Research and Implementation of a Network Migration from IPv4 to IPv6

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27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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1



Abstract


This

document presents the way in which the
RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NETWORK
MIGRATION FROM IPv4 TO IPv6 its going to be developed
.
Based

in a theoretical framework of technologies,
different kinds
of equipment and a state of art required for the
Project progress
.


Keywords

Network, IP protocol.



I.

I
NTRODU
CC
ION

HE

improvement of the ICT in the last few years has
changed the way we
communicate

with each other all over
the world,
new services and applications are converging to one
and o
nly telecom
munication network
-
Internet
-

This

fact

has

been leading to a mayor growing in the
number of Internet users
which

has exposed the limitations of
the
IPv4
protocol.

The IP protocol was created in the 1970’s
,
new application
and technology developments
have

been restricted
because of
the re
d
uced amount of addresses available
and architecture
problems.

IPv6 protocol was created in the 1990’s with the one
thought of providing a solution for the failures of the current
protocol. The most significant features in
clude a large number
of available addresses and the implementation of security
models and QoS

on

Internet
.

The traditional method for the implementation of IPv6 is
based in the tunneling technique
.
This method a
l
lows to obtain
a poor connectivity IPv6 to t
he exterior, just enough for testing

some of the protocol’s characteristics
.
This kind of
implementations doesn’t provide the whole IPv6 panorama
which leaves aside many of the challenges,
decisions

and
other aspects to consider when
implementing

IPv6.

In
this
project

it’s

a goal

to cover aspects from the creation
of an upgrade plan for the network equipment, to the
comparison and evaluation of
different

options for monitoring
and security.




II.

T
HEORETICAL

FRAMEWORK

A.

IPv6

protocol

Among the main characteristics

of the IP
v6
prot
ocol
:


Large amount of addresses
:
the
length

of an address grows
from 32 to

128
bit
s, this is
interpreted as an approximated
quantity of
3,4∙10
^
38
available addresses
.

This fact allows
each host or device connected to a network
to

obtain a

public
IP address
.

Hierarchical addressing:
all global I
Pv6
addresses are
design to create an
efficient
, hierarchical and summarized
routing
infrastructure
, based in the
existence of multiple ISP
levels;

this allows
minimizing routing tables and making

them
proficient
.

New header format
:
even with a larger
IPv6

header t
h
an the
one in IP
v4,

the format has been simplified
.
14 fields have
been eliminated in practice they were seldom used, so as to
streamline the handling of packages.
With the addition of
extra headers, IPv6 allows for future expansion.

Auto configuration
: IPv6 includes a mechanism for address
auto
-
configuration, “stateless address configuration ", in
which the nodes are able to auto assign an IPv6 address
without user intervention. New pr
otocol to interact with
neighbors: The neighbor discovery protocol, replacing the
protocols ARP and "Router Discovery" from IPV4. One of its
biggest advantages is that it eliminates the need for messages
like "broadcast."

[1]

B.

Addressing

IPv6 d
efines three

types of addresses.

As

well
as the
addresses such as "broadcast" have been removed replacing
its use with "multicast" that
identifies

specific groups of
devices on a network.


Unicast: There are several types of unicast addresses in
IPv6, as the global ag
gregates, the site
-
local, link
-
local, the
IPX hierarchical, the NSAP, and IPv4 compatible. More
types of addresses can be defined in the future. Multicast
traffic in IPv6 multicast operates the same way as in IPv4.
IPv6 devices at separate locations can re
ceive targeted traffic
to a single address multicast.

Such Anycast addresses can be assigned to different
interfaces of one or more nodes, so that a packet sent to an
anycast address to reach one and only one of the interfaces.
Resear
ch

and Implementation of a Network
Migration

from
IPv4
to

IPv6

Edgar J. Toquica Gahona, Fernando Muñoz Rodriguez

Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas

Ingenieria en Telecomunicaciones


T


2

Syntactically, anycast addre
sses
cannot

be distinguished
from unicast, so if an interface is assigned an address of this
type should be told explicitly. [2]


C.

