducted at Tanjung Lumpur, mangrove swamp on January 2009 to isolate and

identify the bacterial community in mangrove soil and their resistance against antibiotics.

Identified

bacteria were Aeromonas hydrophila group 1 and 2, Escherichia coli 1, Chryseomonas luteola,

Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia rubudaea, Klebsiella pnuemoniae
and

Enterobacter cloacae. The identified bacteria were intro
duced to fourteen different antibiotics to

determine the bacterial susceptibility. All the isolates showed 100% resistant towards Beta
-
lactam

antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin and penicillin), vancomycin, sulphafurazole, gentamicin,

erythromycin, tetra
cycline, novobiocin, clindamycin and bacitracin indicates the presence of bacterial

amidases and Beta
-
lactamases in the bacteria which inhibit the action of Beta
-

lactam antibiotics.
Bacteria

isolated from mangrove soil showed 66.7 and 77.8% resistance a
gainst chloramphenicol and

streptomycin, respectively, suggesting that the lipid composition might play a key role in preventing
the

entrance or binding of antibiotic to the cell. All the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin since it

inhibits the enz
yme topoisomerase II that cause the negative super coil in DNA and thus permits

transcription or replication. All bacterial isolates showed Multi Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index
higher

than 0.2 and proved high
-
risk sources of contamination of the environ
ment. This study proved the

presence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains in mangrove soil that could be used for further
studies.

P
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110

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MUSA ACUMINATE L.
PEEL

Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
,
Jalal
KCA, Dina Fuad A, Akbar John
B, Rahman MTJalal KCA, Dina Fuad A, Akbar John B, Rahman MT

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

n
-
hexane, chloroform and water extracts of (Musa acuminate L.) green and ripe banana peel were
Science, Engineering and Technology


evaluated for antibacterial activity. A total of 4 bacterial strains (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella
flexneri, Bacillus subtilis , Enterococcus faecalis) were

selected and antibacterial efficiency of crude
extracts were assessed by well diffusion test via measuring inhibition zones formed in agar plate at
three different dosages (100mg/mL, 200mg/mL and 500mg/mL). The results showed that n
-
hexane and
chloroform

extracts of green banana peel produced significant inhibition zone against Gram
-
negative
bacteria Salmonella typhimurium at dosage of 500 mg/mL. Minimum Inhibition concentration (MIC)
and Minimum Bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay indicated that ther
e were significant growth
inhibition of the bacterial strains against water and chloroform extracts of rip banana peel and n
-
hexane
and chloroform extraction of green banana peel (P < 0.05). The GC/MS analysis of the active extracts of
green banana peels f
rom n
-
hexane and chloroform revealed their molecular weight and the presence of
palmitic acid with 27.38% and 16.17% respectively. In conclusion present study indicated that the
active extraction of n
-
hexane and chloroform of green banana peel has a consid
erable amount of
potential antibacterial compounds.

P
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112

Perna viridis and Solen brevis: Bioindicator of heavy metal
pollution in Pahang Coastal Water

Kamaruzzaman Yunus
,
Kamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin
S.Kamaruzzaman BY,
Zahir MS, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin S.

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in soft tissue of Perna viridis collected from
Pekan on November 2009 revealed

that average concentration of Zn in soft tissue was 2.4 times greater
than Cu bioconcentration. The bio
-
accumulative capacity of hazardous heavy metals such as Pb and Cd
revealed that Lead concentration was 1.6 fold higher in mussel tissue than Cd level.
Mean while razor
clam (Solen brevis) collected from Tanjung Lumpur showed 10 fold higher Zn bioaccumulation in the
soft tissue than Cu. On the other hand Pb accumulation was 2.5 fold higher in the soft tissue of razor
clam than Cd bioaccumulation. Since Zn

and Cu are the precursors for most of the enzymatic activity,
all the body parts have significantly higher tendency to accumulate Zn and Cu in both the organisms. It
was postulated that the physiologic condition of different organisms plays a major role i
n multi fold
accumulation of metals in different body parts. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in
Perna viridis and Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Pekan and Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was
lower than the national permissible l
imit recommended by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985, proved that
this species could be utilized for human consumption. Present study also indicating that the
bioaccumulation of essential metals in soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals w
ith
metal flow in Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd order.

P
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113

Heavy metal accumulation in coastal sediments: A response to
environmental pollution

Kamaruzzaman Yunus
,
Kamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Shuhada AT, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA,
Shahbudin SKamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS,
Shuhada AT, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin S

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Surface sediment samples were collected from 3 different zones of Langkawi coastal waters, during
2008 to determine the concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) by using the sensitive Inductively
Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The concentratio
n of heavy metals was compared with
the world average concentration of shale values. It was found that the total concentration of Pb was
between 12.25 and 71.38 μg/g dw with mean concentration value of 41.87 ± 7.30 μg/g which was
two fold higher than th
e average shale value (20 μg/g). Copper concentration was ranged between 0.4
and 30.95 μg/g dw with mean concentration of 11.19 ±5.2 μg/g dw which was lower than the
average shale value (45 μg/g dw). Meanwhile, a study done at the same site during th
e year 2009
showed that the total concentration of Pb was between 21.56 and 33.19 μg/g dw with mean
concentration value of 29.08 ± 6.50 μg/g which was lower than the previous study (done during
Science, Engineering and Technology


2008) but still has higher than average shale value (20 μg
/g). Copper concentration was ranged
between 18.23 and 38.24 μg/g dw with mean concentration of 28.26 ±10.00 μg/g dw which was
lower than the average shale value (45 μg/g dw) but increasing two fold than previous study.
Enrichment Factor (EF) showed th
at sources of Pb and Cu in the study area was partially due to
anthropogenic activities such as boating, shipping activities and also urban run off.

