University of Pittsburgh Pitt Law

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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The Impact of a Rapidly Changing Energy Economy in the

U.S. on Electric Power Grid Modernization, and the Role of

Advanced Grid Technologies for Future Energy Sustainability


University of Pittsburgh


Pitt Law

Energy Law and Policy Institute

The Rivers Club, Pittsburgh PA

August 1, 2013


Gregory F. Reed, Ph.D.

Director, Electric Power Initiative

Assoc. Director, Center for Energy

Assoc. Professor, Electrical & Computer Engineering

Swanson School of Engineering


University of Pittsburgh

Overview

2

Three Main Themes:


1
-


The Rapidly Changing Energy Resource Portfolio in the
U.S. for Electricity Generation


2
-


The Challenges Associated with Current Trends and
Future Projections in Generation Mix and Location on
Electric Power System Planning and Operations


3
-


The Impact on the Critical Need for Modernization and
Expansion of the Electric Power Delivery Infrastructure
(i.e. the Power Grid) for Future Energy Sustainability

3

2009

2010

U.S. Electricity Generation


Trends

2011

2012

Coal: 37.4%

Natural Gas: 30.4%


Nuclear: 19%


Hydroelectric: 6.7%

Non
-
hydro

Renewables: 5.4 %

Fuel Oil: 0.6%

Sources: U.S. DOE Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook Reports

4

Source:

2013 US DOE EIA

Early Release Projections

U.S. Electricity Generation


Projections

Challenges for the U.S. Power Grid

5


Growing Constraints on Electrical Infrastructure


Continued growth in overall electrical demand


Transmission congestion in key areas of the country


‘Legacy’ century
-
old system and aging/antiquated AC equipment


De
-
commissioning of many ‘near
-
load’ generation (mainly fossil plants)


Rapidly changing electricity generation resource mix and plant locations


Increased Penetration of Renewable Generation


Statewide renewable portfolio standards


Location of renewable supply vs. location of load centers


Integrating non
-
dispatchable/intermittent resources reliably


More Distributed Resources and DC loads


High penetration of local generation (PV, etc.), within distribution networks


Energy storage technology developments and applications


Consumer and industrial loads are migrating toward DC systems:


Data center equipment
--

e.g., switches, servers, UPS, etc.


Home computers, lighting, TVs, internet routers, cell phones, etc.


Electronic motor drives, industrial automation equipment, EVs, etc.


U.S. Existing Power Plants Map

6

http://www.npr.org/news/graphics/2009/apr/electric
-
grid/gridmap.swf


Resource

Solar PV/CSP)

Wind

Geothermal

Water Power

Biopower

Theoretical
Potential

206,000 GW
(PV)

11,100GW
(CSP)

8,000 GW
(onshore)

2,200 GW
(offshore to 50
nm)


39 GW
(conventional)
520 GW (EGS)

4 GW

(co
-
produced)

140 GW

78 GW

U.S. Renewable Energy Map

7

Source:

US DOE National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL)

New
Alba
ny

Barnet
t

Huro
n

Antri
m

Fayetteville

Caney/

Woodford

Haynesville/

Bossier

Marcellus

Eagle

Ford

Utica

Muskwa

Barnett &

Woodford

Neal/

Floyd

Monterey

McClure

Lewis &

Mancos

Hermosa

Green River/

Mancos/

Baxter

Niobrara

Cody

Frederick

Brook

Gammon

Bakken

Chattanooga

Pearsall

Palo

Duro

Pierre

Excello/

Mulky

Mowry

Conasauga

Montney

Horton

Bluff

Since 2000,

32 ‘Plays’


an 8
-
fold
increase
since 1980

8

North American Shale Gas Plays

Source: US DOE

U.S. Electrical Transmission


EHV/UHV

9



Outside of the Northeast
region, existing EHV and
UHV transmission
infrastructure is not as dense
as other regions comparably




Many of the existing fossil
-
based plants identified in the
bottom figure will be retired
in the next 20 years,
resulting in
var

deficiencies
and creating voltage and
system instability, requiring
more power electronics
control (FACTS/DC)




The two maps together
show that today, resources
are aligned with transmission
build
-
out (reflective of
historical population and
economic density)

U.S. Transmission and Power Plants

10

Context of Renewable/Clean Energy

11

Statements on Increased Renewable Energy Penetration



DOE National Electric Transmission Congestion Study:

