Terminus Autonomous Target Recognizing Robot

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Terminus


Autonomous Target Recognizing Robot





ECE 4007 Senior Design Project

Section RP1, Terminus Group

Project Advisor, Dr. Elliot Moore



Billy Deason

Correy McMillan, Group Leader

Craig Wiswell, Webmaster





Submitted

February 6, 2013

ii

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


Table of Contents


Executive Summary

……………………………………………………………….……………………
i
ii

1. Introduction
…………………
.
…………………………………………………………
...........
……… 1


1.1 Objective

…………
………………………………………………………………………... 1


1.2 Motivation ………………………………………………………………………
.
…………… 1


1.3 Backgrou
nd …………………………………………………………………
.
……
.
…………. 2

2. Project Description and Goals
.......................................................................................................
…...

3

3. Technical Specification
s
..

……….…………………………………………………………………. 4


3.1
Quantitative Specifications ………………………………………………………………...…

4

4. Design Approach and Details

………
.
……………………….…………
.
………….………………… 5


4.1 Design Approach …………
.
…...................................................................
.............................. 5


4.2
Codes and Standards ……
..
…………………………………………………………………... 7


4.3 Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs ………………………………
...
……….………….. 7

5. Schedule, Tasks, and Milestones

……………………………
.
…………………………................…. 8

6. Project Demonstration

………………………………………………………………
………….……. 8

7. Marketing and Cost Analysis

……..........................
.
..............................................
............................... 9


7.1 Marketing Analysis ………………………………………………

………………………... 9


7.2 Cost Analysis ………………………………
...
………………………………………..……... 9

8. Current Status
…………………………
.
……………………………………………….…………… 11

9. References

…………………
…………………………………………………………………………. 12

Appendix A
……
..
…………

…………………………………………………………………………. 14

Appendix B
........................................................
.......................................................................................

15


iii

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)



Executive Summary

The autonomous robot will be capable of recognizing a target, avoiding obstacles, and shooting target
once it is within acceptable distance. For

safety protocol, speech reco
gnition will be employed to
deactivate

the robot
in case of emergency.

Terminus is an autonomous target recognition robot that is
designed to enter and scan a room to locate a target. Once the target has been found, the robot will avoid
obstacles while moving towards it.

Terminus will fire upon the target when it is within
a specified range
from it.
If a false target is acquired, verbal commands will be given to ab
ort firing.

Using both ultra
sonic and infrared sensors, Terminus will be able to avoid obstacles in battle while advancing on its
target. With modern day softw
are combined with current hardware technology, Terminus will be able to
see and identify the target.

Keeping to the standards of moral and ethical guidelines, Terminus can be
deactivated by voice command. The autonomy of Terminus allows the soldier to conc
entrate on their
safety and less on the control of current field robots. It’s dual microprocessors allow Terminus to take
quick action with one dedicated to video processing and the other managing motors.

It would be a waste
of man hours and government fu
nds to build a full scale model when a smaller prototype could be
designed to test the technologies and capabilities.
This design can be sold at $60,000 with a profit of
$46,000 over a five year period.
The robot is expected to recognize the target, move

towards the target
avoiding obstacles and, once within range,

fire at the target.


Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


1


Autonomous Target Recognizing
Robot

1. Introduction

Most military robots have been designed to remove the soldier from dangerous situations.
The Terminus
team will need approximately $500 to develop the autonomous target recognizing robot. The robot will
decrease the number of
soldiers needed on the frontline by being capable of identifying the target,
maneuvering around obstacles, and eliminating the target.

1.1
Objective

The autonomous robot will be capable of recognizing a target, avoiding obstacles, and shooting target
once
it is within acceptable distance.
The successful execution of the prototype will reinforce the positive
contribution of the technologies used. The robot is capable of target recognition, avoiding obstacles on its
way to the target, and once within range
will fire upon the target.