P
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116

DETERMINATION OF CARBON AND OXYGEN CONTENT OF
PRETREATED OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB)
USING SC
ANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND ENERGY
DISPERSIVE X
-
RAY (EDX).

Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim Karim
,
Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim, Faridah Yusof and Manisya
Zauri A. Wahid.Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim, Faridah Yusof and Manisya Zauri A. Wahid.

Biotechnology
Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) contain lignocellulosic and lignin material which are
difficult to degrade. Pretreatment of this material with HCl and autoclaving it may

be able to degrade
the lignin and releasing the cellulosic material reflecting their carbon and oxygen content. The cellulose
are potential carbon substrate that can be use by microorganisms for their growth and fermentation
process. The surface morphol
ogy and level of delignification of the OPEFB can be observed by SEM
and also estimation on the level of carbon and oxygen of the fibre using energy dispersive X
-
ray (EDX).
The highest carbon content (60.5%) came from fibre autoclaved for 10 minutes with
2N HCl and
followed by fibre for 20 minutes with 3N HCl (57.8% carbon) and 1N HCl for 20 minutes (57%
carbon). The highest oxygen content (15.5%) was detected on fibre autoclaved for 10 minutes with 2N
HCl and followed with 1N HCl for 30 minutes with

15% oxygen content and 1N HCl autoclaved for
20 minutes having 13% oxygen content. Increase oxygen content of the fibre indicate there is more
porosity found in the fibre indicating better aeration is available for microbes to grow and penetrates
tow
ards the lignocelluloses of the OPEFB.

P
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117

THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL AS CO
-
SUBSTRATE FOR
VINEGAR FERMENTATION FROM FERMENTED STAR
FRUIT JUICE (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA) WITH GLUCOSE
SUPPLEMENT

Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim Karim
,
Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and

Nurul Hidayah Abdul
KudusMohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and Nurul Hidayah Abdul Kudus

Biotechnology Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Ethanol production was conducted by utilizing A.Carambola and S. Cerevisae
using fermentation
method. A. Carambola was chosen due to its availability in local market and its fruiting season is all
year around in Malaysia. The quantitative effects of sugar level, agitation speed and inoculum size were
optimized by using 2
-
Level Fa
ctorial Design. The experiment showed that the optimum condition for
sugar level was 15% (w/v), inoculum size was 15% (v/v) and agitation speed of 250 rpm consequently
produced 11.79% (v/v) ethanol which was 2.8% higher than the predicted value. Ethanol
can be use as a
co
-
substrate for subsequent fermentation to fruit vinegar.


P
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118

Collection and identification of four Malaysian sponge species

Haitham Qaralleh
,
Haitham Qaralleh, Deny Susanti, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin SaadHaitham
Qaralleh, Deny
Susanti, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad

biomedical science
,
Kulliyyah of Science

Science, Engineering and Technology


International Islamic University

Malaysia

The seas surrounding Malaysia is one of the largest continental shelf areas contain very productive
and diverse habitat and should the
refore be the center for marine biological research. Among the marine
organisms, sponges, which are the most primitive invertebrates, are considered as the major rich phyla
with novel bioactive compounds. In this study, four sponge species were collected
using SCUBA
diving from Langkawi and South China Sea, Snake Island at depths of 1
-
10m. Information on the
organism, the place of collection, date of collection and depth were carefully recorded. Identification of
sponges sample was carried out based on und
er water pictures, skeletal slides and dissociated spicule
mounts. The result showed that all sponge species collected in this study are belong to Leuconoid type,
class Demospongiae, order Haplosclerida and family Petrosiidae.

P
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119

Antifungal and
Antibacterial Activities of Four Malaysian Sponge
Species (Petrosiidae)

Haitham Qaralleh
,
Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad, Deny SusantiHaitham
Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad, Deny Susanti

biomedical science
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Aqueous and organic extracts from four marine sponges collected from the coastline of Malaysia
were screened against six microorganisms, including the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923,
Bacillus cereus
ATCC11778, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Escherichia coli ATCC35218, the
yeasts Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC90112. All the sponge
species in this study showed antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial strain a
nd only one
sponge species was significantly active against C. albicans. P. aeruginosa was considered resistant to all
tested samples, since no inhibition zone was observed while the Gram
-
positive B. cereus was shown to
be the most sensitive microorganism
followed by C. albicans and S. aureus. The highest activity was
obtained for the aqueous extract of Neopetrosia exigua against the Gram
-
positive bacteria B. cereus
(inhibition zone 25 mm and MIC 0.07 mg/mL) and S. aureus (17.5 mm and 0.12 mg/mL) and agains
t C.
albicans (21 mm and 0.32 mg/mL). This extract is currently undergoing further analysis to identify the
active compounds.

