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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Facebook

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the website. For the namesake company that owns the site, see

Facebook, Inc.
. For the type
of
photographic directory, see

Face book
.

Facebook


Screenshot

[show]
[show]

URL

Facebook.com

Type of site

Social networking service

Registration

Required

Available
language
(s)

Multilingual

(70)

Users

901

million
[1]

(active April 2012)

Owner

Facebook, Inc.

Created by



Mark Zuckerberg



Eduardo Saverin



Dustin Moskovitz



Chris Hughes

Launched

February 4, 2004

Alexa

rank


2 (June

2012)
[2]

Revenue

Advertising

Current status

Active

Facebook

is a

social networking service

and website launched in February 2004, owned and operated
by

Facebook, Inc.
[3]

As of May 2012, Facebook has over

900 million active

users, more than half of them using
Facebook on a

mobile device
.
[4]

Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a

personal
profile
, add other users
as

friends
, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update
their profile. Additionally, users may join common
-
interest user groups, organized by workplace, sch
ool or
college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close
Friends". The name of the service stems from the

colloquial name for the book

given to students at the start of
the academic year by some university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each
other. Facebook allows any users who declare themselves to be at least 13 years o
ld to become registered users
of the site.
[5]

Facebook was founded by

Mark Zuckerberg

with his college
roommates and fellow students

Eduardo
Saverin
,

Dustin Moskovitz

and

Chris Hughes
.
[6]
The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to
Harvard students, but was exp
anded to other colleges in the Boston area, the

Ivy League
, and

Stanford
University
. It gradua
lly added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school
students, and eventually to anyone aged 13 and over. However, according to a May 2011

Consumer
Reports

survey, there are 7.5 million children under 13 with accounts and 5 million under 10, violating the site's
terms of service.
[7]

A January 2009

Compete.com

study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide
monthly active users.
[8]
Entertainment Weekly

included the site on its end
-
of
-
the
-
decade "best
-
of" list, saying,
"How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co
-
workers' birt
hdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing
game of

Scrabulous

before Facebook?"
[9]

Critics
, such as Facebook Detox,
[10]

state that Facebook has turned
into a national obsession that results in vast amounts of

time lost and innately encourages
narcissism.

Quantcast

estimates Facebook has 138.9 million monthly unique U.S. visitors in May
2011.
[11]

According to

Social Media Today
, in April 2010 an estimated 41.6% of the U.S. population had a
Facebook account.
[12]

Nevertheless, Facebook's market growth st
arted to stall in some regions, with the site
losing 7 million active users in the United States and Canada in May 2011.
[13]

Contents



[
hide
]




1

History



2

Website

o

2.1

User Profile

o

2.2

Privacy Settings

o

2.3

Comparison with Myspace

o

2.4

News Feed

o

2.5

Facebook Notes

o

2.6

F
acebook Username

o

2.7

Facebook Messages

o

2.8

Voice Calls

o

2.9

Video Calling

o

2.10

Facebook Subscribe

o

2.11

Privacy



2.11.1

FTC settlement

o

2.12

Technical aspects



3

Reception



4

Criticism



5

Impact

o

5.1

Media

impact

o

5.2

Social impact

o

5.3

Political impact



6

In popular culture



7

See also



8

Notes



9

References



10

Further reading



11

External
links

History

Main articles:

History of Facebook

and

Timeline of Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash, the predecessor to Facebook, on October 28, 2003, while
attending

Harvard

as a sophomore. According to

The Harvard Crimson
, the site was comparable to
Hot or Not
,
and "used photos compiled from the on
line facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time
and asking users to choose the 'hotter' person"
[14]
[15]



Mark Zuckerberg

co
-
created Facebook in his

Harvard

dorm room.

To
accomplish this, Zuckerberg

hacked

into the protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied the
houses' private dormitory

ID

images. Harvard at that time did not have a student "
facebook
" (a directory with
photos and basic information), thou
gh individual houses had been issuing their own paper facebooks since the
mid
-
1980s. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo
-
views in its first four hours online.
[16]
[17]

The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list
-
servers, but was shut down a few days later by the
Harvard administration. Zuckerberg was char
ged by the administration with breach of security,
violating

copyrights
, and violating individual privacy, and faced expulsion. Ultimately, the charges were
dropped.
[18]
Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of
an

art
history

final, by uploading 500

Augustan

images to a website, with one image per page along with a
comment section.
[17]

He opened the site up to his classmates, and people started sharing their notes.

