Modern Models for the Living Organism's Functioning at Normal and ...

geographertonguesΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

55 εμφανίσεις

Lecturer: Lushchyk U.B., MD

u.lushchyk@gmail.com

www
.
lushchyk
.
org


www.istyna.kiev.ua



Coauthors I.P.
Babii

V.V. Novytskyy



Modern Models for the Living Organism’s
Functioning at Normal and Pathological
Conditions

Modern Models for the Living
Organism’s Functioning at
Normal and Pathological
Conditions

A human organism as well as any living organism
should be considered as a complex dynamic
system created by nature

According to the systems’ modeling

we consider the following essential components

needed for functioning of the system

1.
structural elements

(
in the living system
:
organs and subsystems

(
cardiovascular
,
nervous
,
musculoskeletal
,
digestive
,
secretion
,
endocrine etc.
)
,

2.
conductors inside a subsystem,

3.
intersystem conductors,

4.
parameters indication system,

5.
data

processing

system
,

6.
feedback system,

7.
checking, control systems and various
types of regulation.

Clockwork

The mechanical and
cybernetic models of the
complex systems

could be
the more similar to
prototypes

for the living
system in mathematical
modeling.


Very these models are
combined

by principle of
dynamic nature



the
system reacts fast

both
inside and outside

Mechanical system

Peculiar features of the
mechanical system lie in the
fact

that the system
functioning is controlled by
principle of susceptibility to
mechanical changes.



It means that identification
sensors react to changing of
pressure, temperature,
amplitude of movement etc,

Mechanical system

The mechanical system

is sensitive to changes of a
certain gradient
(differences of a

background and an actual
index) of that or another
parameter

(a gradient
becomes a parameter

of sensitivity for the system).



An analogy

Water
-
supply system
functions very on this
principle namely water
spontaneously flows
from high pressure to
low pressure.

In the living system
cardiovascular, partially
digestive and secretion
subsystems correspond
to this type of
functioning.


Cybernetic system

When we consider the
model of the cybernetic
system, it is more
sensitive structure with
numerous indicators and
powerful control system.

It is so kind of electronic
system with large
superstructures of
consecutive and parallel
conductors’ connection.


Cybernetic system

Therefore

in comparison with the
mechanical system chances
of emergency breakage of
the system are quite high, as
in case of breakage of one
segment the whole system
could be blocked.


In the living system


nervous,


digestive,


secretion,


endocrine,


partially cardiovascular
subsystems correspond
to the electronic
-
cybernetic type.

Cybernetic system

Mixed mechanic
-
electronic
(hybrid) model

Very this distribution

of various algorithms in a subsystem’s
functions inside the human organism
enables to consider its functioning

on the whole

as a
mixed mechanic
-
electronic
(hybrid) model.

At the present level of the science
development
the living organism is
simulated in particular as the
cybernetic system

with numerous constant and variable
parameters, which characterize its
dynamics,

participate actively in the processes

of regulation and control.

Mixed mechanic
-
electronic
(hybrid) model

Naturally, that the question arises:

«What type of the system control
prevails in functioning of the hybrid
system?»


It is possible that the muscular system
in the human organism is as a
mediator between the electronic
and mechanical systems.

The hierarchy of functioning of
the living system

According to the hierarchy of
functioning of the living system we
consider the organism as an integral
system with numerous indicators that
function by principle of feed
-
back and
submit to single center.


Only such hierarchy enables to make a
principle of subordination and precise
submission of different control levels.

Therefore we should multisided consider complex
hierarchy of the living system and virtually imagine
it in many dimensions:

1. Macro
-

and
microlevel

of
processes’ organization in
the living organism.

2. Level of providing vital
activity in the organism

3.
Levels of subsystems’
functioning

4.
A level of the
intrasystem

balance in every subsystem
of living organism

5.
Hierarchical level of the
balance control

2. Level of providing vital
activity in the organism:


minimum for life preservation,


average (background)
-

for
providing background vital
activity of the organism,


high (reserve)
-

for supporting
the organism at overloads.

Therefore we should multisided consider complex
hierarchy of the living system and virtually imagine
it in many dimensions:

3. Levels of subsystems’
functioning:


structural (reverse and
irreversible damages)


hydrodynamic level


hemodynamic level


energy level.