P
-
122

The effects of poultry slaughter techniques on morphological
assessment of apoptosis in skeletal muscles

Intan Azura
Shahdan
,
Intan Azura SHAHDAN, Mohammad Tariqur RAHMANIntan Azura SHAHDAN,
Mohammad Tariqur RAHMAN

Biomedical Science
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Methods of slaughter affect the post
-
mortem biochemical and physiological c
hanges in the
conversion of skeletal muscles into meat. Apoptosis could be associated with the post
-
mortem
development of meat quality in skeletal muscles of chickens. Apoptosis, a form of cell death, activates
the regulation of proteolytic enzymes (caspa
ses) which selectively cleave cytoskeleton proteins and
catalyze the changes of cell organelles and morphological structure. These changes are considered to be
responsible for meat qualities. In the current study, the influence of methods of slaughter on
apoptosis
was investigated. Chickens were either decapitate and restrained (D+R+), or neck cutting with intact
spinal cord and not restrained (D
-
R
-
). The muscles from various parts of chickens were used to observe
the morphologic and quantitative changes o
f apoptosis, during 6 hour storage. Terminal
deoxynucleotidyl transferase
-
mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end
-
labeling (TUNEL) positive
nuclei were detected at time 0, 3 and 6 h after slaughter. The number of TUNEL
-
positive nuclei in
muscle tissu
e obtained after either of the slaughter techniques used did not show any significant
difference.

Science, Engineering and Technology


P
-
123

Assessment of Mould Growth in Selected Hospital

Maisarah Ali
,
Maisarah Ali, I.A. BamgbopaMaisarah Ali, I.A. Bamgbopa

Building Technology and
Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Moulds growth in indoor environments has been of concern in the built environments, particularly in
the hospital environment. Several studies have shown

direct correlation between the exposure to moulds
growth and copious adverse health effects. The Air
-

Conditioning systems in the hospital environments
are tasked to provide comfortable environmental conditions in order to facilitate the healing process a
nd
support diverse medical functions in hospitals. Ironically, Air
-
Conditioning systems are often implicated
as source of moulds infestation. Malaysia does not have its own standard for hospitals’ Indoor Air
Quality (IAQ). Therefore, the premises of this

study is that, the assessment of cases of mould infestation
in selected newly commissioned hospital with respect to their Air
-
Conditioning systems will be an
endeavour to provide deeper insight into the causes of this menace. The investigation was carried

out
using formulated assessment checklist for both the indoor space assessment and the air
-
conditioning
system assessment respectively. 32Air Handling Unit (AHU) were inspected. The results of the
investigations show condensation to be the predominant sou
rce of moisture for mould growth in all the
case studies. While in some instances stagnation of air due to poor ventilation and high relative
humidity were hypothesized as the causal factors. However, in some of the case studies, the results of
the inspect
ion carried out on some of the AHU, establishes the need for more “stringentâ€
• design,
and operation & maintenance guidelines particularly for the hospital needs.


P
-
124

Quality of School Buildings Using Industrialised Building System

Maisarah Ali
,
Maisarah Ali, Ab Nasir Jaafar, Abdul Razak SapianMaisarah Ali, Ab Nasir Jaafar,
Abdul Razak Sapian

Building Technology and Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design

International Islamic University

Malaysia

One of the major problems for

construction industry in Malaysia is the shortage of skilled labours.
Due to the shortage many contractors resort to employing semi
-
skilled and unskilled labours to
construct their building projects, resulting in poor workmanship of the completed products
. To
overcome this problem the government has recently played their role by introducing and implementing
the use of IBS method in construction. One of the important aspects to be considered when studying the
effectiveness of IBS as a method of construction

is the degree of quality standard achieved by the
completed buildings. In this study the quality of schools buildings were chosen as samples and
comparative study was carry out to evaluate and measure the quality of completed IBS buildings as
compared to
similar buildings by conventional method. Tools, methods and factors required in
measuring quality of building were identified from literature reviews and the relevant ones were later
adopted for the study. The research was divided into three components:

physical inspection and
measurement of the building, analysis of defect lists obtained from relevant organization and the
questionnaire survey of end users feedback on the building quality. Analysis of the results proven that
quality of IBS buildings wa
s substantially better compared to conventional one. From the end user
survey result it was also found that safety and security were the most important factors in producing
quality educational building for both IBS and conventional methods.

P
-
125

Modelling and Fuzzy Control of Two
-
Wheeled Wheelchair

Salmiah Ahmad
,
Salmiah Ahmad, M. O. TokhiSalmiah Ahmad, M. O. Tokhi

Science, Engineering and Technology


Mechatronics Engineering Department
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The use of wheelchair has
become very important for mobility among disabled as well as the aged. In
fact it has been tremendously enhanced according to the latest technology and public necessities. The
wheelchair revolution has been encouraged due to the increase in the number of
injuries caused by
vehicles, rehabilitation enlargement and re
-
education for an injured person, medical services and need
for independence among disabled and elderly as well as the use in sports. This research was focused on
modeling of two
-
wheeled wheelch
air and new control architecture of modular intelligent control
strategies, involving lifting and stabilizing, motion control of backward and forward, steering, the
extension of chair height, as well as the transformation back to normal four
-
wheeled positi
on. The
proposed model, mechanisms and control could be of benefit to a wheelchair user, thus enhancing
wheelchair technology for paraplegics and elderly. Most of the wheelchair users are paraplegics, who
are not able to move on their own due to permanent
injury in their lower extremities. A virtual model
has been designed using MSC.visualNastran (VN) software environment where bodies, joints and
actuators were defined according to its original functions and characteristics. The control for such
multivariab
le system was categorized into primary and secondary control subsystems. The primary
subsystem consists of lifting and stabilizing control of Link1 and Link2 and its reverse mechanism
where a modular fuzzy control (MFC) approach was used for both transform
ations. On the other hand,
the secondary subsystems, which depend on the primary subsystem, consist of the linear motion,
steering motion control as well as the extension mechanism of the chair height. The integration of both
primary and secondary subsyste
ms was executed to follow a sequence of motion in order to complete a
predetermined trajectory. Each secondary control could be activated at any time. The results obtained
shows that all individual controllers in primary and secondary control subsystems co
uld be integrated
for the two
-
wheeled WC mobility thus enable to help WC users to achieve higher level of height with
flexibility in mobility while on WC.