“…there is transmission congestion at present, but ‘significant’ increases in
congestion would result if large amounts of new generation resources were
to be developed without simultaneous development of associated
transmission capacity” (2006)


DOE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and

American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) joint Report:

“….transmission and integration into the U.S. electric system…”

is one main hurdle to establishing wind power on the grid

“….many challenges are inherent in building transmission systems to
accommodate wind and solar energy. If electric loads keep growing,
extensive new transmission will be required to connect new generation to
loads. ….true regardless of the power sources that dominate, whether they
are fossil fuels, wind, solar hydropower, etc.” (2008)


Source: 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study (NETCS2009)

12

National Transmission Needs for

Wind Integration by 2030 (2009 ref.)

Power Electronics Technology Impact

13

Power Electronics Technologies Impact and Growth:


U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery &
Energy Reliability Report (March, 2010):



“Presently 30% of all electric power generated uses power
electronics technologies somewhere between the point of
generation and end
-
use. By 2030, 80% of all electric power

will flow through power electronics”


Reed, et.al. DOE NETL SGA Report (June, 2011):



“Advances in power electronics technologies and systems will
be critical to improve electric power flow control, effectively
integrate renewable and non
-
dispatched energy generation
resources, implement energy storage solutions and distributed
generation, and support an expanding market for plug
-
in hybrid
electric vehicles”


A New Era is Emerging in Power Systems

14


Grid Technologies for the Future


A need to expand and modernize the existing legacy infrastructure


Matching end
-
use requirements (more DC loads) with delivery technologies
(hybrid AC / DC systems) and evolving generation (more DC supply)


Integrating ‘smart grid’ concepts for enhanced control, communications,
protection, automation, and security



The Role of Advanced Power Electronics Grid Technologies


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)


Improves the performance of existing AC systems and supports the
deficiency of ‘
var
’ capacity lost from near
-
load plant decommissioning


High Voltage Direct Current Systems (HVDC)


Advantages
over traditional AC solutions or certain applications

(mainly for bulk transmission delivery)


Medium Voltage Direct Current Systems (
MVDC)


Offers the potential to bridge the gap and develop better efficiencies
between supply and demand


15

New Age War of the Currents: AC
vs

DC

U.S. Transmission Investments

16


History and Present Market Environment



Under
-
investment in Transmission & Distribution from 1970’s thru 1999


Reduced R&D and erosion of grid capacity/reliability margins



Increasing investment trend from 1999 through present




Source: Edison Electric Institute (EEI)

Hybrid DC/AC Super Grid Concepts

HV DC/AC Super
-
Grid Concept for Efficient Integration of Energy Resources and Power Delivery


17

18

HVDC: High Voltage DC Transmission Systems:



More power can be transmitted more efficiently over long
distances by applying HVDC, and is less costly for
underground installation


HVDC lines can carry 2 to 5 times the capacity of an AC line
of similar voltage, over the same right of way


Interconnection of two AC systems, where AC lines would not
be possible due to stability problems or both systems having
different nominal frequencies


HVDC transmission is necessary for underwater power
transfer if the cables are longer than 50km


Power flow can be controlled rapidly and accurately


Higher reliability and greater resiliency to disturbances


Offers a solution to a ‘national strategy’ for grid modernization




HVDC Solutions

19

HVDC Solutions

DC Transmission and Back
-
to
-
Back Link Configurations

THYRISTOR

VALVE HALL

CONVERTER

STATION

AC

Network

(A)

AC

Network

(B)

Converter

Station A

Converter
Station B

DC
Transmission
Lines

~ or ~

BtB DC
-
Link

23

The Pittsburgh Region’s Role

23

24

Collaboration of Policy/Law and Engineering/Technology


Policymakers/Lawyers and Engineers/Technologists must be
at the table ‘together’ to develop thoughtful and efficient
solutions to the challenges ahead


A true understanding and appreciation by policymakers
related to technology considerations on new policies and laws
(and vice
-
versa) needs to be part of the dialogue


There is tremendous potential benefit for our region related to
everything from resource extraction and utilization to
technology development and manufacturing ... for the overall
reliable, safe, economic, efficient, and sustainable supply and
operation of electric power and energy systems


National leadership in economic development, job growth,
ingenuity, and partnership


Exciting and dynamic futures for young Americans!

Opportunities

26






Thank You