Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Study Guide
Write the results of Griffith’s experiments in the boxes below.
Which type of bacteria caused disease, the S form or the R form?
What conclusions did Griffith make based on his experimental results?
Avery and his team isolated Griffith’s transforming principle and performe
d three tests to learn if it was DNA or protein. In the
table below, summarize Avery’s work by writing the question he was asking or the results of his experiment.
What type of molecule does the transforming principle contain?
The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in the transforming principle is
similar to the ratio found in DNA.
Which type of enzyme destroys the ability of the transforming
principle to function?
but very little
Summarize the two experiments performed by Hershey and Chase by completing the table below. Identify what type of
radioactive label was used in the bacteriophage and whether radioactivity was found in the bacteria.
Explain what a bacteriophage is and describe or sketch its structure.
Structure of DNA
Vocabulary: Nucleotide, Double Helix, Base Pairing
In the space below, draw a nucleotide and label its
three parts using words and arrows.
How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?
Which parts are the same in all nucleotides? Which parts are different?
What did Franklin’s data reveal about the structure of DNA?
How did Watson and Crick
determine the three
dimensional shape of DNA?
Injected mice with R bacteria.
Injected mice with S bacteria.
Killed S bacteria
and injected them into
How does DNA base pairing result in a molecule that has a uniform width?
What nucleotide pairs with T? C?
In the space below, draw a DNA double helix. Label the sugar
phosphate backbone, the nitrogen
aining bases, and the
Explain how the DNA double helix is similar to a spiral staircase.
How do the base pairing rules relate to Chargaff’s rule?
DNA Replication Study Guide
Vocabulary: Replication, DNA polymerase.
What is DNA
Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?
When is DNA replicated during the cell cycle?
Why does DNA replication need to occur?
If one strand of DNA had the sequence TAGGTAC, what would be the sequence of the complementary DN
What roles do proteins play in DNA replication?
What must be broken for the DNA strand to separate?
Use words and diagrams to summarize the steps of replication, in order, in the boxes below.
polymerase has a
function that enables it to detect errors and correct them.
Write a short
to explain what replication is.
Transcription Study Guide
Vocabulary: Central dogma, RNA, Transcription, RNA polymerase, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
of the processes represented by the arrows in the diagram below. Write where each of these processes takes place in
Fill in the Table below to contrast DNA and RNA
4. Contains the sugar
Has the bases A, C, G, and U
6. Typically double stranded.
7. What enzyme helps a cell make a strand of RNA?
Summarize the 3 key steps of transcription.
Write the basic function of each type of RNA.
two similarities between transcription and replication.
List two differences between transcription and replication.
Translation Study Guide
Vocabulary: Translation, Codon, Stop Codon, Start Codon, Anticodon
What is translation?
What is a codon?
What is a
Use your codon chart to Complete the table below.
Amino Acid or Function
are the tools that help a cell translate mRNA into a polypeptide.
subunit of a ribosome holds onto the mRNA strand.
subunit of a ribosome has binding sites for tRNA.
A tRNA molecule is attached to an
at one end and has an
Mutations Study Guide
Vocabulary: Mutation, Point
Mutation, Frameshift Mutation, Mutagen
List two types of gene mutations.
List two types of chromosomal mutations.
Which type of mutation affects more genes, a gene mutation or a chromosomal mutation.
What leads to gene duplication?
What is translocation?
se the following string of nucleotides to give an example of a point mutation and a frame
For a mutation to be passed to offspring, in what type of cell must it occur?
Can DNA polymerase catch and correct
every mutation error? Explain.
What is a mutagen?
How does UV light damage the DNA strand?
base pairing rules
Read the phrase and write the word it describes, then write another phrase that describes the same word
in a different way.
Error that throws off the reading frame of an
Cause by insertion or deletion of nucleotides
Explains Chargaff’s rules
States that genetic information flows in one
Pairs with an mRNA codon during translation.
An intervening sequence
The type of RNA that is converted to a protein
A change in an organism’s DNA
Monomers that make up nucleic acids.
A sequence of mRNA that is
Circle the word that does not belong and explain WHY it does not belong.
Manipulate DNA Study Guide
Vocabulary: Restriction Enzyme, Gel Electrophoresis, Restriction Map
List 5 ways scientists study and manipulate DNA.
What is a restriction enzyme?
What do we call the
nucleotide sequences at which a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA?
Why would different restriction enzymes cut the same DNA molecule into different numbers of fragments?
In the space below, draw and explain what happens in each given scenario.
After DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme, how is the mixture of DNA fragments sorted?
Explain the process of gel electrophoresis.
How do different fragments of DNA show up on a gel?
How are restriction maps used?
Copying DNA Study
Vocabulary: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Primer
What is PCR?
Why is PCR useful?
What three materials are needed for PCR?
Why are primers needed in PCR?
Sketch how the amount of DNA changes during 5 PCR cycles.
Vocabulary: DNA fingerprinting
Fill in the Main Idea Web Below.
5. How does identification through DNA
fingerprinting depend on probability?
Why does using more regions of the genome decrease the probability that two people would have the same DNA fingerprint?
List 2 ways DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.
Genetic Engineering Study Guide
bulary: Clone, Genetic Engineering, Recombinant DNA, Plasmid, Transgenic, Gene Knockout.
Fill in the chart below:
Entire organisms can be cloned.
Definition of Clone:
Cloning in Nature:
What is recombinant DNA?
Why are plasmids used to produce bacteria with recombinant DNA?
Sketch and Label the process of creating recombinant DNA
What is a transgenic organism?
Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy Study Guide
Vocabulary: Genetic Screening, Gene Therapy
What is the purpose of genetic screening?
How is genetic screening used?
What it shows:
How it’s made:
What it’s based on:
What is the goal of gene therapy?
What are two technical challenges of gene therapy?
human genome project
Define each word. Then write two additional facts that are related to the word.
Closed loop of DNA separate from bacterial
Can replicate on its own.
Used for making recombinant DNA.
Underline the situation that most closely related to each vocabulary word.
a) buying a bike
b) replacing a flat bike tire
a) reading a book’s table of contents
b) summarizing a book in a report
a) counting out 100 pennies
b) sorting coins by value
a) a photocopy
b) a fragrance for men
a) a group yearbook picture
b) a driver’s license picture
a) a referee’s whistle to start a game
b) the horn at the end of a game
a) searching the index of your bio. Textbook
b) reading your bio. Book from
beginning to end