IPv6

networks implementation mechanisms

For the implementation of IPv6 networks o
n
networks

that
are currently

running

IPv4, t
here
are three different
techniques:

DOUBLE LAYER IP (DUAL STACK)

the

dual stack"

technique

is one where you run simultaneously the IPv4 and
IPv6 protocols on the nodes of a network. Each node is
assigned
with
IPv4 and IPv6

addresses
. This technique has t
he
advantage of ensuring the connectivity of network nodes,

when

it is not possible to use IPv6, IPv4 can be used. The
disadvantages are a decrease in the performance of network
equipment, which must maintain address tables and
independent routes for each
protocol.

I
Pv6
OVER

IPv4
TUNNELS
. The tunneling technique is to
encapsulate IPv6 packets within IPv4 packets so that they can
be transmitted over IPv4 networks. Tu
nneling requires
equipment

in each end to make the process of encapsulation
and extraction of

IPv6 packets. The tunnels can provide IPv6
connectivity if it is not possible to implement IPv6 on all
devices of a given network.

NAT
-
PT (Network Address Translation
-

PROTOCOL
TRANSLATION) is a technique that transforms directly IPv6
packets in IPv4 packets and vice versa. It is completely
transparent from the point of view of the nodes in a
connection, it is only necessary to confi
gure a router that
performs packet processing. It is more complex than the
traditional protocol of IPv4 NAT, because it is necessary to
modify each packet full IPv4/IPv6. Only recommended for use
as a temporary measure when no other alternative.
[3]

III.

S
TATE

OF THE ART

In the early stages of this project is necessary to investigate

the previous developments and implementations related to the
project subject
,
how the technologies are

now
adays
and what
the trends even for this are

developing technology,
below
s
ome
projects

and research conducted concerning IPv6

are
show
n
.


-

OPERATION OF THE "MICROBOT
TEACHMOVER"


ROBOT TROUGH INTERNET
USING A BLUETOOTH
EMBEDDED SYSTEM
INTERFACE AND PROTOCOL

IPv6.

This project deals with

robot manipulation "Microbot
Teachmover"
through a computer application that enables
interaction with
it

locally or remotely, as well as the handling
of the robot through an application on a
mobile

device
.
Implementing BNEP and IPv6 protocols in order to have a
protocol stack that enables the int
erconnection of multiple
devices wirelessly and under the IP protocol, enables the
existing development on Bluetooth to IP convergence.
[4]




-
USE PROJECT IN IPV6 MULTICAST OPERA OBERT
A
IN

CUDI.

This project is a series of specific activities which
successfully materialize transmissions that belong to Gran
Teatre del Liceu through IPv6 multicast within the CUDI
network [5]
.


-
IPV6
-
STUDY PLAN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
PAMPLONA

The problem addressed by this study reflects the need that
the University of Pam
plona has to meet new educational
demands projected from the region and from the development
of science, art, technology and humanities, being an
autonomous body
which has its special arrangement, legal,
administrative, academic, financial, independent wea
lth, and
belonging to the Ministry of Education. From this point of
view, the University is fulfilling its historic mission of training
and research with a strong emphasis on social service which
strives to consolidate its Institutional Education Project [
6].


-
CLARA IPV6

CHALLENGE

This project consist on enabling IPv6 applications and
services on the Red CLARA and invite and program activities
to national networks to carry out similar actions.
[7]



-

"CODAREC6: AN IPV6 TEST BED"
-

LABORATORY
FOR STUDY, DE
SIGN, DEVELOPMENT,
IMPLEMENTATION, TESTING AND TRAINING OF
INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6

Project developed by Carlos Taffernaberry, Alejandro
Dantiacq Picolella, Gustavo Adrian Francisconi performed at
the "National Technological University" in Argentina.