1.2
Motivation

In Operation Iraqi Freedom alone there were 4,409 U.S. military casualties between March 19, 2003 and
August 31, 2010. Of the total deaths 3,480 were killed in action [1]. The purpose of

the

autonomous
target recognizing robot would be to replace some of the soldiers in the field, therefore reducing the
number of soldiers exposed to dangerous environments.
Different branches of the U.S. military have
already developed unmanned ground vehicle
s designed specifically to their needs. Due to ethical issues
concerning the Rules of Engagement, the unmanned ground vehicles in current use are remote controlled
by a soldier behind the lines.
One of the main concerns is the robot being able to disting
uish between
civilian and hostile personnel [2]. The

autonomous design of the prototype will allow for less human
interfac
e allowing the

soldier to concentrate on

their safety and less upon the logistics of the robot.
Terminus is designed to be more cost

effective than autonomous robots like it currently on the market.



2

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


1.3
Background

There has been extensive research devoted to the development of autonomous robots for the military.
Each branch of the military has conducted separate research in building
autonomous robots for their
specific needs. The U.S. Navy is currently developing a firefighting robot that maneuver autonomously
throughout the ship

[3]
.

The TALON robot, which has been deployed b
y the U.S. military, comes in
different versions includin
g one that can be weaponized.

This version of the TALON is known as
Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System [4]. South Korea
is using the SGR
-
A1
sentry robot to guard home bases and along the Demilitarized Zone [5].
In further
detail:



Shipboard Autonomous Firefighting Robot (SAFFiR).
The Naval Research Laboratory is in the
process of creating the SAFFiR robot. The purpose of this robot is to have it aboard naval ships
to put out the fires that are normally put out by humans. T
his robot will be capable of
autonomously moving around the ship, interacting with others onboard, and fight fires. Enhanced
for multi
-
modal sensor technology, this robot is capable of walking and balancing on the ship

[3]
.



SWORDS TALON.
Foster
-
Miller Inc
. manufactured the TALON robot to perform several
different tasks includin
g reconnaissance and combat. This robot was developed for hostile
environments and can perform in sand, snow and water up to 100 feet. A specific version of the
TALON, SWORDS, is w
eaponized and can cost as much as $230,000 depending upon the
outfitted weapons [4].



SGR
-
A1. The SGR
-
A1 was created by the collaboration of Samsung Techwin and the Korea
University. Programmed with pattern recognition, this robot can differentiate betwee
n humans
and animals. Once a human has been sighted there is a short window of time to give either a
verbal command or hand gesture to prevent
being fired at. The SGR
-
A1 can be manually
operated but can also function autonomously

[5]
.


3

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


For a robot to be
autonomous it must have computer vision which can consist of a camera and video
processing software. The most common software is OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision
Library) and is used by major companies such as Google, Microsoft and Honda. OpenCV is be
ing
used by Google to stich streetview images together and is also being used in Israel to detect intrusions
in surveillance video.
It has various algorithms to process and manipulate video data to detect and
track objects [6].

2. Project Description and
Goals

Terminus is an autonomous target recognition robot that is designed to enter and scan a room to
locate a target. Once the target has been found, the robot will avoid obstacles while moving towards
it. The targeting mechanism consists of a camera con
nected to a microcontroller that will be running
video processing software. The robot consists of a second microcontroller that is connected to
sensors that will notify it when it gets within a certain range of an obstacle. After all obstacles have
been
cleared and the target is within range

a servo will pull the trigger. Terminus will achieve the
following:



Avoid obstacles



Object and color recognition

for the purpose of targeting and shooting



Voice command failsafe

in case the robot malfunctions



Electri
c trigger mechanism

to fire a CO
2
airsoft gun



Can be programmed to target certain obstacles for destruction and some for safety



Cost less than $500






4

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


3. Technical Specifications

3.1
Quantitative Specifications


Table 1. Quantitative Specifications

FEATURES

SPECIFICATIONS

Physical Dimensions

250cm x 230cm x 75cm

Input



Sensors



IR



Range

10cm


80 cm


IR



Range

20cm


150cm


Ultrasonic



Range

2cm


500cm


Camera



Video

960 x 720 pixels


Resolution

2
-
megapixels


Speed

30fps


Focus

Auto


Microphone



Range

30.48cm


304.8cm


Directional

Omni
-
Directional

Output



Motor



Max. Speed

10cm/sec


Airsoft Pistol



Range

121.92cm

User interface

USB Connection

Memory

1GB

Power

12VDC

Software

Linux based


Terminus will be able to avoid obstacles within half a foot and be able to hit a target nine out
of ten times.