Therefore we should multisided consider complex
hierarchy of the living system and virtually imagine
it in many dimensions:

Therefore we should multisided consider complex
hierarchy of the living system and virtually imagine
it in many dimensions:

4.
A level of the
intrasystem

balance in
every subsystem of living organism:


structural balance


functional balance


conduction balance


energy balance


mechanical balance


electronic balance (cellular, h
umoral

etc)

5.
Hierarchical level
of the balance
control:


autonomous
subsystemic


central
intersystemic

Therefore we should multisided consider complex
hierarchy of the living system and virtually imagine
it in many dimensions:

Thus

the human organism is a complex
many
-
sided living system with
numerous changeable
parameters of its functioning on
different levels of its organization
with many indication systems
and feedback connection.


The present level of
mathematical
modeling development
enables to investigate
profoundly the
hierarchy of the
models’ functioning of
the hybrid systems

and study new unexplored algorithms

of
auto
regulation in the living organism.


Our experience of patients’
treatment

Our

large

experience

of

treatment

patients

in

coma

-

apal
l
ic

syndrome

(AS)

and

the

analysis

of

restoration

of

their

functions

in

the

rehabilitation

process

made

us

interested

in

the

aspect

of

estimation

of

reserve

potential

of

the

human

organism

and

capacity

of

self
-
restoration

with

numerous

and

deep

damages

in

the

brain,

multi
-
injuries
.

Our

considerations

we

tried

to

present

in

the

next

models

from

minimum

capability

to

maximum

adaptation
.


A minimal model

The

human

body

could

be

an

initial

stage

for

modeling

the

living

system,

which

is

structurally

formed,

has

all

organs

but

not

all

are

functioning
.

In

most

cases

very

this

model

could

be

as

a

standard

for

modeling

any

comatose

states
.

Our

results

have

shown

that

most

patients

with

AS

had

satisfactory

blood,

urine

tests

etc
.

It

says

that

a

living

organism

was

statically

preserved,

however

from

dynamic

positions

it

was

not

able

to

function

adequately
.

This

means

that

considering

the

simple

model

we

have

a

structurally

preserved

body,

but

is

not

capable

to

function

-

a

body

in

shock

(coma

with

expressed

disbalance

in

functioning

of

vitally

important

organs)
.

A chaotic model

Now

we

will

complicate

the

model

-

a

body

start

functioning

as

a

chaotic

system,

organs

and

systems

chaotically

work

in

their

autonomous

background

mode
.

This

model

reminds

an

orchestra

that

keeps

training

without

a

bandleader

before

a

concert
.

Chaos

of

sounds

of

different

instruments

could

be

heard
.

Sometimes

occasionally

they

fall

together

in

euphony
.

The

model

of

initial

resuscitation

can

be

considered

by

the

example

of

an

organism

which

begins

to

«wake

up»

from

shock
.


A model of the control
decentralization

The

next

model

is

a

variant

of

resuscita
tion
,

there

is

a

start

for

rhythmic

work

of

the

heart

and

breathing,

however

there

are

no

minimum

signs

of

the

brain

functioning,

which

clinically

are

shown

by

changing

of

phases

«sleep
-
cheerfulness»
.

That

is

so
-
called

heavy

artillery

(heart,

breathing)

started

in

the

automatic

mode,

however

the

leading

organ



the

brain

is

not

able

to

restore

its

higher

hierarchical

function
.

The

model

can

be

associated

with

the

state

of

apal
l
ic

syndrome
.

Thus

3

models

-

coma,

resuscitation

and

apa
l
lic

syndrome

can

be

in

the

basis

of

the

process

of

mathematical

modeling,

as

the

most

primitive,

and

the

next

models

of

«little»

and

«large»

consciousness,

self
-
service,

social

and

professional

adaptation

describe

more

complicated

levels

of

the

human

organism’s

functioning
.

Parameters of the living

system model

Parameters of the living system model
could be divided into parameters of
external dynamics (visual and clinical)
and internal dynamics (instrumental).

There are such variants of identification
of parameters for the living system
model:


Visual,


Clinical,


Instrumental.

In our clinical practice the mentioned approach
gave significant results and enabled to come to
such conclusions

1. All living organisms function by principle of stable
balance of two mutually opposite vectors of
influence:


arteriovenous

balance


harmonic development
-

disproportionate
ontogenesis


excitation
-
braking and etc.

2
.

According

to

laws

of

mathematical

modeling

living

organisms

exist

as

integral

with

precise

systemic

hierarchies
.

