Brain-Based Education - Southern Utah University

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20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Michael McGarvey

Southern Utah University

1

Myths or Fact


Only 10% of the brain is used


We are either right brained or left brained


Humans stop growing neural connections shortly after
birth


A toddler’s brain is less active than an adult’s


The brain is almost fully developed by age five or six

2

Parts of the Brain


3

Parts of Neuron Cell


Cell body


Dendrites


Branchlike structures that receive
messages from other
neurons


Can be thousands of dendrites on each neuron


Axon


Arm
-
like structure that transmits information
to other neurons


Neurotransmitters


Chemicals that carry messages
between neurons


4

Features of a Neuron

(Bohlin & Reese
-
Weber, 2009)

5

6

Synapse









(Bohlin & Reese
-
Weber, 2009)

7

Synapse


http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXx9qlJetSU


8

Brain Based Learning


Brain based learning starts with the learner, not the
content


We do not learn in sequence


We move ahead


We move back to the preceding issue


Then we move forward to the new information

9

Multitasking


Brain is always multitasking


Monitoring physical well being


Taking in sensory input


Much of the brains activity is outside of our conscious
thought

10

Attention




Hard to maintain


The material must be of interest to the learner


Must be Relevant to the Learners Life


Accomplished by activating neurons where the
information is stored

11

The Role of Emotions



Emotions increase the brain activity


The stronger the emotion the stronger the neural
connection


Activities such as simulations and role playing
are emotional in nature


Increases learning because of stronger neural
connections


12

Down Side of Emotional Learning


Continued stress in the learning environment causes
the chemical Cortisol to be secreted which constantly
stimulates the bodies systems and causes an over
stressed situation

13

Long Term Memory



Memories are first processed in the hippocampus


All memories are broken down in component parts


Then they are disseminated to other parts of the brain

14

Long Term
Memory (Cont.)


There is no central memory location


Components of the memory must be reassembled


Brain has the capacity to create an almost unlimited
number of memories by reusing memory components


Problem in
reassembly

15

Long Term
M
emory
S
torage


Hippocampus starts the learning process


Acts as an intermediate storage site


With reinforcement the memory is stored into long
term memory


Mechanism is the development of strong neural
connection

16

Information stored in Neural
Pathways


Information is not stored in the neural pathways
immediately


Information stored must be consolidated over a period
of time


Time must pass while the neural network (dendrites)
is developed


Difference between short term memories and long
term memories is the strength of the neural
connection


17

Need for Sleep in Memory
Development


Memories take time to develop


During sleep the brain has high and low activity
periods


REM sleep is high activity sleep


Brain activity is similar to wake states without many of
the motor activities


During sleep the brain works through the experiences
of the day


Thought that consolidation of memories takes place
during REM sleep

18

Mirror Neurons


Discovered by Rizzolati and Gallasse


Part of the neural network that allows us to see the
world from another person’s point of view


Helps us understand the behavior of those around us


Imitation Learning


Students tend to pickup teachers behavior

19

Mirror
Neurons (cont.)


Mechanism


Mirror neutrons are activated when watching another’s
activities


The person then copies the behavior

20

The Brain Looks for Patterns


The assumption is that a subject can be fragmented
into little bits, and when presented with the bits,
students will be able to assemble the parts and emerge
with the whole
---

even though they’re never provided
with an inkling of the whole. (Jensen, pg. 182)

21

The Brain Looks for
Patterns (cont.)


Each pattern is added to the learner’s perceptual map


Critical that patterns be created as quickly as possible


Learning is creating pathways at the neural level


Interdisciplinary and cross
-
disciplinary activities helps
increase the development of patterns

22

The Brain Looks for Patterns (cont.)


Emphasis should be placed on relevance, context, and
common patterns


The brain is constantly striving to make connections
between learning and emotions

23

Matching Instruction to Brain
Learning


Brain Seek Patterns


Must establish relevance and meaning


Students learn the best when applying learning


Give explicit examples of the application of the
concept


Give examples of how a concept may be used when
applied in different areas

24

Matching Instruction to Brain
Learning (cont.)


Reinforce information


Review on a regular basis


Connecting new information to previous experiences


Use real world problems to form neural connections
(Putman pg4)


Allow students time for processing information

25

A More Brain Compatible
Classroom


Use a variety of instructional methods


Students teaching each other


Active involvement


Discussions in groups (Madrazo, et. al. 2005)


Use open
-
ended questions
(Madrazo, et. al.
pg. 58)


Introduce material over a period of time


26

A More Brain Compatible
Classroom


Use novel presentations


Make the classroom a safe place


Free of emotional threats


Reduce stress by creating situations that are real life
simulations (Konecki, et. Al. pg. 4)


Give students time to reflect and review their work

27

Bibliography

Andrews, D. (1997)
What Brain Research Has To Tell
Educators: Mandates and Metaphors.
(ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No.
ED412873)

Connell, J.D. (2009). The Global Aspects of Brain
-
Based
Learning.
Educational Horizons
. 28
-
39.

Iran
-
Najad, A. (1998).
Brain
-
Based Education: A Reply to
Bruer.

(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED429063
)

Jensen, E. (2008).
Brain
-
Based Learning A new paradigm of
teaching
(2
nd

ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Jokerwe (2009) Synapse Animation (Video
Podcast).Retrieved from YouTube
http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXx9qlJetSU


28

Bibliography
(cont.)

Kitchens, A.W. ; et. al. (1991).
Left Brain/Right Brain
Theory; Implications for Developmental Math
Instruction.
Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.
Center for Developmental Education. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED354963
)

Konecki
, Loretta R. ; Schiller, E. (2003).
Brain
-
Based
Learning and Standards
-
Based Elementary Science.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED472624
)

Madrazo
, Jr., G.M. ; Motz, L.I. (Spring 2005). Brain
Research: Implications to Diverse Learners.
Science
Education
,
Vol.
14(1), 56
-
60
.


29

Bibliography (cont.)

Putman, A.R. (2001).
Problem
-
Based Teaching and Learning
in Technology Education.
Paper presented at the Annual
Conference of the Association for Career and Technical
Education: 75
th
, New Orleans, LA: (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED465039
)

Sprenger, M. (2010).
Brain
-
Based teaching
-
in the digital age
.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Winters, C.A. (2001)
Brain Based Teaching: Fad or Promising
Teaching
Method
. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
No.
ED455218)

Wolfe
, P. (2010).
Brain Matters Translating Research into
Classroom Practice (2
nd

ed.).
Alexandria, VA: ASCD
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron

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