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Actionari

Electrice Dirijate


Mijloc Eficient de
Economisire a Energie Electrice

Chisinau

Moldexpo
-

Martie 2011

ACADEMIA DE STIINTE A MOLDOVEI


Institutul de Energetica

Dr.Hab. Valentin Olesciuk



Reference


V. Oleschuk, “
50 Years of Power Electronics: Its Importance
and New Dimensions
”,
Invited Lecture at the University of
Bologna (Italy),

February 1
st
, 2011



What is subject of Power Electronics?

Power Electronics

is the application of solid
-
state electronics for the control
and conversion of electric power.

Power Electronics

is the technology associated with the efficient conversion,
control and conditioning of electric power by static means from its
available input form into the desired electrical output form.


Power electronic converters can be found wherever there is a need to modify a
form of electrical energy (i.e. change its voltage, current or frequency).
The power range of these converters is from some milliwatts (as in a
mobile phone) to hundreds of megawatts (e.g. in a high voltage
transmission system). With "classical" electronics, electrical currents and
voltage are used to carry information, whereas with power electronics,
they carry power. Thus, the main metric of power electronics becomes
the efficiency.


What is subject of Power Electronics?

Energy saving by means of Power Electronics

CONTROL AND CONVERSION BY ELECTRONIC SWITCHING ARE HIGHLY EFFICIENT
THAN BY RHEOSTATIC CONTROL


NEARLY 60% OF GRID ENERGY IN USA AND EU IS CONSUMED IN MACHINE DRIVES


MAINLY FOR FLUID FLOW CONTROL BY PUMPS AND FANS


TRADITIONALLY, FLUID FLOW IS CONTROLLED BY THROTTLE OR DAMPER OPENING
WITH INDUCTION MOTOR RUNNING AT CONSTANT SPEED


VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE WITH FULLY OPEN THROTTLE OR DAMPER CAN IMPROVE
DRIVE EFFICIENCY BY UP TO 30% AT LIGHT LOAD


LIGHT LOAD FLUX PROGRAMMING CONTROL CAN FURTHER IMPROVE DRIVE
EFFICIENCY BY 20%

VARIABLE SPEED LOAD
-
PROPORTIONAL AIR
-
CONDITIONER/HEAT PUMP CAN SAVE ENERGY UP TO 30%


NEARLY 20% OF GRID ENERGY IS CONSUMED IN LIGHTING


HIGH FREQUENCY FLUORESCENT LAMPS ARE 4
-
TIMES MORE EFFICIENT AND HAVE
10
-
TIMES LONGER LIFE THAN INCANDESCENT LAMPS


EMERGING SOLID STATE LED LAMPS ARE 8
-
TIMES MORE EFFICIENT AND HAVE 50
-
TIMES LONGER LIFE THAN INCANDESCENT LAMPS



Power electronic converters: DC
-
AC (inverters)

.

Topology of a three
-
level

neutral
-
point
-
clamped (NPC) inverter

High
-
power converters

High
-
power converters: application examples

Power
Electronics



energy

saving

potential

Power
Electronics



energy

saving

potential (drives)

Power
Electronics



energy

saving

potential (drives)

Power
Electronics



energy

saving

potential (drives)

Motor drives
use 50
-
60% of
all electrical
energy
consumed in the
developed
world. By using

power
electronics
controlled
motor drives a
potential
reduction in
energy
consumption of
20
-
30% is
achievable

Частотно
-
регулируемые электроприводы насосных

станций

Начиная с 80
-
х годов прошлого века по
разработкам и рекомендациям Института
энергетики АНМ внедрено более 50 систем
регулируемого электропривода в мелиорации,
жилищно
-
коммунальном хозяйстве и в
промышленности Республики Молдова, с
диапазоном мощностей от 1,5 до 300 кВт, в том
числе на базе разработанных в Институте
транзисторных и тиристорных
преобразовательных устройств. Средняя
экономия электроэнергии за счет использования
регулируемых электроприводов составляет 25%,
срок службы электродвигателей увеличивается
при этом в 2


3 раза. В частности, в перечень
базовых внедрений входят:

-

6 опытно
-
промышленных образцов систем
управления электроприводами многоагрегатных
насосных установок на насосных станциях
оросительных систем;

-
автоматизированные тиристорные
электроприводы главной и районной
канализационных насосных станций г Яловены
мощностью соответственно 300 и 250 кВт,
суммарная экономия электроэнергии на которых
составляет 220

000 кВт
-
час в год;

Транзисторные преобразователи для систем электропривода

Транзисторные преобразователи
частоты мощностью 1.5


5 кВт для
регулируемых в широких пределах
асинхронных электроприводов
различного функционального
назначения

Транзисторные многофункциональные
преобразователи частоты с гибкими
алгоритмами управления для
автоматизации сложных
технологических процессов

в области химических технологий

Power Electronics in renewable energy systems

The

global

electrical

energy

consumption

is

still

rising

and

there

is

a

steady

demand

to

increase

the

power

capacity
.

