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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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R U S S I A N S T A T E S C I N T I F I C C E N T R E

C E N T R A L R E S E A R C H A N D D E S I G N I N S T I T U T E O F

R O B O T I C S A N D T E C H N I C A L C Y B E R N E T I C S

5
th

APRIL 2006

Oleg Shmakov


CRDI RTC DEPARTMENT OF SPbSPU


Joint Advanced Student School 2006

Saint Petersburg


Course 5:
Mechatronics


Foundations and Applications

Introduction


Why snakelike robots?


Biomechanics of snakes


Review


Mechanic model of snakelike robots


Mathematical model of snakelike robots


Hardware realization control


Snakelike robot CRDI RTC


Conclusion

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Why snakelike robots?

Advantages


Stability


Terrainability
is the ability of a vehicle to traverse rough terrain



Traction
is the force that can be applied to propel a vehicle


Redundant


Simple anatomy

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Why snakelike robots?

Applications


Search and Rescue


Examination blockages after earthquake


Planet’s exploration



Medical applications



Examination hard
-
to
-
reach areas


Tube inspection


Bio Terrorist


Remote sampling


Military inspection




Biomechanics of snakes

Vertebrate

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Real snakes have 100
-
400 vertebrae

Snake vertebral articulation is one of the most complex of all vertebrates.

Biomechanics of snakes

Locomotion modes



Lateral undulation



Sidewinding



Propulsion (with creeping)



Concertina



Rectilinear movement

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Review

Design snakelike robots

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Non
-
modular

Modular

WITH WHEELS

WITHOUT WHEELS

Review

Hirose & Umetami
-

SERPENOID

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control


the waveform that the snake
assumes during creeping
movement is a curve which
changes sinusoidally along the
curvature of the body, and a
formula for this, called a
serpenoid curve.

Review

Hirose & Umetami


ACM III


Active Cord Mechanisms


ACM


Wheeled robots


Robots that could perform lateral
undulation

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control


Hirose’s development of modeling and
control first derived expressions of force and
power as functions of distance and torque
along the curve described by the snake.


Comparisons with natural snakes across
constant friction surfaces showed close
agreement between the serpenoid curve and
the empirical data.


Snakes quickly adapt locally to variations in
terrain and environment.


The control took the form of angle
commands at each joint

Review

Hirose & Umetami


ACM R3

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Review

Carnegie Mellon University


Kevin Dowling

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Review

Carnegie Mellon University


Biorobotics Lab

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Mechanic model of snakelike robots

Dobroluybov A.I.

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

1970
-

Dobroluybov A.I.


«genetic relationship» wheels and waves and


Snakes are using rolling motion



Some points of a moving body or set of bodies during movement should vary periodically
roles: mobile points become motionless and on the contrary. On character of this procedure
of locomotion can be divided into two big classes: pacing when reference points of a body
only during some moments of time pass from motionless in a mobile condition and back, and
rolling when these transitions are carried out continuously. Snakes can move by pacing and
rolling. Carry of points of a support of the essences, moving in the way rolling, can be
various.

Mechanic model of snakelike robots

Ivanov A.A.

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Mechanic model of snakelike robots

Ivanov A.A.

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Lateral bending

Rectilinear movement
curving

(without creeping)

Side winding

Concertina

Shank
movement

Propulsion (with creeping)

Mathematical model of snakelike robots

How to control?


Random Search


Hill climbing


Simulated


Annealing


Neural Nets


Response Surface Methods


Genetic Algorithms


Trigonometric forms


Fourier


Parametric curves


Bayesian optimization
algorithms

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

DOWLING

CONRO

TANEV

CMU


Biorobotics Lab

Genetic algorithms for locomotions
control

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Category

Value

Function set

{sin, cos, +,
-
, *, /}

Terminal set

{time, segment_ID, Pi, random constant, ADF}

Population size

200 individuals

Selection

Binary tournament, ratio 0.1

Elitism

Best 4 individuals

Mutation

Random subtree mutation, ratio 0.01

Fitness

Velocity of simulated Snakebot during the trial

Trial interval

180 time steps, each time step account for
50ms of “real” time

Termination
criterion

(Fitness >100)
or
(Generations>30)

or
(no improvement of fitness for 16
generations)

Fitness convergence characteristics of 10 independent runs of GP for cases
where fitness is measured as velocity in any direction (a) and snapshots of
sample evolved best
-
ofrun sidewinding locomotion gaits of simulated Snakebot
(b, c), viewed from above. The dark trailing circles depict the trajectory of the
center of the mass of Snakebot. Timestamp interval between each of these
circles is fixed and it is the same (10 time steps) for both snapshots.

Trajectory of the central segment (cs) around the center of mass (cm) of
Snakebot for a sample evolved best
-
of
-
run sidewinding locomotion (a) and
traces of ground contacts (b).


The determined approach of

Ivanov A.A.

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Hardware realization control

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

С
0

С
1

С
2

18 19

16 17

14 15

12 13

10 11

8 9

6 7

4 5

2 3

0 1

RS232

Microcontrollers

Hardware realization control

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

microcontroller

DC motors

Feedback from sensing

Control & power

Sensors

Power supply

MAIN

Microcontroller

For all joints

(CMU)

Snakelike robot CRDI RTC

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Total mass

3
kg

Length

1120

mm

Width

65
mm

Maximal course torque


0,3
Nm

Maximal pitch torque


1,2
Nm

Number of the links

16

Number of the joints

15

Number of the servos

30

Voltage

4,8


6
V

System of snakelike robot control

Coding
-

MAX 232

Power supply

servo

PC

Camera

Power supply

Microcontrollers

6
volt

4.8
-

6

volt

USB 1.1

RS232

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Structural control scheme

AA

F1

1

CS

59

60

63
byte

63
byte
*

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Low level control

1
channel

2
channel

1
channel

t
, мс

10 мс

20 мс

0,9

1,5

2,1

f
send

≤ 50

Гц

t

φ

T

20


40
main points

f
send

= 30


60 Гц

f
base

= 1,5 Гц

T
≥ 2/3

f
send

≤ 50

Гц

60
°
/0,11 с

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Software scheme

Entering parameters

Send

Visualization

Bloc

Of

Protection

Blok

Changing

movement

Bloc

Camera control

Forming

RS
-
232

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Software


snake
-
charmer

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Lateral bending

Amplitude corner by
course

35

Amplitude corner by pitch

18

Quantity

link which

are
using in course wave

8

Quantity

link which

are
using in course wave

4

Phase

0

SPEED
(
max
)

(cm
/
sec)

2.5

SPEED
(
min
)

(cm
/
sec)

1

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Lateral bending

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Side winding

Amplitude corner by
course

35

Amplitude corner by pitch

20

Quantity

link which

are
using in course wave

8

Quantity

link which

are
using in course wave

8

Phase

π
/2

SPEED
(
max
)

(cm
/
sec)

4,3

SPEED
(
min
)

(cm
/
sec)

3

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Side winding

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Motion on the given curve

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

EXPERIMENT

Motion on the given curve

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

Conclusion

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control

?

Thank you for your attention

Oleg A. Shmakov

Snakelike robots locomotions control