Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Study Guide

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Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Study Guide

Vocabulary: Bacteriophage

Write the results of Griffith’s experiments in the boxes below.

1.





2.




3.




4.





5.

Which type of bacteria caused disease, the S form or the R form?

6.

What conclusions did Griffith make based on his experimental results?

7.

Avery and his team isolated Griffith’s transforming principle and performe
d three tests to learn if it was DNA or protein. In the
table below, summarize Avery’s work by writing the question he was asking or the results of his experiment.

Avery’s Question

Results

What type of molecule does the transforming principle contain?




The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in the transforming principle is
similar to the ratio found in DNA.


Which type of enzyme destroys the ability of the transforming
principle to function?



8.

Proteins contain





but very little






.

9.

DNA contains






but NO






.

10.

Summarize the two experiments performed by Hershey and Chase by completing the table below. Identify what type of
radioactive label was used in the bacteriophage and whether radioactivity was found in the bacteria.

Experiment

Bacteriop
hage

Bacteria

Experiment 1



Experiment 2



11.

Explain what a bacteriophage is and describe or sketch its structure.



Structure of DNA

Study Guide

Vocabulary: Nucleotide, Double Helix, Base Pairing

In the space below, draw a nucleotide and label its
three parts using words and arrows.








1.

How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?

2.

Which parts are the same in all nucleotides? Which parts are different?

3.

What did Franklin’s data reveal about the structure of DNA?

4.

How did Watson and Crick
determine the three
-
dimensional shape of DNA?

Injected mice with R bacteria.


Injected mice with S bacteria.


Killed S bacteria
and injected them into
mice.





2


5.

How does DNA base pairing result in a molecule that has a uniform width?

6.

What nucleotide pairs with T? C?

In the space below, draw a DNA double helix. Label the sugar
-
phosphate backbone, the nitrogen
-
cont
aining bases, and the
-
hydrogen
bonds.





7.

Explain how the DNA double helix is similar to a spiral staircase.

8.

How do the base pairing rules relate to Chargaff’s rule?


DNA Replication Study Guide

Vocabulary: Replication, DNA polymerase.

1.

What is DNA
replication?

2.

Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?

3.

When is DNA replicated during the cell cycle?

4.

Why does DNA replication need to occur?

5.

If one strand of DNA had the sequence TAGGTAC, what would be the sequence of the complementary DN
A strand?

6.

What roles do proteins play in DNA replication?

7.

What must be broken for the DNA strand to separate?


Use words and diagrams to summarize the steps of replication, in order, in the boxes below.











11.DNA

polymerase has a





function that enables it to detect errors and correct them.

12.

Write a short
analogy

to explain what replication is.


Transcription Study Guide

Vocabulary: Central dogma, RNA, Transcription, RNA polymerase, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

Label each
of the processes represented by the arrows in the diagram below. Write where each of these processes takes place in
eukaryotic cells.

1.


DNA






RNA





Proteins

2.







3.

Fill in the Table below to contrast DNA and RNA

DNA

RNA

4. Contains the sugar
deoxyribose.


5.

Has the bases A, C, G, and U

6. Typically double stranded.




7. What enzyme helps a cell make a strand of RNA?

8.


Summarize the 3 key steps of transcription.


9.


Write the basic function of each type of RNA.

a.

mRNA:

b.

rRNA:

c.

tRNA:


8.

9.

10.

3



10.

List
two similarities between transcription and replication.

11.

List two differences between transcription and replication.


Translation Study Guide

Vocabulary: Translation, Codon, Stop Codon, Start Codon, Anticodon

1.

What is translation?

2.

What is a codon?

3.

What is a

reading frame?

Use your codon chart to Complete the table below.

Codon

Amino Acid or Function

5. AGA


6. UAG


7.

Tryptophan (trp)

8. GGA



9.



and





are the tools that help a cell translate mRNA into a polypeptide.

10.

The






subunit of a ribosome holds onto the mRNA strand.

11.

The






subunit of a ribosome has binding sites for tRNA.

12.

A tRNA molecule is attached to an






at one end and has an




at the
other end.


Mutations Study Guide

Vocabulary: Mutation, Point
Mutation, Frameshift Mutation, Mutagen

1.

List two types of gene mutations.

2.

List two types of chromosomal mutations.

3.

Which type of mutation affects more genes, a gene mutation or a chromosomal mutation.

4.

What leads to gene duplication?

5.

What is translocation?

U
se the following string of nucleotides to give an example of a point mutation and a frame
-
shift mutation.

AGGCGTCCSTGA

6.

Point

7.

Frame
-
shift

8.

For a mutation to be passed to offspring, in what type of cell must it occur?

9.

Can DNA polymerase catch and correct
every mutation error? Explain.

10.

What is a mutagen?

11.

How does UV light damage the DNA strand?