P
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126

THE EFFECT OF SAND AND DUST PARTICLES ON 6/4 AND
14/11 GHz SIGNALS ON SATELLITE TO EARTH PATHS

Saad Osman Bashir
,
Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamOthman Khalifa, Omer
Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

A comprehensive assessment is given of the severity of impairments
caused to microwave (slant
-
path) links by sand/dust storms. The nature, size and shape of sand/dust particles are investigated in the
laboratory and particle alignment mechanisms are treated theoretically. Both aerodynamic and
electrostatic forces are con
sidered. Systematic alignment is deduced to exist, and since the particles are
aspherical cross
-
polarization (XPD) is shown to be a possibility. Particle permittivity is investigated by
a novel measurement technique of an individual sand/dust particle’s
back
-
scattered signal, the result
also being used to check the accuracy of mixing formulae relating bulk sample density to permittivity.
This technique is potentially useful for measuring permittivity, at microwave frequencies, of any solid
or liquid. Bulk

permittivity measurements are also performed on real sand/dust storm samples and show
the importance effect of water uptake on loss tangent.

A synthesis is given of sand/dust density and storm structure, the impact on links calculated,
including statistic
al exceedance prediction. The attenuation due to absorption or scatter can only be
significant in extreme cases, but XPD is certainly detectable and is predicted to be statistically
significant in some cases. A collation of fade reports is given showing

that real fades in sand/dust
storms occur. These are explained by refractive index gradients, for which basic physical models and
new classifications are proposed.


P
-
128

STATISTICAL MODELING OF PROPAGATION
PARAMETERS THROUGH SAND/DUST STORMS AT
MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES

Science, Engineering and Technology


Saad Osman Bashir
,
Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamOthman Khalifa, Omer
Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Two mathematical models are presented for
prediction of worst
-
month long
-
term statistics for
sand/dust storm
-
induced propagation impairments. The computations apply to linear polarization or
circular and to a permittivity at 15 percent relative humidity. The computations are made in the X
-
band.
An
alysis leads to rather definite prediction that sand/dust storm
-
induced impairments in the Ku, Ka, and
millimeters and up to 1000 GHz (1 Tera Hertz) (this Tera hertz range was not in the original conference
paper; actually it is a new ITU
-
R recommendation)

can deteriorate links reliability (increase outage)
even for low particle concentrations.

P
-
129

PREDICTION OF FORWARD SCATTERING AND CROSS
-
POLARIZATION DUE TO DRY AND MOIST HABOOB AND
SANDSTORMS IN SUDAN IN THE 9.4 GHz BAND

Saad Osman Bashir
,
Saad Osman

Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamSaad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The frequency spectrum is nowadays very crowded and we must r
esearch how to make the maximum
possible use of it.


One technique currently attracting considerable attention is frequency re
-
use (polarization), through
which the radio spectrum can be, in effect doubled. This technique involves transmitting two cross
-
p
olarized microwave beams (e.g. one vertical and the other horizontal), independently modulated.
However, in this case the cross
-
talk between the two polarizations must be well below the standard
allowable threshold limit for such systems (Rec. ITU
-
R). The
main causes of cross
-
polarization
distortion (cross
-
talk) are hydrometeors and similar phenomena (e.g.sand/dust storms).


P
-
130

CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL
TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU
-
R) STUDY GROUP 3

Saad Osman Bashir
,
Saad Osman Bashir, Othman
Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamSaad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia



If a local measured rain/sandstorm…etc meteorological/geographical parameters are available,
they MUST be considered for accurate computations of electromagnetic wave propagation impairments
including antennas; instead of recommended values given by

the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU
-
R). This is because NOT mere rain/mere sandstorm…etc., intensities are enough to predict
(model) the accurate impairment’s values. There are other parameters in the LOCAL atmosphere
such as atmospheric ga
ses, beam spreading {associated with abnormal refractive layers, surface
reflections, angle
-
of
-
launch and angle
-
of
-
arrival [this will decrease the cross
-
polarization (XPD)}…and
many more. Of course the sources of ITU
-
R Recommendations and Reports are us
ually summarized
from good research papers; but unfortunately these are sometimes significant if not remarkable
discrepancies between models and even measurement results for the same material (rain, snow, fog,
hail, sandstorms, trees, etc.). We proved by n
umbers the discrepancies between well reputed authors and
journals and we will show our own deduced mathematical model including the local atmospheric FREE
parameters (to be used by any local climate) for sand/dust storm differential attenuation and phase
shift
for distorted particles (we were the first to analyze cross
-
polarization in sand/dust storms). Note: The
accepted CONTRIBUTION will be shown on the award site with the ITU
-
R headed paper; it is received
on 6 September 2010 and accepted on September 8

as (Document 3J/108
-
E, 8 September 2010, English
Science, Engineering and Technology


only


P
-
132

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPUTATION METHODS FOR VERY
SMALL PARTICLES: PART II

Saad Osman Bashir
,
Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam,Saad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa,
Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam,

ECE
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

This paper discusses the effect of propagation of electromagnetic waves through a cloud of very
small particles (say dust). The size of these particles

is normally less than 0.2 mm in radius, much
smaller than the microwave wavelength; therefore it is possible to AVOID laborious computations be
approximations. In this research/work we have checked the Rayleigh theory (Rayleigh scatterer) against
a full s
olution of Maxwell’s main time varying field’s expressions through a point matching
technique (PMT). In Part I research (2006 Cairo, Egypt) we have considered only vertical polarization;
in this one we considered horizontal polarization as well. The ag
reement between Rayleigh
approximation and PMT for very small particles is found to be very good.


