Power Transmission Technology: The Second Revolution

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Power Transmission Technology:

The Second Revolution


Superconductor
-
Based Technologies

and Regulatory Reform Strategies

To Boost Grid Capacity, Improve Reliability

and “Break the Gridlock”


Massachusetts Restructuring Roundtable

Boston, MA

November 16, 2001


John B. Howe

Vice President, Electric Industry Affairs

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We are a world leader in developing and manufacturing
products using superconducting wires and power
electronic switches for the power infrastructure


American Superconductor Corporation

Nasdaq: AMSC

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Overview


Today’s Power Grid is Severely Stressed


The Grid Never Violates the Laws of Physics


New Grid Technologies: Description and Benefits


High
-
Capacity HTS T&D Power Cable


Distributed SMES for Voltage Stability


Network Effects of a Stronger Power Grid:
Component Benefits
--

System
-
level Benefits


Regulatory and Legislative Reforms That Can
Speed the Adoption of New Grid Technologies

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…Has Brought Us to “Power Gridlock”
--

And A Demand for New Power Technologies

A Convergence of Many Factors...


Demand Growth


“Siliconization”


Siting Obstacles


Erratic Pace of Deregulation


Eroding Reliability

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The “Power Struggle:” Summer 2001

In Georgetown: Lost Business


Merchants Bemoan Costs as Power Outage Continues


June 15, 2001

The Detroit News

Major Detroit power line fails

It happens nearly one year after the city's worst outage

June 13, 2001

Another Boston
-
Area Power Outage


August 24, 2001

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New Generating
Capacity

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Transmission
Investments

Estimate

New generating capacity (‘000 megawatts)

Transmission investment (1992 US$ billion)

Source: CERA

Grid Investment Lagging in U.S.

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The amount of power that can be transmitted
through a particular grid is limited by a number
of factors, chiefly:


Thermal Limits


Line/cable conductors reach physical capacity


Overload leads to excessive sag, degraded
insulation, burnout and outright failure


Stability Limits


Lines reach limit of safe operation by
standards of “Prudent Operating Practice”


Overload puts system at risk of fast collapse
during a contingency (line outage, plant trip)

Power Grids Have Limited Capacity

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The Changing Role of the Power Grid


Pre
-
1990s: Vertically
-
Integrated Monopoly


Mid
-
1990s: Rise of DG
--

“Is the Grid Obsolete?”


2000s: The Grid Isn’t Going Away Soon
--

But It Needs a Major Upgrade Now!!


The Grid’s New Role: Platform for Competition

…The Lesson from Other Regulated Industries:

The Key to Robust Competition

Lies in a Robust Physical Network

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Superconductor Technology Benefits


Raise Energy Efficiency


Increase Capacity


Improve Reliability and Power Quality


Reduce Environmental Impacts


Put Scarce Real Estate to Higher Value Uses


Component

Benefits of Superconductivity are
Leveraged into even Larger
System
-
Level

Benefits

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The Basis for the Revolution

HTS Wire: 140x Increase in Wire Capacity

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HTS Wire Price/Performance Trend

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Price/Performance Ratio, $/kA
-
m*

* Price of One Meter of Wire Carrying 1,000 Amperes

Performance and Yields are Rising
--

Costs are Falling

Actual

Target

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First Commercial HTS Wire Plant
--

Devens Commerce Park, Massachusetts

8/00 Broke Ground

8/01 First Employees

1/02 Fully Equipped

8/02 High
-
Yield Production

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HTS Power Cable Alliance


Exclusive commercial agreement


Alliance since 1990


$30 million in funding to AMSC


First HTS cable in 1996
-

Beta
-
phase
about to start


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High Capacity HTS Power Cables

More power carried in same right of way at much

lower voltages and system costs.

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(1, 2)

Nine Existing

Copper Cables

Are Removed

(3, 4)

Three HTS Cables

Are Installed
--

Six

Conduits Free for

Expansion/Other Uses

HTS Cable: The 3
-
to
-
1 Advantage

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2

3

Urban Re
-
Electrification: “Virtual Bus”

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Urban Re
-
Electrification: “Urban Ring”

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HTS Re
-
electrification: Reclaiming Corridors

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HTS DC Transmission: Uses and Benefits


Integrate Markets: Tap the Large Interregional
Price Disparities Exposed by Deregulation


Special Delivery: Serve Congested Urban Load
Pockets with “Virtual Power Plant”


Operation: Avoid Parallel Path / Loop Flows


Environment: Avoid AC Line Siting, EMF Issues


2020 Vision: Separate Grid into AC “Islands”
Connected by Controllable DC “Bridges”


Improved Stability and Reliability


Make the System Function as the Economists Want it to!

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Power Transmission Lines Never Operate at Full
Capacity (“or “Bandwidth”)


Our Least Expensive “New” Grid Capacity:
The Capacity that
Already Exists

but
Can’t be Used


At What Fraction of Maximum Bandwidth are Your
Utility’s Power Lines Operating?


U.S. Average = 35% !

Distributed SMES:

Attacks the Power Bandwidth Problem

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Old Solution
-

String More Lines!

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A New Solution
-

SMES


Power electronics and superconductors


Most effective


Lowest cost


Quickest solution


No environmental permits

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Proprietary Storage Technology...