Violation

of

subordination

of

one

or

another

system

in

the

brain

could

result

in

re
-
profiling

of

the

size

and

vector

of

excitation,

violation

of

processes

of

synchronization

of

all

involved

links
.

In our clinical practice the mentioned approach
gave significant results and enabled to come to
such conclusions

3
.

The

living

system

functions

as

a

hybrid

system

at

combination

and

simultaneous

existence

of

two

subsystems

-

mechanical

and

electronic

control

with

their

partial

mutual

submission
.

The

mechanical

system

is

more

lasting

in

comparison

with

the

hybrid

one
.


4
.

Therefore

lack

of

pathological

paro
xysms
,

diminishing

of

their

frequency

and

duration

on

a

background

of

harmonic

development

of

personality

of

a

patient

and

balancing

of

regulator

systems

of

various

vectors

should

be

considered

as

an

end

goal

in

treatment

of

patients

of

psychoneurological

type
.

Paradoxical

reactions

could

be

an

exception,

they

said

about

disbalance

or

failure

in

the

system

of

reacting

and

one

should

consider

them

and

foreseen

before

the

treatment
.

The

paradoxical

reactions

of

a

disbalanced

organism

can

result

in

considerable

worsening

of

the

patient’s

state

in

comparison

with

the

background

ill

state
.


In our clinical practice the mentioned approach
gave significant results and enabled to come to
such conclusions

5
.

A

concentration

of

anticonvulsant

drugs

in

an

elbow

vein

can

considerably

differ

from

the

concentration

of

these

drugs

in

the

brain

areas,

especially

at

presence

of

the

phenomenon

of

the

arteriovenous

shunting

in

cavernous

or

in

other

sinuses

of

the

brain
.

6
.

Stress

reactions,

which

are

fixed

in

the

brain

and

were

not

neutralized

during

psychotherapy

sessions,

can

be

a

trig
g
er

of

frightful

dreams

resulting

in

a

nightly

convulsive

attack
.

7
.

Today

the

complex

objectivization

of

the

state

of

all

systems

in

the

brain

(exactly

the

brain!)

is

urgently

required

under

control

of

up
-
to
-
date

diagnostic

equipment

for

adequate

and

correct

tactics

of

treatment

patients

with

convulsive

reactions,

preferably

from

the

phase

of

the

disease

debut
.

Alexander
, 33
years old


Alexander F
.,
born in
1977

Diagnosis
:
vegetative state
as a result

of CCCI (February 2004),

severe brain injury

Coma duration


1 week

Beginning of the treatment



November 2004

He had 4 scheduled courses

of intensive
neurorehabiliitation


for 30 days each up to July
2005.

Andrew
, 29
years old

Andrew Y
.,

born in
1981

Diagnosis
:
vegetative status
as a result
of CCCI (August 2001), severe brain
injury,

subarachnoidal
-
parenchymatous

hemorrhage, brain
edema
.

Coma duration


3 weeks
.

The beginning of treatment


February
2002

He had 5 scheduled courses of
intensive
neurorehabilitation

for 30
days each up to


November 2005
.

Therefore

“losing”

of

consciousness

of

patients

with

convulsive

reactions

should

be

considered

as

pathologically

sanogeni
c,

which

means

that

the

organism’s

attempts

to

find

a

way

out

of

a

non
-
standard

situation

or

just

to

inform

about

disorders

in

the

living

organism
.

The

hybrid

living

system

in

functioning

provides

with

the

emergency

changing

to

the

system

of

the

hard

protective

re
-
start

of

the

organism

without

interference

of

the

patient

himself
.

However

it

doesn’t

mean

that

it

is

able

to

overcome

all

breakages

in

the

organism
.

Not

"harm

the

brain

and

help

it

to

control

the

situation"

-

such

approach

might

be

in

the

base

of

present

tendencies

in

treatment

of

patients

with

convulsive

attacks,

unlike

the

simple

blocking

of

visual

convulsive

reactions

by

high

doses

of

anticonvulsants
.

Thus

understanding

of

peculiar

features

of

the

living

system

re
-
start

in

a

damaged

organism

enables

to

simulate

states,

to

foresee

a

patient’s

state,

possible

rehabilitation

and

a

level

of

restoration

of

the

lost

functions

of

the

organism
.

In

our

clinical

practice

the

mentioned

approach

allowed

to

make

sure,

that

there

are

not

any

incurable

states

in

medicine,

and

there

is

a

problem

of

using

mathematical

modeling

in

questions

of

the

health

restoration
.

Thank you for

your attention !