P
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135

Improved Acoustical and Thermal Properties of Lightweight Coir
Fiber Reinforced Cement Concrete (CFRCC)

Zuraida Ahmad
,
Zuraida Ahmad, Hadi Purwonto, Norshahida Sarifuddin,

Faridatul Faezah Razali and Farrah Yussof

Zuraida Ahmad, Hadi Purwonto, Norshahida Sarifuddin,

Faridatul Faezah Razali and Farrah Yussof


Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department
,
Kulliyyah of

Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Increasing attention has been paid on the creation of environmental friendly with higher performance
type cement composite with a view to conserve energy and protecting environment. In this current
wo
rk, the development of lightweight cement composites with use of agriculture waste, coir fiber, and
biopolymer, egg albumen were described. Besides the mechanical and physical properties, work
presented herein aim to explore the acoustic absorption and the
rmal performance of cement composites.
Under optimum conditions, the CFRCC was fabricated via mixing, casting and curing. The fiber volume
were substantially varied from 2 to 10 wt. %. The fabricated CFRCC were then subjected to impedance
tube and guarded
hotbox to evaluate the sound absorption and thermal insulation, respectively. The
acoustic absorption coefficient (α) was found to increase with an increase in fiber volume. Higher fiber
volume however, lowers its thermal conductivity (λ) and specific he
at (Cp). This result showed that
CFRCC have potential for absorbing sound, while thermal conductivity is practically independent to
fiber volume.

P
-
136

Environmental Friendly Starch Based Superabsorbent Hydrogel for
Biodegradable Diapers

Zuraida Ahmad
,
Zuraida Ahmad, Norshahida Sarifuddin and Nurizan OmarZuraida Ahmad,
Norshahida Sarifuddin and Nurizan Omar

Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The motivation of this work is to minimize the reliance on superabsorbent based on synthetic
polymers which can lead to environmental problems. In the current work, synthesis of biodegradable
superabsorbent polymer by graft copolymerization of polyacryloni
trile (PAN) onto sago starch (SS) in
Science, Engineering and Technology


aqueous solution was described. The PAN grafted copolymer was obtained via a redox initiator system
of ammonium persulfate (APS) and in the presence of N,N’
-
methylenebisacrylamide (N
-
MBA)
crosslinking agent. Water abs
orbency was optimized by varying the reaction parameters (starch
-
to
-
monomer ratio and the concentration of crosslinking agent and initiator). Fourier Transform Infrared
(FTIR) spectroscopy was used for confirming the structure of final product and the morp
hology of
synthesized hydrogel was examined by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The maximum water
absorbency was reached at 1077 g/g with a weight ratio of monomer to starch of 5:1 and initiator
content of 0.3%. The absorption capacity decreased with
the increase of crosslinker content. This new
approach showed a promising production of superabsorbent material, in which utilization natural
resources as Sarawak sago and with excellent water absorbency.

P
-
139

Thermoplastic Sago Starch Composites Via Inj
ection Molding For
Interior Application In Automotive

Zuraida Ahmad
,
Zuraida Ahmad, Yusliza Yusof, Khairul Muhaimin Mohd Zamli and Hazleen
AnuarZuraida Ahmad, Yusliza Yusof, Khairul Muhaimin Mohd Zamli and Hazleen Anuar

Manufacturing and Materials Engin
eering Department
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

In order to solve problems generated by plastic waste many efforts have been done to obtain an
environmental friendly material. Most of the research investigation is
focused on substitute petro
-
based
plastics by biodegradable materials with similar properties in a low cost and effective manner. Starch is
a biodegradable polymer produced in abundance from many renewable resources. In this research,
thermoplastic starch
(TPS) was produced from melt processing of Malaysian sago starch with the
additions of glycerol as plasticizer and citric acid (CA) as a secondary additive. The main objective was
to investigate the influence of CA contents with presence of water on the th
ermal and mechanical
properties of TPS. The CA content varies from 0.5% to 2 wt%. The materials were prepared by melt
blending in the Haake Rheomix at 130°C, followed by injection molding process. Thermal stability
and the glass transition temperature (Tg
) were analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC). Citric acid was found to widen the temperature range of processing
glycerol
-
plasticized starch, and reduced the difference in melt temperature between TPS. The samples
w
ere also tested by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and, water absorption experiments.

P
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143

User Activity Recognition Based on Accelerometer Data from a
Mobile Phone

Media Ayu
,
Media A. Ayu, Teddy Mantoro,
Ahmad Faridi Abdul Matin, Saeed Salem Omar
BasamhMedia A. Ayu, Teddy Mantoro, Ahmad Faridi Abdul Matin, Saeed Salem Omar Basamh

Department of Information Systems
,
Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Activity recognition refers to the ability of a machine/device to recognize the activity of users. This
area of research has attracted many works especially related to the context aware and ubiquitous
computing area. Wearable accelerometers have been expl
ored for this activity recognition purpose;
however the impracticality of attaching accelerometers to the user presents significant issues.
Accelerometers today are embedded in many mobile devices. This work explores the potential and
possibility of using
these accelerometer data to determine user activity recognition. The initial
experiments show encouraging results with a very good accuracy rate of 92% in recognizing some basic
user activities.