5

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


4. Design Approach and Details

4.1
Design Approach

Hardware

The chassis of the Terminus will be the DFRobotShop Rover V2. This chassis has a built in
Arduino Uno
which has an ATmega328

processor in it

with 512 MB
[7
]
. The Arduino will be
connected to a
Beagleboard XM through a USB connection. T
he Beagleboard XM has a 1 GHz ARM Cortex with 512
MB

[8
]
. The Arduino will control the motor located on the chassis for movement and it will also control
the high torque servo of the trigger mechan
ism. When the servo is activated it will pull on a wire
connected to a piece of metal that is in between the
trigger and trigger guard

of the Combat Zone Enforcer
CO2 Airsoft Gun
. The trigger mechanism assembly can be seen in Figure 1.










Figure
1. Trigger mechanism setup


6

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


The Logitech Webcam Pro
is connected to the Beagleboard XM via a USB connection. A microphone is
built into the webcam which will be used for voice recognition. The block diagram of this design can be
seen in Figure 2.












A complete schematic of the Terminus
design can be seen in Appendix B.

Software

The Beagleboard XM will run a Linux
-
based operating system such as Ubuntu.
On this operating system,
OpenCV will process the video data searching for the target. The Arduino board will be programmed
using the Arduino IDE which will have a servo library to control the motor and servo.
Software installed
on both the Beagleboard X
M and the Arduino will allow the boards to send and receive data from each
other. In order to process voice commands the HTK Toolkit will be installed on the Beagleboard XM.















Figure 2.
Block diagram illustrating the layout of the Terminus design.

Power
Supply

Arduino
Uno

Motor

Arduino
Uno

High
Torque
Servo

Gun Trigger

Beagleboard

Microphone

Camera


7

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


4.2
Codes and Standards

In the theater of war,
the Law of War

must be followed by

military personnel. These rules also extend to
weaponized robots that are in use by the military.

The law of war
encompasses all international law for
the c
onduct of hostilities, which is
binding on the United States or its individual citizens, includin
g
treaties and

international agreements to which the United States is a
party, and applicable
customary
international law

[9
].”

To be within in this standard, voice commands to deactivate
Terminus will be
added to prevent it from firing at non
-
hostiles.

Universal serial buses are used to communicate between the Beagleboard and Arduino board. It features a
speed of 480 Mb/s with plug and play [10].

The airsoft pistol used in Terminus is a semi
-
automatic firing
at a velocity of 400 fps (feet per second), a

shot capacity of 15, and has a double action trigger. It weighs
0.9 pounds and has an included safety switch [11].


4.3
Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs

The Arduino Uno
was chosen
because of the availability of open source code and it is the simplest of the
microcontrollers on the market. Due to price constraint, the Beagleboard was chosen because it performs
the best video processing compared to others and is also compatible with
the Arduino.
A constraint to the
Beagleboard is that the operating system has to be Linux
-
based; possible choices include Ubuntu and
Angstrom.
The chassis that was chosen has a built in Arduino Uno and was cheaper to purchase than
buying a chassis and the

Arduino board separately.
This chassis is lightweight and has the availability to
build upper levels upon it which will be needed for mounting the various parts.

The design for Terminus has an upper mount that was initially designed to be made from a 3
D printer.
An alternative to this method is to construct
the mount from PVC. The Raspberry Pi Model BCM2835
runs Linux and would be a good video processor, however, it was not compatible with Arduino th
r
ough
open source codes. For this reason, and the f
act that it is not good for real time applications, the
Beagleboard XM was chosen as the second microcontroller

[12
]
.