The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004. He was inspired, he
said, by an editorial in

The Har
vard Crimson
about the Facemash incident.
[19]

On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg
launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.
[20]

Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors,

Cameron Winklevoss
,

Tyler Winklevoss
, and

Divya
Narendra
, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into

believing he would help them build a social
network called

HarvardConnection.com
, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing
product.
[21]

The three complained to the

Harvard Crimson
, and the newspaper began an investigation. The three
later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling.
[22]

Membership was initially restricted to students of

Harvard College
, and within the first month
, more than half the
undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service.
[23]

Eduardo Saverin (business aspects),
Dustin Moskovitz (programmer),

Andrew McCollum

(graphic artist), and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to
help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford,

Columbia
, and Yale.
[24]

It soon
opened to the other

Ivy League

schools,

Boston University
,

New York University
,

MIT
, and gradually most
universities in Canada and the United States.
[25]
[26]

Faceboo
k was

incorporated

in mid
-
2004, and the entrepreneur

Sean Parker
, who had been
informally advising
Zuckerberg, became the company's president.
[27]

In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to

Palo
Alto, California
.
[24]

It received its first investment later that month from

PayPal

co
-
founder

Peter Thiel
.
[28]

The
company dropped

The

from its name after
purchasing the
domain name

facebook.com in 2005 for $200,000.
[29]

Total active users
[N 1]

Date

Users

(in millions)

Days later

Monthly growth
[N 2]

August 26, 2008

100
[30]

1,665

178.38%

April 8, 2009

200
[31]

225

13.33%

Total active users
[N 1]

Date

Users

(in millions)

Days later

Monthly growth
[N 2]

September 15, 2009

300
[32]

160

9.38%

February 5, 2010

400
[33]

143

6.99%

July 21, 2010

500
[34]

166

4.52%

January 5, 2011

600
[35]
[N 3]

168

3.57%

May 30, 2011

700
[36]

145

3.45%

September 22, 2011

800
[37]

115

3.73%

April 24, 2012

900
[38]

215

1.74%

Facebook launched a high
-
school version in September
2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical
step.
[39]

At that time, high
-
school networks required an invitation to join.
[40]

Facebook later expanded membership
eligibility to employees of several companies, including

Apple Inc.

and

Microsoft
.
[41]

Facebook was then opened
on September 26, 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid

email address
.
[42]
[43]

On
October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240

million,
giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15

billion.
[44]

Microsoft'
s purchase included rights to place
international ads on Facebook.
[45]

In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international
headquarters in

Dublin
, Ireland.
[46]

In September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash
-
flow positive for the
first time.
[47]

In November 2010, based on

SecondMarket

Inc., an exchange for shares of privately held
companies, Facebook's value was $41

b
illion (slightly surpassing

eBay
's) and it became the third largest U.S.
Web company after

Google

and

Amazon
.
[48]

Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. More people visited Facebook than Google for the we
ek
ending March 13, 2010.
[49]

In March 2011 it was reported that Facebook removes approximately 20,000 profiles from the site every day for
various infractions, including spam, inappro
priate content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber
security.
[50]

In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former

Sun
Microsystems

campus in
Menlo Park, California
.
[51]
[52]

Release of statistics by

DoubleClick

showed that Facebook reached one trillion pageviews in the month of June
2011, making it the most visited website in the world.
[53]

It sho
uld however be noted that Google and some of its
selected websites are not counted in the DoubleClick rankings. According to the Nielsen Media Research study,
released in December 2011, Facebook is the second most accessed website in the US.
[54]

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, an online mobile store which sells applications that connect to
Facebook. The store will be available to

iPhone
,

Android

and mobile web users.
[55]

In April,
Facebook bought the
application

Instagram

for

US$
1

billion.
[56]

In early May of 2012, Facebook acquired

social discovery

s
tart
-
up

Glancee.
[57]

Facebook, Inc.

held an initial public offering

on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share
price of $38 apiece, valuing the
company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
[58]

In April 2012, Facebook acquired the mobile customer loya
lty firm

Tagline
.
[59]

In May 2012, the company settled a class action lawsuit regarding the use of member's images in
ads called
"sponsored stories" for $10 million.
[60]