P
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144

Mapping Urban Historic City Landscape: Urban Trail
Inventory
and Heritage Resources Documentation of Alor Setar

Mansor Ibrahim
,

,
Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design

Science, Engineering and Technology


International Islamic University

Malaysia

Historic urban sites and traditional structures are one of the most important
evidence of the past
civilization. The conservation of these values within the context of conservation of architectural heritage
is always regarded as the preservation of heritage culture. The main objective of historic buildings
documentation is to preser
ve cultural properties cultural properties by understanding their architectural,
historical, environmental, visual and aesthetic characteristics. These documentation studies of urban
heritage lifestyle, which are essential in the context of conservation pl
ans, will then determine the
principles of the urban heritage trail. This study is aimed to propose a method for the architectural
evaluation phase, which is essential before conservation decisions. The proposed method is based on a
gradation system. Alor
Setar is determined as the area to test this gradation system. It is proposed that
this method explains the systematic way for evaluating architectural features belonging to historic sites
whose conservation plans are to be prepared. In the study, traditio
nal buildings are evaluated from the
point of their exterior and interior architectural characteristics and classified as different value groups.
This grouping will be conservation heritage decisions. The preserved buildings play an important part in
cultu
ral and architectural heritage and have their contribution in the preservation of historical memory
and in the improving of the modern quality of life, in the aesthetics and the attractiveness of a location.
The elaboration of an integrated strategy with e
fficient administrative and financial motivations for the
protection of preserved buildings must be a priority in the frame of our country's modern cultural
management.

P
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147

SELECTED PROFILES OF RESPONDENTS AND THE
REASONS FOR CROSS BORDER MARRIAGE AMO
NGST
MUSLIMS IN SELANGOR.

ROSLINA CHE SOH
,
Dr Noraini Md Hashim
-

co
-
researcherDr Noraini Md Hashim
-

co
-
researcher

ISLAMIC LAW DEPARTMENT
,
Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Incidences of cross
-
border marriage have
taken place since a long time ago and still continue,
although law has been legislated to control it occurrences. With the influx of the legal and illegal
immigrants to Malaysia has shown changes in the trend of parties involving in this marriage that is
not
only between the locals but also locals and non
-
locals. Cross
-
border marriage has been associated with
marriage solemnized in the changwats (provinces) of Southern Thailand. The easy access to enter the
border by land or by sea, the few cumbersome proc
edures enforced by the authorities in Malaysia to
solemnize a marriage etc., have prompted couples to marry by way of Wali Hakim or Wali Am there in
order to resolve their problems. This paper is to enlighten the reader as to the provisions in relation t
o
registration of a marriage without the permission of the Religious Office and SharÊÑah Court in
Selangor, the procedure and application process to register a marriage without the permission of the
selected Religious Office and SharÊÑah Courts, the
profiles of the parties involved and the reasons
for their action. Positive efforts to improve the current situation are placed at the end of the paper as a
conclusion.

P
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148

Adaptive RS
-
Group Scheduling for WiMAX Multihop
-
Relay

Rashid Saeed
,
Rashid.A.
Saeed, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Mazlan AbbasRashid.A.
Saeed, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Mazlan Abbas

Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE)
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Wireless vehicular communication (WVC) has been identified as a key technology for intelligent
transportation systems (ITS) for the past few years. IEEE 802.11p is the proposed standard for the
physical and MAC layer of the WVC devices. The main objective
of the standard is to change the frame
format in order to increase the delay spread tolerance introduced by the vehicle mobility, in which the
channel bandwidth is scaled from 20 MHz, i.e., 802.11a to 10 MHz, i.e., 802.11p. This paper proposes
the TDMA tec
hnique with fixed time slots and a guard band between the slots to ensure interoperability
Science, Engineering and Technology


between the wireless devices to communicate in rapidly changing environment where transactions must
be completed in small timeframes. The new TDMA sub
-
layer is propo
sed to be on top of the
conventional 802.11p CSMA/CA MAC. We have found that 802.11p
-
based TDMA can achieve much
higher throughput compared with the conventional 802.11p
-
based CSMA/CA, as the distance, vehicle
speed and numbers increase. Ns
-
2 simulation re
sults present the performance analysis and validate the
efficiency of the proposed scheme.

P
-
149

A Novel Solution for the UWB Interference Problem

Ahmed Mohammed
,
Prof. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al
-
Khateeb, Ahmed R. MohammedProf. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al
-
Khateeb,
Ahmed R. Mohammed

Electrical and Computer Engineering
,
Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University

Malaysia

This research project provides a solution to the Ultra Wideband (UWB) critical problems;
the sped and the interference on narrowband s
ystems. Ultra
-
wide band (UWB) is a new
technology, which provides wireless connectivity for a large variety of applications and
computer peripherals within a radius of about 10m such as printers, monitors, scanners
external disc drives, multimedia etc. So
far however, two main factors have hindered the wide
use of such systems viz. speed that requires Gbps capacity, and interference with narrowband
frequencies such as WLAN 802.11a, WiMAX, GPS, TV, mobile phones etc, which may be
jammed by the UWB spectrum.