It

is

expected

that

it

has

to

be

doubled

within

20

years
.



Nowadays

one

of

the

basic

concepts

is

to

change

the

electrical

power

production

sources

from

the

conventional,

fossil

based

energy

sources

to

renewable

energy

resources
.


Between

the

most

emerging

renewable

energy

sources

there

are

wind

energy,

photovoltaic,

wave

generators,

fuel

cells,

small

hydro
.


The

main

advantages

of

using

renewable

energy

sources

are

the

elimination

of

harmful

emissions

and

the

inexhaustible

resources

of

the

primary

energy
.


The

main

disadvantage,

apart

from

the

higher

costs,

e
.
g
.

photovoltaic,

is

the

uncontrollability
.




The

forecast

for

worldwide

total

installed

capacity

Power Electronics in wind power systems

The key to reduce price is to increase the
power level and today turbines of 4
-
5 MW
are used around the world. It is expected 10
MW wind turbines will be in practice soon.

Power Electronics in wind power systems

The countries with the highest total installed capacity are Germany, Spain and Denmark. A
number of other countries, including Italy, the UK, the Netherlands, China, Japan and Portugal
have also reached the 1,000 MW mark of installed capacity. Europe is still leading the market.



Photovoltaic

(PV)

based

solar

power

is

like

the

wind

turbines

a

technology

for

a

booming

industry
;

since

1980
,

when

the

terrestrial

applications

began
.

The

annual

installation

of

PV

power

has

increased

to

above

7

GWp

leading

to

cumulative

installed

PV

power

by

the

end

of

2009

reaching

to

approximately

15

GWp

according

to

EPIA

which

actually

is

10

%

of

the

wind

power

capacity
.


Power Electronics in photovoltaic systems

Development and prognosis of specific cost
and production quantity for the PV inverter
of nominal powers between 1 and 10 kW
during two decades (¦ indicates specific
prices of products on the market).

Historically the main market segments for PV were the

remote industrial and developing country applications

where PV power over long term is often more

costeffective than alternative power options such as

diesel generator or mains grid extension.


Worldwide, the cumulative share of off
-
grid to

gridconnected applications is approximately 1:4

at the present time. However, this is not the case in

every reporting country. In Sweden, Norway and

Finland, the most common applications are for

vacation cottages, while in Australia, Mexico, and

France achieving rural electrification is a key

objective. In Canada, Israel and Korea, commercial

and telecommunications applications dominate.


Power Electronics in photovoltaic systems

Example of implementation: Department of Electrical Engineering of the
University of Bologna (G. Grandi et al., IEEE Tr. on PE, 2009)

Power Electronics in photovoltaic systems

Experimental set
-
up

PV panels on the roof of the Department

Why Power Electronics is so important to
-
day?

INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT ROLE OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN ENERGY SAVING
(
CONTROLLED ELECTRIC DRIVES
, ETC.) THAT HELPS TO SOLVE GLOBAL
WARMING PROBLEM



FAST GROWTH OF
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

(WIND, PHOTOVOLTAIC AND
FUEL CELLS) THAT ARE HIGHLY DEPENDENT ON POWER ELECTRONICS



GROWTH OF ELECTRIC AND HYBRID
VEHICLES AND OTHER GREEN TRANSPORT

SYSTEMS, WHICH ARE POWER ELECTRONICS INTENSIVE

• IMPROVES PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCT QUALITY IN
AUTOMATED INDUSTRIAL
SYSTEMS



ENABLES VERY EFFICIENT POWER CONVERSION AND CONTROL IN MODERN
ELECTRICAL
ENERGY PROCESSING SYSTEMS

(HVDC, FACTS, UPS, ETC.)

• VERY IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN BULK
ENERGY STORAGE

(BATTERY, FLYWHEEL,
PUMPED STORAGE, ULTRA CAPACITORS, FUTURE HYDROGEN ECONOMY)


SMART GRID

OF TOMORROW WITH INTENSIVE POWER ELECTRONICS WILL PERMIT



OPTIMUM RESOUCE UTILIZATION AND ENERGY SAVING IN THE GRID

Thank

you

for

your

attention!