Facebook bought facial
-
recognition technology company

Face.com

i
n June 2012.
[61]

Website

Main articles:

Facebook features

and

Facebook Platform



Facebook "Timeline" profile shown in May 2012



Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005

User Profile

Users can create profiles with photos, lists of personal interests, contact information, and other personal
information. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat
feature. They can also create and join

interest groups and "like pages" (called "fan pages" until April 19, 2010),
some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising.
[62]

A 2012 Pew Internet and Americ
an
Life study identified that between 20

30% of Facebook users are "power users" who frequently link, poke, post
and tag themselves and others.
[63]

Privacy Settings

To allay concerns a
bout privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who
can see specific parts of their profile.
[64]

The website is free to users, and generates revenu
e from advertising,
such as

banner ads
.
[65]

Facebook requires a user's name and profile picture (if
applicable) to be accessible by
everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in
searches, through their privacy settings.
[66]

Comparison with Myspace

The media often compares Facebook to

MySpace
, but one significant difference between the two Web sites is
the level of customization.
[67]
Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity, a
demand that MySpace does not make.
[68]

MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles
using

HTML

and

Cascading Style Sheets

(
CSS), while Facebook allows only

plain text
.
[69]

Facebook has a
number of features with which users may interact
. They include the

Wall
, a space on every user's profile page
that allows friends to post messages for the user to see;
[70]

Pokes
, which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to
each other (a notification then tells a user that they have been poked);
[71]

Photos
, where users can upload albums
and photos;
[72]

and

Status
, which allows users to inform their friends of their where
abouts and
actions.
[73]

Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a user's profile can also view that user's Wall. In
July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachmen
ts to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously
limited to textual content only.
[70]

News Feed

On September 6, 2006, a

News Feed

was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights
information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's fri
ends.
[74]

This enabled
spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays
to attract attention to their profile or cause.
[75]

Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook
users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it
made it t
oo easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and
conversations with other users).
[76]

In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for t
he site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy
features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with
friends. Users are now able to prevent user
-
set categories of friends from seeing up
dates about certain types of
activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.
[77]

On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent
[78]

on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers
News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another
user.
[79]

The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may
potentially include websites such as Twitter.
[80]

One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the

Photos

app
lication, where users can upload albums and
photos.
[81]

Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other

image hosting
services

such as

Photobucket

and

Flickr
, which apply li
mits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to
upload. During the first years, Facebook users were limited to 60

photos per album. As of May 2009, this limit has
been increased to 200

photos per album.
[82]
[83]
[84]
[85]

Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For
example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy
of another album can be set so
that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos application is
the ability to "
tag
", or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's fr
iend, then the user can
tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them
a link to see the photo.
[86]

On 7th June 2012
,facebook launched its App Center to its users. It will help the users
in finding games and other applications with ease.
[87]

Facebook Notes

Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22,

2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable
images. Users were later able to import blogs from

Xanga
,

Liv
eJournal
,

Blogger
, and other blogging
services.
[42]

During the week of April 7, 2008, Face
book released a

Comet
-
based
[88]

instant
messaging

application called "Chat" to several networks,
[89]

which allows users to communica
te with friends and
is similar in functionality to desktop
-
based

instant messengers
.

Facebook launched

Gifts

on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear
on the recipient's profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to
each gift.
[90]
[91]

On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched

Marketplace
, which lets users post free classified
ads.
[92]

Marketplace has been compared to

Craigslist

by
CNET
, which points out that the major difference
between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace

are seen only by users in the same network as
that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone.
[93]

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a sign
ificant redesign of its user interface on selected
networks. The Mini
-
Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort
was made to create a "cleaner" look.
[94]

After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating
all users to the new version starting in September 2008.
[95]

On December 11, 2008, it was
announced that
Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.
[96]

Facebook Username

On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with
simpler

URLs

such as

http://www.facebook.com/facebook

instead
of
http://www.faceboo
k.com/profile.php?id=20531316728
.
[97]

Many new

smartphones

offer
access to Facebook services through either their Web browsers or applications. An official Facebook application
is available for the operating systems

Android
,

iOS
, and

webOS
.

