Introduction to Industrial

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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Introduction to Industrial
Electronics

By James Rehg and Glenn Sartori


Chapter 1


1 Industrial electronics deals with


PLCs


computers for industry


Sensors


eyes for PLC


Actuators


hands for PLC


Controllers


PLC helper


But
not

MATLAB which is the most
popular computing tool for engineers


2 Industrial revolution began mid
-
?


1500s


flush toilets, pocket watch, knitting machine, compound
microscope



1600s


refracting telescope, first bacteria, slide rule, steam turbine,
adding machine, air pump, universal joint, pressure cooker, steam
pump



1700s


piano, steam engine, mercury thermometer,
flying shuttle
,
capacitor, English dictionary, sextant,
spinning jenny
, carbonated
water, flush toilets (again), submarine,
spinning mule
, bifocals,
circular saw, parachute, self
-
winding clock, hot
-
air balloon, steel
roller for steel production, threshing machine, power loom,
bleaching, steamboat, gas lighting, ambulance, cotton gin, ball
bearings, preserving jar, vaccinations,
carding machine
, metal lathe,
soft drinks, lithography, battery,
fourdrinier machine

3 To Automated Manufacturing


Punch cards


Jacquard


1801


Numerical engine


Babbage


1834


Motorized crane


Babbitt


1892


Vacuum tube


AC to DC


1904


Vacuum tube diode amplifier


deForest


1907


Remote controlled
boat



Tesla
-

1890


4 To Automated Manufacturing


Production machines replacing workers


1919


Vacuum tubes control DC motors


1928


Car frame factory


A.O. Smith


1930


Semiconductor diode


Schottky
-

1938


Variable speed AC motor control


1941


Electrically powered and controlled oil
pipeline in
California

-

1927

5 To Automated Manufacturing


1
st

computer


ENIAC


1954


1
st

transistor


Shockley


1947


Cybernetics (feedback)


Wiener


1948


Robot programming


Chappman


1954


Solid
-
state motor
-
speed control


1957


Robot manufacturing company


Unimation
-

1956

6 To Automated Manufacturing


Computer controlled all
-
in
-
one machine


Kearney


1960


Unimate 5k
-
lbf robot

500 lbf loads


6
DOF


1961


PLC


GM Oldsmobile Div


1968


Molins Machine


integrated computer
controlled batch manufacturing
-

1969


Morat knitting machine


1970


Lasers

for processing and com
-

1960

7 To Automated Manufacturing


Microprocessor



Ted Hoff


Intel


1971


Minicomputer
-
controlled robot (T3)


Richard Hohn


1973


Microcomputer
-
comtrolled robot by ASEA
ABB Inc. 1977


Apple II microcomputer


1978


Computer
-
integrated manufacturing (CIM_
in Japan, US and GB 1980


8 To Automated Manufacturing


Direct
-
drive robot arm Adept Corp 1984


64
-
bit

microprocessor Intel Corp 1994


Tag
-
based PLCs 1998


Industrial networks (Ethernit/IP, DevicNet,
Profibus, …) 2000


Wireless network for automation 2001

9 Feedback Industrial Control


Automatically monitors a manufacturing
process


Takes action if the process varies from
required specifications


Feedback control developed after WWI


Feedback control perfected during WWII


Does
not
define the industrial process


10 Manufacturing System


Project


complex, parts are one of a kind.



Job shop


Repetitive


Line


Continuous

11 Manufacturing System


Project



Job shop
-

non
-
complex products with few
parts and small production volume



Repetitive


Line


Continuous

12 Manufacturing System


Project


Job shop



Repetitive
-

high volume spread over long
periods with manual labor smaller than the
automation component.



Line


Continuous


13 Manufacturing System


Project


Job shop


Repetitive



Line
-

Complex products, assembled in
short time due to the large inventory of
subassemblies.



Continuous


14 Manufacturing System


Project


Job shop


Repetitive


Line



Continuous
-

Highly automated, little
manual labor, usually stops only for
cleaning and changeover.


Manual Machine

15 Class of Machine or System


Manual machines
-

A group of machines
operated in manual mode.



Programmable machine


Robot


Material moving system


Material tracking system

Programmable Machine

16 Class of Machine or System


Manual machines



Programmable machine
-

A material
-
processing machine under computer
control.



Robot


Material moving system


Material tracking system

Robot


Honda’s ASIMO

Robot


Friend

17 Class of Machine or System


Manual machines


Programmable machine



Robot
-

One machine that performs many
tasks under computer control.



Material moving system


Material tracking system

Material Moving System

18 Class of Machine or System


Manual machines


Programmable machine


Robot



Material moving system
-

An automated
system that moves raw material or finished
product.



Material tracking system

Material Tracking System

19 Class of Machine or System


Manual machines


Programmable machine


Robot


Material moving system



Material tracking system
-

Raw material or
finished product tracking system that may
read bar codes

Material Storage and Retrieval

20 Class of Machine or System


Material storage and retrieval system
-

May be bench top size or whole
warehouse size sometimes called ASRS.



Flexible manufacturing cell


Fixed automation machine


Flexible manufacturing system


Continuous process system

Flexible Manufacturing Cell


Flexible Manufacturing Cell

21 Class of Machine or System


Material storage and retrieval system


Flexible manufacturing cell
-

A group of
related machines that perform a process
or step in a larger process.



Fixed automation machine


Flexible manufacturing system


Continuous process system

Fixed Automation Machine


22 Class of Machine or System


Material storage and retrieval system


Flexible manufacturing cell


Fixed automation machine
-

Dedicated
machine designed to manufacture and
assemble parts with a minimum of human
interaction.



Flexible manufacturing system


Continuous process system

Flexible Manufacturing System

23 Class of Machine or System


Material storage and retrieval system


Flexible manufacturing cell


Fixed automation machine


Flexible manufacturing system
-

One or
more manufacturing machines integrated
by an automatic material handling system.



Continuous process system

Continuous Process System

24 Class of Machine or System


Material storage and retrieval system


Flexible manufacturing cell


Fixed automation machine


Flexible manufacturing system



Continuous process system
-

Commonly
used in food, chemical, pharmaceuticals,
and paper products.

25 Manufacturing System
Classification


Project
-

Dominated by manual
components
-

lowest product quality



Job shop


Repetitive


Line


Continuous

26 Manufacturing System
Classification


Project


Job shop


contains mostly manual
components but has
some automation



Repetitive


Line


Continuous

27 Manufacturing System
Classification


Project


Job shop


Repetitive
-

Contains many automated
components, lacks flexible manufacturing
systems, has
average product quality



Line


Continuous

28 Manufacturing System
Classification


Project


Job shop


Repetitive



Line
-

Has
excellent product quality

and
includes flexible manufacturing systems



Continuous

29 Manufacturing System
Classification


Project


Job shop


Repetitive


Line


Continuous
-

produces the
highest quality
,
has the largest automation component and
has the highest need for workers with
skills in industrial electronics is:

30 Experience makes the
troubleshooter


faster at the process


better at guessing the fault


both of these

31 Experienced troubleshooters


take time to think and analyze system data
before springing to action


are always busy measuring something
while they search for the fault

32 Regarding troubleshooting, in
most cases


a single failure has occurred


multiple system failures have occurred


single failures and multiple failures each
occur about half of the time

33 Regarding software
troubleshooting, which one is NOT
true?


Software failures are common.


Computer programs almost never fail.


Some knowledge of computer programs is
required for troubleshooting.


Well documented software is important for
machine troubleshooting.


Software with many inputs may fail due to
particular inputs.