A novel technique is proposed for the generation of 1
-
Gbps pulses for IR
-
UWB. The
spectrum of the pulse satisfies the requirements of the Federal Communication Commission
(FCC) UWB for indoor and outdoor mask. The interference mitigation with WiMAX band
is
less than
-
78dBm. Interference is avoided by adjusting a spectral notch of less than
-
85dBm at
5GHz. The pulse generator uses a single two ports parallel coupled microstrip line as a
bandpass filter (BPF). The same pulse generator can be used for Pulse
Position Modulation
(PPM) or On
-
Off Keying (OOK).


P
-
150

Virtual Reality and Environmental Performance Animation of
‘Environmentally
-
Intelligent’ Features of Islamic
Architectural Heritage of the Early Persian Civilizations.

Mansor Ibrahim
,
Asst.
Prof. Dr. Puteri Shireen Jahnkassim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Akeel Noori.Asst. Prof. Dr.
Puteri Shireen Jahnkassim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Akeel Noori.

Department of Urban Regional Planning
,
Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Islamic architectural heritage demonstrates salient examples of intelligent application of climatic and
environmental
-
conscious design and approaches in architecture. Interpretation of these features is
gaining greater interest due to the rise o
f the environmental agenda. Due to the development of state
-
of
-
art computer
-
based tools, analytical study of such features can be used to assess and analyze the
performance of these environmental aspects of historical architecture. Due also to the rise of
the
sustainable agenda in the built environment, there is an urgent need to learn from traditional approaches
and feature in order to develop innovative low
-
energy solutions but which integrate both environmental
considerations and cultural sensitivity.

In

the Persian civilizations, examples of environmental
-
friendly architecture can be analyzed through
simulation and literature study.

These feature utilized natural climatic energies such as winds, sun, daylight, water and vegetation
features, and the modul
ation of sound, to achieve the optimum internal environments within the
Science, Engineering and Technology


buildings. In several notable cases, the features and form of these buildings have been intelligently
modulated and articulated to achieve the maximum response from the ambient climate

without the
excessive use of energy. Electricity and mechanical system or building services non
-
existent and the
creation of a comfortable and functional internal climate was dependent on the architectural articulation
of the building ‘envelope’ itsel
f. The correct usage of materials, its quantity and the organization
of spaces play also a consequential role in maximizing ‘free energy and ambient resources’.

Through an analytical study through field study and simulation tools and virtual representa
tion of
these features are necessary to analyze and document these ‘intelligent’ aspects of medieval
Islamic architecture as part of the learning from the past achievements of Islamic Heritage. The study
will focus on the following case studies:

In ter
m of Ottoman Civilization, the work of Mimar Sinan, which is principally during the 15th to
16th century – where ‘highly intelligent’ environmental features are incorporated into the
structure and envelope, which relate to how the building interacts
with the surrounding environment.

1.

Captures the sunlight according to season and focus the use of daylight on necessary areas
within the building.

2.

The supply of fresh air in the mosque and the disposal of smoke coming from the oil burners
and the cand
le
-
sticks which can damage the decoration and surface paintings. (After studying the wind
direction in the site, a ventilation system was developed with careful location of windows to draw air
current into a small chamber over the main entrance.

3.

The dis
tribution of sound was achieved through the placement of the muezzins terrace and the
use of empty space resonators to prevent the reflection of sound energy and to distribute it throughout
the space.

In term of the Persian Civilization, the Babylon is an
example of how the Persian relied heavily on
water and air, where water has been a central feature of Islamic landscape design and architecture.

Channel of pipes for conveying water with zig
-
zag ridges and pigeon breates pattern on the surface to
break the

water flow. On the surface of a courtyard ran a complicated hydraulic system. The constant
flow of water has been known to keep the floor and room temperature incessantly cool.


P
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152

Local Community Participation in Coastal Zone Management in
Port
Klang, Selangor.

M. Zainora Asmawi
,
M. Zainora bt. Asmawi (Dr)M. Zainora bt. Asmawi (Dr)

Department of Urban Regional Planning
,
Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design

International Islamic University

Malaysia

The research examines on the
involvement of local community in coastal management initiatives in
Port Klang, Selangor. Engaging the people in any plan of program concerning their lives has become a
common practice in many parts of the world thought in Malaysia it can be considered rat
her new
approach in planning and developing the nation. It is, therefore, important to know the present condition
of community participation in supporting the coastal management programs.

The results of focus group discussion which was held to get the in
-
s
ight views of the local
stakeholders in Port Klang coastal area indicate several findings, they are about: local initiative;
awareness of the importance of community participation; community participation as sustainable coastal
management strategy; consult
ation vs focus group discussion; top
-
down approach vs bottom
-
up
approach level; and level of participation. Generally through the level of community is not so substantial
in Port Klang, some early actions have been taken for a better practice in the future
.


P
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155

Single Polygon Counting for 2 Fixed Nodes with a Constraint on
Cayley Tree of order 2.

Chin Hee Pah
,
Pah Chin HeePah Chin Hee

Department of Computational and Theorectical Sciences
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Science, Engineering and Technology


We have found an exact formula for a single polygon counting problem on Cayley tree of order 2,
which the polygon contain 2 fixed vertices with a constraint. The solution to this problem is elementary.
Some identities of the solution has been established w
hich associated to

Catalan numbers.