Nokia

and

Research In Motion

both provide
Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. More than 425 million active users access Facebook through
mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries.
[98]

Facebook Messages

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced a new "Facebook Messages" service. In a media event that day,
CEO Mark Zuckerberg said, "It's true t
hat people will be able to have an @facebook.com email addresses, but
it's not email". The launch of such a feature had been anticipated for some time before the announcement, with
some calling it a "Gmail killer". The system, to be available to all of the

website's users, combines text
messaging,

instant messaging
, emails, and regular messages, and will include privacy settings similar to those of
other Facebook services.

Codenamed "Project Titan", Facebook Messages took 15 months to develop.
[99]
[100]

In February 2011, Facebook
began to use the

hCalendar microformat

to mark up events, and the

hCard
microformat

for the events' venues, enabling the ext
raction of details to users' own calendar or mapping
applications.
[101]

Voice Calls

Since April 2011 Facebook users have had the ability to make live voice calls via
Facebook Chat, allowing users
to chat with others from all over the world. This feature, which is provided free through T
-
Mobile's new Bobsled
service, lets the user add voice to the current Facebook Chat as well as leave voice messages on Facebook.
[102]

Video Calling

On July 6, 2011, Facebook launched its video calling services using Skype as its technology partner. It allows
one to one calling using a Skype Rest API.
[103]

Facebook Subscribe

On September 14, 2011, Facebook launched a Subscribe button. The feature allows for users to follow public
updates, and these are the people most often broadcasting their
ideas.
[104]

There were major modifications that
the site released on September 22, 2011.
[105]

As reported by

TechCrunch

on February 15, 2012, Facebook is introducing ‘Verified Account’ concept like that of
Twitter &

Google+
. T
hough as of March 3, 2012, verified accounts don’t get any badges or denotations, but such
accounts will get more priority in ‘Subscription Suggestions’ of Facebook.
[106]

On March 6,
2012, Facebook officially launched

Messenger for Windows
, which gives users of

Windows
7

access to some Facebook services without using a

web browser
.
[107]

Privacy

According to

comScore
, an internet

marketing research

company, Facebook collects as much data from its
visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than

Yahoo!
.
[108]

In 2010, the security team began
expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users'

privacy
,
[109]

but

privacy concerns

remain. On November 6, 2007,
Facebook launched

Facebook Beacon
, which was an ultimately failed attempt to advertise to friends of users
using the knowledg
e of what purchases friends made. As of March 2012, Facebook's usage of its user data is
under close scrutiny.
[110]

FTC settlement

On November 29, 2011, Facebook agreed to settle US

Federal Trade Commission

charges that it deceived
consumers by failing to keep privacy promises.
[111]

Technical aspects

Facebook is built in

PHP

which is compiled with

HipHop for PHP
, a source code
transformer built by Facebook
engineers that turns PHP into

C++
. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on
Facebook servers by 50%.
[112]

Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build
engineer at Facebook, Facebook compiles into a 1.5

GB binary blob which is then
distributed to the servers using
a custom

BitTorrent
-
based release system. Rossi stated that it takes approximately 15 minutes to build and 15
minutes to release
to the servers. The build and release process is zero downtime and new changes to Facebook
are rolled out daily.
[112]

Reception



Facebook popularity. Active users of
Facebook increased from just a million in 2004 to over 750 million in 2011.
[113]



Registered Facebook users by age as of 2010.

According to

comScore
, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having
overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008.
[114]

ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 130

million
unique visitors in May 2010, an increase of 8.6

million people.
[115]

According to

Alexa
, the website's ranking
among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and
is currently 2nd.
[116]

Quantcast

ranks the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic,
[117]

and
Compete.com

ranks it 2nd in
the U.S.
[118]

The website is the most popular for uploading
photos, with 50

billion uploaded cumulatively.
[119]
In
2010,

Sophos
's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firm
s, 60% of which responded that they believed
that Facebook was the social network that posed the biggest threat to security, well ahead of MySpace, Twitter,
and

LinkedIn
.
[109]

Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several

English
-
speaking countries
, including
Canada,
[120]

the United Kingdom,
[121]

and the United States.
[122]
[12
3]
[124]
[125]

In regional Internet markets, Facebook
penetration is highest in North America (69 percent), foll
owed by Middle East
-
Africa (67 percent), Latin America
(58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia
-
Pacific (17 percent).
[126]

The website has won awards such as placement into the "To
p 100 Classic Websites" by

PC Magazine

in
2007,
[127]

and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the

Webby Awards

in 2008.
[128]

In a 2006 study
conducted by Student Monitor, a

New Jersey
-
based company specializing in research concerning the college
student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and
only ranked lower than the

iPod
.
[129]

On March 2010, Judge Richard Seeborg issued an order approving the class settlement in

Lane v. Facebook,
Inc.
, the class action lawsuit arising out of Facebook's Beacon program.