There are various types of BB guns

8

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


including spring loaded, but spring loaded would not be optimal for this design because it has to be
m
anually reloaded. If safety becomes too big of a concern with the CO
2
gun then a laser could be used in
the place of a BB gun.

Initially an IR distance sensor that sees in a line was chosen as the front sensor of
the robot. Further designing proved that an ultrasonic sensor that sweeps a range of area would be better
to detect objects.

5. Schedule, Tasks, and Milestones

Table 2 shows a brief planned schedule for the design of Terminus. A detailed Gantt chart can be found
in Appendix A.


6. Project Demonstration

The test environment for the robot will be a recreation of one of the classrooms in PARB because the gun
in the design could put holes in walls. In the demonstration the robot will do
the following:

1.

Scan the room for the target, which will be a red balloon. There will be a blue and green balloon
to represent non hostile targets that the robot will not shoot.

2.

The robot will then move towards the target avoiding obstacles when necessary
and driving over
them if possible.




Gantt Summary








Research

8 days

1/14/2013

1/23/2013


TRP

8 days

1/14/2013

1/23/2013


Proposal

10 days

1/24/2013

2/6/2013


Design Phase

32 days

1/28/2013

3/18/2013


Final Deliverables

40 days

3/18/2013

5/1/2013


Final Report

41 days

3/18/2013

5/2/2013

Tabl
e 2. Planned Schedule Summary


9

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


3.


Once the obstacle is avoided the robot will reacquire the target and start heading towards the red
balloon again.

The recreation of the room is necessary because the CO
2

could potentially damage the walls. For this
sam
e reason the walls of the environment will have to be either three pieces of cardboard thick or made
out of foam reinforced poster board. There will be at least three walls in this recreation so bystanders will
not be hit by stray BBs. The walls will hav
e a height of
approximately four feet.

7. Marketing and Cost Analysis

7.1
Marketing

Robots are used in the medical fields,
industries

and the military [
13
]. The target audience for the
terminus project is the military. Current price points on

the military robot TALON

vary from $103,333 to
$172,185 per unit cost

showing that they are in demand

[
14
].

The SGR
-
A1 has an estimated price of
$80,000 to $200,000 with a de
velopment cost $1.03 billion [15
].

Due to security, the specifications of
curre
nt military robots
, including SAFFiR,

are not disclosed to the public.

Terminus is capable of
autonomously moving and shooting whereas the TALON is remotely controlled and the SGR
-
A1 is an
autonomous sentry robot.

7.2
Cost Analysis

Personnel costs would

be based on labor, design, group meetings, lectures, writing reports, construction
and analysis. Additional costs include health and dental covera
ge and
vision care

which total 30% of
labor costs. The standard en
gineering h
ourly rate is $40 [16
]. The e
stimated time of delivery will be 600
hours.

Table 3 shows a breakdown of the development cost.




10

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)



Development Cost


Parts

5 00

Labor

24,000

Fringe Benefits, % of Labor

7,200

Subtotal

31,700

Overhead, % of Matl, Labor &
Fringe

38,040

Total

$69,470



The selling price has been determined to be $60,000 with the expectations of selling 250 over a five year
period. The expected profit over a five year period is approximately $46,000 which is 77% of the selling
price.
With

the remaining 23% to cover labor, parts and benefits. Table 4 shows these figures in more
detail.


Determination of Selling Price

Units Based on:

250

Parts Cost

500

Assembly Labor

200

Testing Labor

2,000

Total Labor

2,200

Fringe Benefits, % of Labor

660

Subtotal

3,.360

Overhead, % of Matl, Labor & Fringe

4,032

Subtotal, Input Costs

7,392

Sales Expense

6,000

Amortized Development Costs

279

Subtotal, All Costs

13,671

Profit

46,329

Selling Price

$60,000


Table 3. Development Cost

Table 4. Cost of Manufacturing


11

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


8.
Current Status

The terminus project is waiting on parts to be delivered so building can be started. While waiting for the
parts, work will be started on the OpenCV software so that it may be ready when the pa
r
ts show up. There
has been some testing with the gun to make sure the accuracy of the gun met the specifications that were
set for Terminus.
