This was
a d
evelopment that accomplishes
an IPv6 test
environment by implementing a dual stack node and basic
services in IPv6 on Linux platform.
It was located on the
Internet node and configured links (tunnels) with the
university, and the 6bone.
Additio
nally
, client machines with
IPV6 and multiple operating systems were installed
, creating a
local network (LAN) native IPv6.
Finally, IPv6 numbering

was

delegated to other regional entities from the CODAREC6.
The laboratory
CODAREC6

has achieved

experimenta
l results
and experiences that increase regional awareness of IPv6 and
assist in their transition and deployment.
[8]



-
NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION
, IPv4/IPv6.
TRANSITION MECHANISMS, APPLICATION SERVICES
AND APPLICATION MIGRATION

It was a final year project de
veloped by Juan Francisco
Rodríguez Hervella in the Department of Telematics
Engineering of the University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain.

They

performed a detailed study of the most important
aspects of migration management
for

IP networks to the IP
protocol

version 6.
They deeply
researched in

the

different
IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms that exist for some testing in
Linux and FreeBSD environments.

They a
lso present and
implement some services offered on IPv6 network,
demonstrating
its application in mixed

IPv4/IPv6. Along with
that it was

discussed and implemented routing protocols.
Finally the work was finalized with the migrating to the new

3

protocol packet generator tool MGEN along with two
accompanying applications.
[9]


IV.

S
OLUTI
ON

In the context of local area networks is necessary to
consider certain aspects prior to the implementation of the
network. Initially it is necessary to make a dimensioning that
includes services and equipment that in the future will be
needed, in addition
to carrying out an inventory of equipment
and infrastructure, potential uses of these in the new network,
operating system updates are necessary to see and failing to
purchase new equipment or replacement

new implementations.

Within the selection of equi
pment is necessary to
contemplate equipment of three different brand names to make
a comparative analysis of the advantages of QoS, CoS,
equipment costs, implementation and support offering, giving
priority to the type of applications and classes
service t
o which
they are intended. Because IPv6 is a protocol layer 3, its use is
transparent to all Layer 2 devices.
Therefore, this analysis
does not consider the "switches" of access that are located
along the work areas.
This project is seen as the first step
towards eventual full migration to IPv6 network.
For that
reason not considered IPv6 access via WIFI.

Subsequently it’s necessary to develop an addressing
scheme that delimits
and organizes

according to work areas
and secondly by geographical location of
the equipment.

It is
obvious

that there must be a correlation between physical and
logical separation of network segments.

Established physical and logical topology of the network,
we proceed to make a selection and implementation of routing
protocol that

depends on the chosen routing equipment. Once
configured IPv6 network, it is necessary to evaluate the
current status of IPv6 support in operating systems and
applications used by all network users. It has to do an analysis
of the major operating systems
used today, in order to detect
possible incompatibilities with IPv6.

To make the network functional

it

need
s
a

number of IPv6 services
for

common use.
one last item to
meet and is the configuration of a server to provide service
s

that

should be set up DN
S, WEB,
network management

and
monitoring
.
The DHCP service functions more efficiently
configured on the routers.












V.

R
EFERENC
ES

[1] D.E. Comer, “Redes globales de

información con Internet y TCP/IP,”

Principios básicos,protocolos y

arquitectura
,
vol. 1, 1996.

[2] E. Herrera y E.H. Pérez,
Tecnologías y

redes de transmisión de datos
, Editorial

Limusa, 2003.

[3] L. Peralta,
IPv6@ UJI
, Febrero, 2002.

[4] L. Peralta,
IPv6@ UJI
-
Rev: 22
.

[5] J. Lin y M. Yang, “Fault
-
tolerant design for

wide
-
area Mobile IPv6 networks,”
J. Syst.

Softw.
,vol. 82, 2009, págs. 1434
-
1446.

[6] “anteproyecto_TG
-
0417.pdf.”

[7]Propuesta_proyecto_IPv6_Multicast_Oper

a.pdf.”

[8] “84903771.pdf.”

[9] “PROYECTOS
-

Wiki
-
gtipv6.”