Coil of LTS wire stores
enough energy to
deliver 3 megawatts of
power in one second.


SMES Basics

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Delivers megawatts of
real power
instantaneously and
simultaneously with
megaVARS of reactive
power.

…Plus Proprietary Power Electronics Technology

SMES Products

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PQ SMES:

Precise Power Quality Protection

LINE VOLTAGE (IN)

LOAD VOLTAGE (OUT)

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Time in Seconds

D
-
SMES: Wide Area Grid Stabilization

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

Relative Voltage

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Base Run
-

115kV

D
-
SMES

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D
-
SMES vs. Conventional Overhead Lines


Effective alternative where existing lines are
stability
-
limited (vs. thermally limited)


Eliminates siting & political obstacles


Quick installation
(2 days)


Mobility
--

avoids
stranded asset risk

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WPS Northern Loop (No. Wisconsin)

D
-
SMES

100 miles


First permanent
use of
superconductors
in a live grid


6 units deployed
in July 2000


3 MVAR reactive
power capacity
(2.3x short term
overload capability)

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0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Six D
-
SMES: 15% Safe Increase in Power Bandwidth


Thermal

Limit

Current

Operation

Dynamic

Voltage

Limit

Operating in the

RED ZONE

6 D
-
SMES

Added

WPS Northern Loop

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Entergy Gulf States (East Texas)

D
-
SMES


Two units in 2001,
two more in 2002


8 MVAR reactive
power capability
(2.3x overload)


D
-
SMES built into
Entergy’s
strategic planning
process

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1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

Four D
-
SMES: 20% Safe Increase in Power Bandwidth


Operating in the

RED ZONE

Dynamic

Voltage

Limit

Thermal

Limit

Current

Operation

Four

D
-
SMES

Added

Entergy Gulf States

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D
-
SMES: Uses and Benefits


Utility:

Increase Load Serving Capability Over
Existing Lines
--

Maintain Reliability Objective


Trader / Marketer:

Increase Import / Export /
Transfer Capacity
--

For a Slice of the Benefit


System Planner / IPP:

Facilitate Interconnection
of New Merchant Generators
--


and

“Fill in Holes”
Caused by Retirement of Older Generators


Environmental / Emissions Trading:

Reduce Need
for Dirty Reliability
-
Must
-
Run (“RMR”) Units
--

Generate / Claim / Trade Valuable Credits

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A Stronger Grid Gives Rise to

System
-
Level Benefits


Enable Closer Adherence to Economic Dispatch
(Fuel Efficiency and Air Quality Benefits)


Better Integration of Remote Resources including
Coal/Nuclear and Renewables (Solar/ Wind)


Integrated “National Grid” Can Save $10Bs in
Generation Investment to maintain Reserve Margin


Reduced Congestion Is Essential to Ensure the
Success of New Retail Competitive Frameworks

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The Problem

For Utilities that Operate Under
Traditional Cost
-
of
-
Service Regulation,

Investing in Transmission Assets to
Reduce Congestion is
Unprofitable…
or Worse.

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Some Level of Transmission Constraints
is Economically Efficient

Dollars

Invested

Number of Hours Constrained

Cost of

Relieving

Constraint

Benefits of

Relieving

Constraint

Economically

Desirable

Level of

Constraint

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What Determines “Optimal” Constraint?

The Form of Regulation Matters!!

Dollars

Invested

Number of Hours Constrained

Vertically
-
Integrated,

Local Regulated Utility

Unbundled DISCO under

Cost of Service

Unbundled DISCO under

Multi
-
Year Price Cap

VI Utility with Non
-
Regulated

Marketing/Generating Affiliate

Large RTO Internalizing

All Congestion Costs

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Competition in Commodities Spurred by


Competition in the Building of Network Facilities


Telecom, 1970s: “No One Will Replicate the
Existing Communications Network”
(1980s
-
90s: Fiber Optic, Wireless Networks)


Natural Gas, Early 1980s: “A Sunset Industry”
(1990s: New Pipelines, Compression, IT)


Airlines: Landing Gates Key to Mitigating
Incumbent Market Power (the O’Hare Problem)

Network Investment:

The Key to Robust Competition

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Incentives to Strengthen the Grid:
Regulatory and Legislative Actions


Move RTO Focus From “Congestion Management”
to “Congestion Relief!”


Performance
-
Based Regulation (a la UK)


Mandatory Reliability Standards


Coordinate Development of Road, Railway and
Utility Infrastructures


In the Long Run
, the Most Stable End Point Will Be
True
Network
-
Based Competition
.

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Stimulating New Grid Investment:

“Exempt Transmission Facilities”


Applies to New Facilities
--

Not Existing AC Network


Must Meet Low Environmental Impact Standard


Technologies with Controllable Current (Avoid
Impact on Underlying AC Network Flows)


ETFs Have No Recourse to Eminent Domain


Show Absence of Market Power (Size, Ownership)

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Exemption from Rate Regulation under FPA


Eligibility for Streamlined/Federalized Siting Process
Modeled on Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines


Exemption from Open Access Requirements under
FERC Order 888 / 2000

Proposed Benefits of ETF Status

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“Break the Gridlock!”


Thank You!

Questions?


jhowe@amsuper.com

www.amsuper.com