TCSI

ghostslimΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

104 εμφανίσεις

Gerhard K. Kraetzschmar


The Cool Science Institute

Educational Robotics

A Glimpse on Robotics Tutorial Material

Overview


What is a robot?


Characterization


Examples


Anatomy


Why do computer scientists care about robots?


Survey of Educational Robotics Technology


Lego Mindstorms


Boards for Use with Lego Technics


Tetrixx

Autonomous Mobile Robots


Machines capable of moving about their environment and
demonstrating some kind of intelligent behavior


Permanent Perception
-
Cognition
-
Action cycle











Autonomy is the degree to which an agent's decisions are
determined by its own observations and experience


LEGO
-
Bots

Kheperas

Truck

Sparrows

Stanislav


B21 from RWI


2 DoF omnidrive


Pan
-
Tilt Unit


56 Bumper


48 IR Sensors


24 Sonars


1 Laser Scanner


2 Microphones


2 Cameras

Robot Anatomy


Effectors


mobile bases


manipulators (arms, hands, grippers, kickers)


other


Sensors


Electronics


Software


operating systems


programming languages


programming environments


programming methodology


Robot control architectures

Robotics Software Technology


State
-
of
-
the
-
art mobile robots use networked hardware


Software is distributed across available hardware

stanleft

laser

stantalk

stanbook

stanright

sonar

base

L
-
cam

PTU

R
-
cam


Show me
room H20!

GUI

Robotics is AI
-
complete


Complex autonomous mobile robots must


represent various kinds of knowledge


knowledge representation


spatiotemporal representations


make inferences from knowledge and plan their action


inference; deduction, abduction


planning and scheduling


perceive their environment


sensor interpretation and sensor fusion


pattern recognition, computer vision


interact with humans


speech, natural language processing


adapt to changing environments and tasks


machine learning


neural network learning, reinforcement learning


evolutionary learning

Three Laws of Robotics

Role of Kinematics


kinematics and manueverability


kinematics and control

Robot Motion


Wheeled robots


Tracked robots


Legged robots


Humanoid robots


Exotic robots

Wheeled Robots


easy to build


easy to control


need flat terrain


cannot climb stairs

Tracked Robots


more difficult to build


easy to control


good on rough terrain


cannot climb stairs

Legged Robots


hard to build


hard to control


good on rough terrain


can climb stairs in principle

Cog

Humanoid Robots

Exotic robots


hard to build


hard to control


stabilization is a major issue


solutions for virtually all environments

Ackermann


Tricycle Drive


Differential Drive


Synchro Drive


Role of Shape


Sturdy Lego Structures


Lego Mathematics


Lego Gearbox


Lego Gearing


Sensor Principle


Analog Sensors


Digital Sensors


Active Sensing


Sensor Uses


Microswitches


Photo Resistors


IR Reflectance Sensor


Breakbeam Sensor


Shaft Encoders


IR Beacon


Sharp IR Sensor


DC Motors


Servo Motors


Motor Characteristics


Pulse
-
Width Modulation


H
-
Bridge


Memory Map


6.270 Board


6.270 Board


Handyboard


Programming Setup


c165key


LCD Display Example


Multiboard Example


Control Theory


Open
-
Loop Control


Closed
-
Loop Control


Subsumption Example


Behavior Wander
-
About


Behavior Escape
-
from
-
Traps


Behavior Look
-
for
-
IR


Subsumption


Arbitration


Discussion of Tutorial


Concepts


Technology


Course Material