In 2010, Facebook won the

Crunchie

"Best Overall Startup Or Product" for the third year in a row
[130]

and was
recognized as one of the "Hottest

Silicon Valley

Companies" by Lead411.
[131]

However, in a July 2010 survey
performed by the

American Customer Satisfaction Index
, Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it
in the bottom 5% of all private
-
sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as
the

IRS e
-
file

system, airlines, and

cable companies
. The reasons why Facebook scored so poorly include
priv
acy problems, frequent changes to the website's interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and
spam.
[132]

In December 2008, the

Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory

ruled that Facebook is a
valid

protocol

to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that
defines a

summons

posted on Facebook as legally binding.
[133]

In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court
associate justice David Gendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market
Garden via Facebook.
[134]
[135]

Employers (such as

Virgin Atlantic Airways
) have also used Facebook as a means
to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.
[136]

By 20
05, the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come
into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own.
[137]

In 2008,

Collins English
Dictionary

declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year.
[138]

In December 2009, the

New Oxford American
Dictionary

declared its word of the year to be the verb "
unfriend
", defined as "To remove someone as a '
friend
' on
a

social networking

site such as Facebook. As in, 'I decided to unfriend my roommate on Facebook after we had
a fight.'"
[139]

In early 2010,

Openbook

was established, an avowed

parody

(and privacy advocacy) website
[140]

that enables
text
-
based searches of those Wall posts that are available to "Everyone", i.e. to everyone on the Internet.

Writers for

The Wall Street Journal

found in 2010 that Facebook apps were transmitting identifying information to
"dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". The apps used an

HTTP referrer

which exposed the
user's identity and sometimes their friends'. Facebook said, "We have taken immediate action to disable all
applications that violate our terms".
[141]

In May 2012, the countries with the most Facebook users were:
[142]



United States with 157.3 million members



Brazil

with 47.0 million members



India

with 46.3 million members



Indonesia

with 42.2 million members



Mexico

with 33.1 million members

All of the above total 309 million members or about 38.
6 percent of Facebook's 800 million worldwide
members.
[143]

Criticism

Main article:

Criticism of Facebook

Facebook has met with

controversies
. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the
People's Republic of China,
[144]

Iran,
[145]

Uzbekistan,
[146]

Pakistan,
[147]

Syria,
[148]

and Bangladesh on different
bases. For example, it was banned in many countri
es of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti
-
Islamic and containing religious discrimination. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent
employees from using it during work hours.
[149]

The

privacy of Facebook users

has also been an issue, and the
safety of user accounts has been compromised se
veral times. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims
over source code and intellectual property.
[150]

In May 2011 emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making
critical
allegations about Google's privacy policies; however it was later discovered that the anti
-
Google
campaign, conducted by PR giant Burson
-
Marsteller, was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a
new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called

a "clumsy

smear
".
[151]

In July 2011, German authorities began to discuss the prohibition of events
organized on Facebook. The decision
is based on several cases of overcrowding by people not originally invited.
[152]
[153]
In one instance, 1,600 "guests"
attended the 16th birthday party for a Hamburg girl who accidentally posted the invitation for the event as public.
After reports of overcrowding, more than a hundred police were deployed for crowd control. A poli
ceman was
injured and eleven participants were arrested for assault, property damage and resistance to authorities.
[154]

In
another unexpectedly overcrowded event, 41 young people wer
e arrested and at least 16 injured.
[155]

In May 2011,

HCL Technologies

announced that approximately

50% of British employers had banned Facebook
from the workplace.
[156]

Facebook has been blamed for lower worker productivity and has been called a national
obsession by anti
-
Facebook

blogs such as Facebook Detox.
[157]