12

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


9. References

[1]


[Online] Available:

http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf

.

[January 31, 2013].

[2]


Patrick Lin, Ph.D., George Bekey, Ph.D., Keith Abney, M.A. (2008, December). “Autonomous
Military Robotics: Risk,
Ethics, and Design.” [Online]. Available:
http://ethics.calpoly.edu/ONR_report.pdf

, [January 31, 2013].

[3]


Donna McKinney. “NRL Designs Robot for Shipboard Firefighting.” [Online]. Available:


http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news
-
releases/2012/nrl
-
designs
-
robot
-
for
-
shipboard
-
firefighting

,
March 7, 2012 [January 31, 2013].

[4]


Joel Bag
lole. “TALON


Mulitpurpose Robot.” [Online]. Available:

http://usmilitary.about.com/od/weapons/a/talonrobot.htm


, [January 31, 2013].


[5]

Keith Veronese. “Samsung Created Machine Gun carrying Robots to Patrol the Korean DMZ.”


[Online]. Available:

http://amog.com/offbeat/153913
-
samsung
-
created
-
machine
-
gun
-
carrying
-
robots
-
patrol
-
korean
-
dmz/

, July 11, 2012 [January 31, 2013].

[6]


OpenCV.
[Online]. Available:
http://opencv.org/


, [January 31, 2013].

[7]


Atmel.
[Online]. Available:
http://www.atmel.com/Images/doc8161.pdf
, [February 1, 2013].

[8]


DigiKey. (2013). ARDUINO UNO BOARD REV3
[Online]. Available:
http://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Circuitco%20Elect/Beagle_Board
_Flyer_5
-
21
-
10_2.pdf

, [February 1, 2013].

[9
]

“Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction.” [Online]. Available:

http://www.dtic.mil/cjcs_directives/cdata/unlimit/5810_01.pdf

, April 30, 2010 [February 4,
2013].

[10]

USB Specification Expanding,
Boosting Performance Up to 40 times beyond Current Capability.
[Online]. Available:

http://www.usb.org/developers/usb20/backgrounder/

, [February 5, 2013].

[11]

Combat Zone Enforcer CO2 Airsoft Pistol. [Online]. Available:

http://www.pyramydair.com/s/m/Combat_Zone_Enforcer_CO2_Airsoft_Pistol/2814;jsessionid=
C4890E2B76D1BF216800FC90FBF57FE0.app02

, [February 5, 2013].

[12
]

Raspberry
-
gpio
-
python. [Online]. Available:

http://code.google.com/p/raspberry
-
gpio
-
python/
, [February 5
, 2013]

[13
]

IEEE.
[Online]. Available:
http://ieeerobot
-
tepra.org/
, [February 1, 2013].

[14
]

Army Guide.
[Online]. Available:

http://www.army
-
guide.com/eng/product1795.html

, [January
31, 2013].

[15
]

“Samsung Techwin SGR
-
A1 Sentry Guard Robot.” [Online]. Available:

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military
/world/rok/sgr
-
a1.htm

, [January 31, 2013].


13

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


[16
]

“Occupational Employment Statistics.” [Online]. Available:

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes172071.htm

, May 2011 [February 1, 2013]
.



























14

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


Appendix A



























15

Terminus (ECE 4007/RP1)


Appendix B

1.

Combat Zone Enforcer CO
2
Pistol Airsoft Gun

2.

Micro Servo


High Torque Metal Gear

3.

Servo Mount

4.

Gun Grip Mount

5.

IR Distance Sensor (10cm to 80 cm)

6.

DFRobotShop Rover V2


Built in
Arduino

7.

Microphone

8.

Ultra Sonic Ranging Sensor (2cm to 500cm)

9.

Base Support

10.

BeagleBoard XM

11.

Gun Barrel Support

12.

Logitech Webcam Pro

13.

IR Distance Sensor (20cm to 150cm)