Vocabulary Practice:

Bacteriophage


nucleotide

double helix

base pairing rules


replication

DNA polymerase

Central dogma


RNA


transcription

RNA polymerase


mRNA


rRNA

tRNA



translation

codon


stop codon


start codon

anticodon

promoter


operon


exon


intron



mutation


point mutation

frameshift mutation

mutagen


Read the phrase and write the word it describes, then write another phrase that describes the same word
in a different way.

Phrase 1

Word

Phrase 2

Error that throws off the reading frame of an
mRNA sequence

Frameshift mutation

Cause by insertion or deletion of nucleotides

Explains Chargaff’s rules

1.



States that genetic information flows in one
direction.

2.



Pairs with an mRNA codon during translation.

3.



An intervening sequence

4.



The type of RNA that is converted to a protein
5.



4


during translation.

A change in an organism’s DNA

6.



Monomers that make up nucleic acids.

7.



A sequence of mRNA that is
expressed after
processing.

8.




Circle the word that does not belong and explain WHY it does not belong.

1.

Mutagen


rRNA


tRNA


Explain:

2.

Codon


mRNA


Replicaiton

Explain:

3.

Central dogma

mutagen


mutation


Explain:

4.

Codon


double helix

frameshift mutation

Expla
in:

5.

Bacteriophage

RNA polymerase


transcription

Explain:




Manipulate DNA Study Guide

Vocabulary: Restriction Enzyme, Gel Electrophoresis, Restriction Map

1.

List 5 ways scientists study and manipulate DNA.


2.

What is a restriction enzyme?

3.

What do we call the

nucleotide sequences at which a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA?

4.

Why would different restriction enzymes cut the same DNA molecule into different numbers of fragments?

In the space below, draw and explain what happens in each given scenario.

Blunt Ends

St
icky Ends







5.

After DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme, how is the mixture of DNA fragments sorted?

6.

Explain the process of gel electrophoresis.



7.

How do different fragments of DNA show up on a gel?

8.

How are restriction maps used?


Copying DNA Study
Guide

Vocabulary: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Primer

1.

What is PCR?

2.

Why is PCR useful?

3.

What three materials are needed for PCR?

4.

Why are primers needed in PCR?

5.

Sketch how the amount of DNA changes during 5 PCR cycles.













5


DNA Fingerprinting
Study Guide

Vocabulary: DNA fingerprinting

Fill in the Main Idea Web Below.















DNA Fingerprinting










5. How does identification through DNA

fingerprinting depend on probability?

6.

Why does using more regions of the genome decrease the probability that two people would have the same DNA fingerprint?

7.

List 2 ways DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.



Genetic Engineering Study Guide

Voca
bulary: Clone, Genetic Engineering, Recombinant DNA, Plasmid, Transgenic, Gene Knockout.

Fill in the chart below:

Entire organisms can be cloned.

1.

Definition of Clone:


2.

Cloning in Nature:


3.

Cloning Mammals:


4.

Potential Benefits:


5.

Concerns:



6.

What is
genetic engineering?

7.

What is recombinant DNA?

8.

Why are plasmids used to produce bacteria with recombinant DNA?

Sketch and Label the process of creating recombinant DNA



9.

What is a transgenic organism?



Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy Study Guide

Vocabulary: Genetic Screening, Gene Therapy

1.

What is the purpose of genetic screening?

2.

How is genetic screening used?

2.


Definition:





1.

What it shows:





4.


How it’s made:





3.


What it’s based on:





6


3.

What is the goal of gene therapy?

4.

What are two technical challenges of gene therapy?

Vocabulary Practice:

Restriction enzyme

gel
electrophoresis

restriction map


PCR


primer


DNA fingerprint

Clone



genetic engineering

recombinant DNA


plasmid


transgenic

gene knockout

Genomics


gene sequencing


human genome project

bioinformatics

DNA microarray

proteomics

Genetic screening

gene the
rapy


Define each word. Then write two additional facts that are related to the word.

Word

Definition

2 facts

Ex: Plasmid

Closed loop of DNA separate from bacterial
chromosome.

Can replicate on its own.

Used for making recombinant DNA.

1.

Clone




2.

Genomics




3.

Genetic screening




4.

DNA microarray




5.

Proteomics






Underline the situation that most closely related to each vocabulary word.

1.

Gene therapy:
a) buying a bike





b) replacing a flat bike tire

2.

Gene sequencing:

a) reading a book’s table of contents


b) summarizing a book in a report

3.

Gel Electrophoresis:
a) counting out 100 pennies



b) sorting coins by value

4.

PCR:



a) division





b) multiplication

5.

Clone:


a) a photocopy





b) a fragrance for men

6.

DNA
fingerprint:

a) a group yearbook picture



b) a driver’s license picture

7.

Primer:


a) a referee’s whistle to start a game


b) the horn at the end of a game

8.

Bioinformatics:

a) searching the index of your bio. Textbook


b) reading your bio. Book from
beginning to end