A 2011 study in the online journal

First Monday
, "Why Parents Help Their Children Lie to Facebook About Age:
Unintended Consequences of the Childre
n's Online Privacy Protection Act," examines how parents consistently
enable children as young as 10 years old to sign up for accounts, directly violating Facebook's policy banning
young visitors. This policy technically allows Facebook to avoid conflicts
with the 1998 Children's Online Privacy
Protection Act (COPPA), requiring that minors aged 13 or younger gain explicit parental consent to access
commercial websites. Of the more than 1,000 households surveyed for the study, more than three
-
quarters
(76%)
of parents reported that their child joined Facebook when she was younger than 13, the minimum age in
the site's terms of service. The study notes that, in response to widespread reports of underage users, a
Facebook executive has said that "Facebook remov
es 20,000 people a day, people who are underage." The
study's authors also note, "Indeed, Facebook takes various measures both to restrict access to children and
delete their accounts if they join." The findings of the study raise questions primarily about

the shortcomings of
federal law, but also implicitly continue to raise questions about whether or not Facebook does enough to
publicize its terms of service with respect to minors. Only 53% of parents said they were aware that Facebook
has a minimum signu
p age; 35% of these parents believe that the minimum age is a site recommendation (not a
condition of site use), or thought the signup age was 16 or 18, and not 13.
[158]

In November 2
011, several Facebook users reported that their accounts were hacked and their profile pictures
were replaced with pornographic images. For more than a week, users' news feeds were spammed with
pornographic, violent and sexual contents. It has been reporte
d that more than 200,000 accounts in

Bangalore
,
India were hacked. Facebook has denied the claims, citing that "safety of the users was on the top of their priority
list".
[159]
[160]

There has been much user discontent over Facebook's mandatory changeover to the new

Timeline

profile. Some
Facebook users reported discontent with having many Facebook status updates and photos from the past easily
visible.
[161]
[162]

According to a leading counter terrorism expert, terrorists are using Facebook for hiring loners from western
nations
like Australia.
[163]

Impact

Media impact

In April 2011, Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand
promotions on Facebook.
[164]

The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders
to meet Facebook's top executives at an "influencers' summit" in February 2010. Facebook has n
ow been
involved in campaigns for

True Blood
,

American Idol
, and

Top Gear
.
[165]

News and media outlets such as the
Washington Post,
[166]

Financial Times
[167]

and ABC News
[168]

have used

aggregated Facebook fan data to create
various infographics and charts to accompany their articles.

Social impact

Main articles:

Social networking service#Social impact

and

Social impact of the Internet#Social networking and
entertain
ment

Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. With its availability on many mobile
devices, Facebook allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances
wherever they are in the wo
rld, as long as there is access to the Internet. It can also unite people with common
interests and/or beliefs through groups and other pages, and has been known to reunite lost family members and
friends because of the widespread reach of its network. One

such reunion was between John Watson and the
daughter he had been seeking for 20 years. They met after Watson found her Facebook profile.
[169]

Another
father
-
daughter reunion was
between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson, who had not seen each other for
nearly 48 years.
[170]

Some argue that Facebook is beneficial to one's social life because they can continuo
usly stay in contact with
their friends and relatives, while others say that it can cause increased antisocial tendencies because people are
not directly communicating with each other. Some studies have named Facebook as a source of problems in
relationshi
ps. Several news stories have suggested that using Facebook can lead to higher instances of divorce
and

infidelity
, but the claims have been questioned by other commentators.
[171]
[172]

Political impact



The stage at the Facebook



Saint Anselm College

debates in 2008.

Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the

New
Hampshire primary
, when Facebook teamed up with

AB
C

and

Saint Anselm College

to allow users to give live
feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates.
[173]
[174]
[175]

Charles
Gibson

moderated both debates, held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College. Facebook
users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote
, and message questions.
[176]

ABCNews.com reported in 2012 that the Facebook fanbases of political candidates have relevance for the
election campaign, including:



Allows politicians a
nd campaign organizers to understand the interests and
demographics of their Facebook fanbases, as with

Wisdom for Facebook
,
to better target their voters.



Provides

a means for voters to keep up
-
to
-
date on candidates' activities,
such as connecting to the candidates' Facebook Fan Pages.

Unless you get out of Facebook and into someone’s face, you really have not acted.





