Geolocation Technologies Suitable to Meet

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doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
1

Geolocation Technologies Suitable to Meet
Regulatory Requirements for TV White Spaces

Name

Company

Address

Phone

email


Gerald Chouinard

Communications
Research Centre,
Canada

3701 Carling Ave.
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K2H 8S2


(613) 998
-
2500


gerald.chouinard@crc.ca

Russ Markovsky

InvisiTrack, Inc.


(410) 991
-
8529

rmark@invisitrack.com







Authors:

Abstract

This tutorial is to be presented during the IEEE 802 Plenary session on July 2011 in San Francisco. It gives
an introduction to the accuracy requirements for geolocation in TV White Space and an overview of
geolocation techniques that can be used for this purpose.

Notice:
This Document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.22. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on th
e
contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after f
urt
her study.
The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.


Release:
The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly
available by P802.22.



doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
2

Geolocation technologies suitable to meet
Regulatory Requirements for TV White Spaces

FCC 10
-
174 Second Memorandum Opinion and Order

23 September 2010

15.711 (b)
Geo
-
location and database access requirements
.
(Page 65)

(1) The geographic coordinates of a
fixed

TVBD shall be determined to
an accuracy of

+/
-

50 meters

by either an incorporated geo
-
location capability or a professional installer
. In the case of
professional installation, the party who registers the fixed TVBD in the database will be
responsible for assuring the accuracy of the entered coordinates. The geographic coordinates of a
fixed TVBD shall be determined at the time of installation and first activation from a power
-
off
condition, and this information may be stored internally in the TVBD.

(2) A Mode II
personal/portable

device shall incorporate a geo
-
location capability to determine its
geographic coordinates to
an accuracy of

+/
-

50 meters
. A Mode II device must also re
-
establish its
position
each time it is activated

from a power
-
off condition and use its geo
-
location capability to
check its location at least
once every 60 seconds

while in operation, except while in sleep mode,
i.e.
, in a mode in which the device is inactive but is not powered
-
down.

(3) …

(4) All geographic coordinates shall be referenced to the
North American Datum of 1983

(NAD 83).

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
3

Geolocation accuracy requirements for E911

Network
-
based geolocation technology

(Triangulating the caller’s wireless signal in
relation to nearby cell sites)


100 m

accuracy 67% of the 911 calls (
probability
that the location would be within 100 m radius of
the CPE actual location
).


300 m

accuracy 95% of the 911 calls.


Handset
-
based geolocation technology:

(GPS or similar technology installed in the


caller’s handset)


50 m accuracy 67% of the 911 calls
.


100 m accuracy 95% of the 911 calls.

FCC E911 phase 2
accuracy requirements
by Sept 11, 2012.

To be sunset in 2019.

FCC MO&O 97
-
402, “Revision of the Commission Rules To Ensure
Compatibility with Enhanced 911 Emergency Calling Systems”

FCC 11
-
107, Third Report and Order, Second Further Notice of
Proposed Rulemaking and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
4

Geolocation accuracy vs fine ranging accuracy


For a given geolocation error, the ranging error has to be smaller because
geolocation methods/ techniques can be subject to location geometry degradation.

Good Geometry

Bad Geometry

Trilateration

Triangulation



Assuming that the geometry degradation amplification is 2X (on average),


the required ranging accuracy is +/
-

25 meters.


In addition, the network device electronics propagation delays (residual delay) accuracy is
assumend to be +/
-

30 ns. This results in +/
-

10 meters ranging error


In 802.22, this residual delay needs to be measured by the manufacturer with an accuracy of

at least +/
-
30 ns (IEEE Std 802.22
-
2011, subclause 7.7.7.3.4.10.)


Thus the required fine ranging accuracy needs to be +/
-

15 meters

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
5

Coarse ranging: use and limitations


Ranging is used in communication systems to:


Adjust the frequency of the CPE transmitted signal


Adjust the timing of the CPE transmitted signal


Adjust the signal transmission power for proper reception


Signal the modulation and FEC to be used for operation


Ranging can also be used for a rough estimate of the
signal flight time. However, the accuracy is limited,
at best, to the signal sampling period:

Base

Station

CPE

Customer

Premise

Equipment

T1= time of transmission

T4= time of reception

T2= time of reception

T3= time of transmission

Signal flight time= 1/2 * ((T4
-

T1)
-

(T3
-

T2))

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
6

Satellite
-
based geo
-
positioning


Global Positioning System (GPS)


provides location and time information


needs unobstructed line
-
of
-
sight (outdoor)


need time to lock to at least 3 satellites


Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)


is an enhancement to GPS that uses a network of fixed, ground
-
based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the
positions indicated by GPS and the known fixed positions.


Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS)


can improve the startup performance, or time
-
to
-
first
-
fix (TTFF)
of a GPS positioning system. Uses terrestrial network resources to
locate and utilize the satellites faster and improve performance in
poor signal conditions. It is used extensively with GPS
-
capable
cellular phones (E911). It can allow for some indoor operation.


Russian GLONASS system


European Galileo system

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
7

Terrestrially
-
based geo
-
positioning


Time
-
based


Time of Arrival (
TOA
): terminal
is at intersection of three circles
centered at three BSs =>
trilateration
(need synchronous
networks)

(outdoor)



Time Difference of Arrival
(
TDOA
): terminal is at
intersection of three hyperbola for
which foci are at the three BSs =>
trilateration

(need synchronized BSs)

(outdoor)


Larger signal bandwidth (e.g.,
UWB) results in higher resolution
ranging (
indoor
)

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
8

Terrestrially
-
based geo
-
positioning


Angle
-
based


Angle of Arrival (
AOA
):
smart and/or directional
antennas used at two BSs
=> triangulation
(outdoor)




Radio Map


RSS Radio Map: Off
-
line
pre
-
calibration, on
-
line
matching of RSS at BSs to
identify location of
terminal
(urban & indoor)


Fingerprinting using local
multipath signature

(urban
& indoor)

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
9

Terrestrially
-
based geo
-
positioning


Other network
-
based positioning techniques


Cell ID: BS and sector with which the terminal is communicating


Observed Time Difference of Arrival (
OTDOA
) (for UMTS
networks)


Uplink Time Difference of Arrival (
U
-
TDOA
): relies on multi
-
laterations


Non network
-
based positioning technique


Round Trip Time (
RTT
): total round
-
trip time from a BS to a CPE
and back to the BS to determine the BS
-
CPE distance.
Triangulation on multiple RTT’s will allow geo
-
positioning
(outdoor & indoor).

doc.: IEEE 802.22
-
11/0079r01

Submission

July 2011

Gerald Chouinard, Russ Markvosky

Slide
10

References

1.
Guolin Sun, Jie Chen, Wei Guo, and K.J.Ray Liu, “Signal Processing
Techniques in Network
-
Aided Positioning,” IEEE Signal Processing
Magazine, July 2005

2.
Hui Liu, Houshang Darabi, Pat Banerjee and Jing Liu, “Survey of Wireless
Indoor Positioning Techniques and Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Systems,
Man, and Cybernetics


Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 37, No. 6,
November 2007, pages 1067
-
1080

3.
A. Roxin, J. Gaber, M. Wack, A. Nait
-
Sidi
-
Moh, IEEE Globecom
Workshops Washington, DC (2007)