P
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161

Isolation of Dietary Fibers from Unripe Bananas for Applications in
Food Industry

Jamaluddin Mohd Daud
,
Jamaluddin Mohd. Daud, Suwaibah Isa, Mohd. Nor Omar, Ahmad Muzammil
ZubardiJamaluddin Mohd. Daud, Suwaibah
Isa, Mohd. Nor Omar, Ahmad Muzammil Zubardi

Biotechnology
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Dietary fibre (DF) is one of important dietary and structural polysaccharides in fruits such as apples,
oranges, peaches, etc. It is
widely accepted as a unique food component due to its health benefits and
potential functionality in food systems. However, there are not many literatures and research on
composition and physicochemical characteristics of DF in tropical fruits such as bana
nas. The study of
DF fractions in the bananas was executed in two parts: Isolation of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and
soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from two different tissue zones; the entire flesh and the peel of the two
banana genotypes Musa ABB cv. ‘P
isang Abu’ and Musa AAA cv. ‘Pisang Nangka’ by
AOAC 985.29 method. Physicochemical properties of the isolated total dietary fiber (TDF) such as its
swelling power (SP), water absorption capacity (WAC) and solubility by Sathe and Salunkhe method
were
determined. Genotype AAA has a higher TDF content (69 g TDF/100 g dry fiber
-
rich powder)
than genotype ABB (57 g TDF/100 g dry fiber
-
rich powder). The fiber from Musa AAA has higher
potential functionalities in which has SP of 5.1 g water/g fiber, WAC of 2
.7 g water/g fiber and
solubility of 9.7% than Musa ABB which has SP of 3.6 g water/g fiber, WAC of 2.1 g water/g fiber and
solubility of 7.1%. This result suggests that higher content of total fiber in genotype AAA should
correspond to its potential funct
ionality in food systems of which described by its physicochemical
characteristics. The study of the banana DF isolated from two banana genotypes (Musa ABB and Musa
AAA) can provide useful information on their potential health benefits and applications in
food
industry.

P
-
168

Advanced Fixed Point Theorems for Nonlinear Operators

Farrukh Mukhamedov
,
Mansoor SaburovMansoor Saburov

Computational & Theoretical Sciences
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Numerous questions in
physics, chemistry, biology, and economics lead to nonlinear problems; for
example, behavior of plastic materials; flows around objects in fluids or gases; chemical reactions; heat
radiation; processes in nuclear reactors; game
-
theoretic models in economic
s; optimizing stochastic
processes and so on. As a rule, there arise nonlinear differential and integral equations, variational
problems for integral expressions, and more general optimization problems. If we ignore the concrete
form of the problem, we can

usually reduce the question to one of the following abstract problems:
operator

equation, operator differential equation, extreme problem, minimax problem, variational inequality.
Formulating concrete problems abstractly in the framework of nonlinear fu
nctional analysis has the
advantages of distilling the essentials and their relationships, of allowing a uniform treatment of
differing practical problems, and of enabling the use of deep and

powerful mathematical methods, without which the problems coul
d not be solved. Nonlinear
problems, in contrast to linear ones, are essentially more complex. An iterative approximation of fixed
points and zeros of nonlinear operators has been studied extensively by many authors to solve nonlinear
operator equations a
s well as variational inequality problems. A very important class of mappings is
non
-
expansive mappings. In particularly, iterative approximation of fixed points of non
-
expansive
mappings is an important subject in nonlinear functional analysis. In the pr
esent work we continue to
Science, Engineering and Technology


develop and generalize the fixed point theory for a different class of nonlinear operators defined on
Banach spaces. Namely, we study strongly and weakly convergence theorems of an implicit and explicit
iterative processes for a
single and finite family of totally asymptotically and quasi asymptotically I
non
-
expansive operators defined on Banach spaces. All results extend, generalize, improve and unify
many previous results.


P
-
169

On Kadison
-
Schwarz inequality for Quantum
Operators on M2(C)

Farrukh Mukhamedov
,
Abduaziz AbduganievAbduaziz Abduganiev

Computational & Theoretical Sciences
,
Kulliyyah of Science

International Islamic University

Malaysia

Positive linear maps and completely positive linear maps are found to be
very important in quantum
mechanics, quantum computation and quantum information. In fact they can be used to recognize
entangled states, and every quantum channel is represented as a trace
-
preserving completely positive
linear map. Therefore, such maps at
tracted considerable attention amongst the physics community.
Although many results concerning classification of positive maps have been obtained, but the complete
classification of positive maps still remains an essentially open question. It is therefore

of interest to
study conditions stronger than positivity, but weaker than complete positivity. Such a condition is called
Kadison
-
Schwarz (KS) property, i.e a map satisfies the KS property if holds for every . Note that
every unital completely posit
ive map satisfies this inequality, but KS operators no need to be
completely positive. Some relations between KS inequality with other operator inequalities were
intensively investigated. In this work we describe bistochastic KS operators on M2(C). Such

a
description allows us to find positive, but not KS operators. Moreover, by means of such a
characterization we construct KS operators, which are not completely positive. Then we describe
quantum quadratic operators on M2(C) with Haar state. Using such a

description, we find a necessary
condition for quantum quadratic operators to satisfy the KS property. This condition allows us to
construct quantum quadratic operators which are not KS ones. Moreover, we also provide examples of
quadratic operators for w
hich corresponding linear mappings are not positive. Furthermore, we study
nonlinear dynamics of quadratic operators acting the set of states of M2(C). Namely, we find some