Thomas L. Friedman
, 2012
[177]

Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politi
cs on Facebook" in order to take part, and the
application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.
[178]

This debate
showed the broader
community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook as a popular and
powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. An article by Michelle Sullivan of Uwire.com illustrates how the
"Facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates, suppo
rt by youth of political candidates, and general
involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.
[179]

In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against F
ARC" organized an event in which
hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the

Revolutionary Armed Forces o
f Colombia
,
better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name).
[180]

In August 2010, one of North Korea's official
government websites and the official news agency of the countr
y,

Uriminzokkiri
, joined Facebook.
[181]

In 2011 there was a controversial ruling by French government to
uphold a 1992 decree which stipulates that
commercial enterprises should not be promoted on news programs. President Nicolas Sarkozy's colleagues have
agreed that it will enforce a law so that the word "Facebook" will not be allowed to be spoken on the tel
evision or
on the radio.
[182]

In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the

Federal Election Commission

to form a

political action
committee

under the name

FB PAC
.
[183]

In an email to

The Hill
, a spokesman for Facebook said "FB PAC will
give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by sup
porting candidates who share
our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make
the world more open and connected."
[184]

In
popular culture



At age 102,

Ivy Bean

of

Bradford
, England joined Facebook in 2008,
making her one of the oldest people e
ver on Facebook. An inspiration to
other residents of the care home in which she lived,
[185]

she quickly became
more widely known and several fan pages were made in her honor. She
vis
ited the British Prime Minister

Gordon Brown

and his wife, Sarah,
in

Downing Street
early in 2010.
[186]

Some time after creating her Facebook
page, Bean joined Twitter, when she passed the maximum number of
friends allowed by Facebook. She became the oldest person to ever use
the Tw
itter website. At the time of her death in July 2010, she had 4,962
friends on Facebook and more than 56,000 followers on Twitter. Her death
was widely reported in the media and she received tributes from several
notable media personalities.
[187]



American author

Ben Mezrich

published a book in July 2009 about Mark
Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled

The Acciden
tal
Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius,
and Betrayal
.
[188]



In response to the

Everybody Draw Mohammed Day

controversy and the
ban of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was
created, called

MillatFacebook
.
[189]



"
You Hav
e 0 Friends
", an April 2010 episode of the American animated
comedy series,

South Park
, explicitly parodied Facebook.
[190]



The Social Network
, a drama film directed by

David Fincher

about the
founding of Facebook, was released October 1, 2010.
[191]

The film features
an

ensemble cast

consisting of

Jesse Eisenberg

as Mark
Zuckerberg,

Andrew Garfield

as Eduardo Saverin,

Justin
Timberlake

as

Sean Parker
, and

Armie Hammer

as

Cameron and Tyler
Winklevoss
. The film was written by

Aaron Sorkin

and adapted from

Ben
Mezrich
's 2009 book. The film was di
stributed by

Columbia Pictures
. No
staff members of Facebook, including Zuckerberg, were involved with the
project. However, one of Facebook's co
-
founders, Eduardo Saveri
n, was a
consultant for Mezrich's book. Mark Zuckerberg has said that

The Social
Network

is inaccurate.
[192]



On May 16, 2011, an Israeli couple named their daughter after the
Facebook

"like" feature. They explained that it wasn't to advertise for
Facebook, but because they fancied the meaning behind the word.
[193]
[194]



In

2012

sammarinese

singer

Valentina Monetta

released a song about
Facebook called

The Social Network

Song

(There is a previous version
called

Facebook Uh Oh Oh
).
[195]

See also

Facebook

History

Timeline

Statistics

Acquisitions

Criticism

Features



Ambient awareness



Cyberstalking



List of social networking websites



List of virtual communities with more than 100 million users



Six degrees of separation



My Space



Cyworld



Facebook, Inc.



Companies

portal





Internet

portal

Notes

1.

^

An "active user" is defined by Facebook as a user who has
visited the
website in the last 30 days.

2.

^

"Monthly growth" is the average percentage growth rate at which the
total number of active users grows each month over the specified period.

3.

^

This value is from an investment document. The date is from when the
document was revealed to the public, not the actual date that the website
reached this many users.

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Further reading



Kirkpatrick, David,

"Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates.
And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools
for maintaining s
ocial relationships"
,
Fortune
, October 6, 2006



Miller, Da
niel
,

Tales from Facebook
,

Polity

2011,

ISBN 978
-
0
-
7456
-
5209
-
2

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