Download Using Open Source Software

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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

80 εμφανίσεις

By Ann M. McCormick, M.S., CCC
-
SLP

Children’s Hospital, Seattle WA

4/19/2012


The

free software movement

was founded in 1983 by Richard Stallman,
by launching the GNU Project.
http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html
. According to Richard
Stallman, the term “free software” is sometimes misunderstood

it has
nothing to do with price. It is about freedom.


The
free software movement

is a
social

and
political movement
[1]

with the
goal of ensuring software users' four basic freedoms:


to run their software,


to study and change their software, and


to redistribute copies with or without changes.



“Free” or Open
-
source software is
in opposition to

software that was
released under
nondisclosure agreements



In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software
should be replaced by open source software (OSS) as an expression
which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate
world.
[4]




Open
-
source

software

(
OSS
) is

computer software

that is available in
source code form: the

source code

and certain other rights normally
reserved for

copyright

holders are provided under an

open
-
source
license

that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to
distribute the software. Open source software is very often developed in
a public,

collaborative

manner.


Other benefits to using OSS:


Security


Affordability


Transparency


Perpetuity


Interoperability


Localization.
[5]


A report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open
-
source
software models has resulted in savings of about $60

billion per year to
consumers.



The term “open source” software is used by some people to mean more
or less the same category as free software. It is not exactly the same class
of software …. However, the differences in extension of the category are
small: nearly all free software is open source, and nearly all open source
software is free.




Free Software Foundation,
http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/categories.html



Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be
reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open source
software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open
Source Definition. The most prominent and popular example is the

GNU
General Public License

(GPL), which “allows free distribution under the
condition that further developments and applications are put under the
same license”


thus also free.

While open source distribution presents a
way to make the source code of a product publicly accessible, the open
source licenses allow the authors to fine tune such access.


Open source software (OSS) projects are built and maintained by a network
of volunteer programmers. Prime examples of open source products are




Apache HTTP Server
,



the internet browser

Mozilla Firefox
.



GNU/Linux

operating system, an open source

Unix
-
like

operating
system, and



its derivative

Android
, an operating system for mobile devices.



Inherent to the philosophy of OSS, users should be treated as co
-
developers.


The users are treated like co
-
developers and so they should have access to the
source code of the software. Furthermore users are encouraged to submit
additions to the software, code fixes for the software, bug reports,
documentation etc. Having more co
-
developers increases the rate at which the
software evolves.

Linus

Torvalds

(the creator of Linux) law

states, "Given enough
eyeballs all bugs are shallow." This means that if many users view the source
code, they will eventually find all bugs and suggest how to fix them. Note that
some users have advanced programming skills, and furthermore, each user's
machine provides an additional testing environment. This new testing
environment offers that ability to find and fix a new bug.


And on that note, there should be several versions in circulation at the same
time.


There should be a buggier version with more features and a more stable version
with fewer features. The buggy version (also called the development version) is
for users who want the immediate use of the latest features, and are willing to
accept the risk of using code that is not yet thoroughly tested. The users can then
act as co
-
developers, reporting bugs and providing bug fixes.


Software

Working file
type

What commercial
product is it like?

What does it do?

links to software:

Tutorials

Gimp

.xcf

Photoshop (Adobe)

Image manipulation

http://www.partha.com/

Downloading

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=S9W0nGUgkgw&feature=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAA
AAAA

Digikam

Lightroom (Adobe)

Photo management system &
editor

http://www.digikam.org/

Inkscape

.svg

Illustrator (Adobe)

Vector graphics creator/editor

http://inkscape.org/

Downloading

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=rqiRv_Z3zao&feature=g
-
upl&context=G28af98cAUAAAAAA
ABAA

Scribus

InDesign (Adobe)

Layout & publishing software
for books/ magazines/ CDs/
etc.

http://www.scribus.net/canv
as/Scribus

CamStudio

Captivate (Adobe)

Records screen & audio to
create .avi files. Can be used to
record anything you do on your
computer screen.

http://camstudio.org/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=CY9r96mZxsM

VLC Media
Player

Windows Media Player

Plays most types of video files

http://www.videolan.org/
vlc/

Audacity

Audio recording & editing

http://audacity.sourceforg
e.net/

Handbrake

Video transcoder

http://handbrake.fr/

Blender

Maya, CAD

3D content creation

http://www.blender.org/

All software appears to have the following platforms: Windows, Mac, Linux.
Digikam

for Windows is not yet fully stable.


PDM (Public Domain Mark) = “No known copyright”


Use this tool if you have identified a work that is free of known copyright
restrictions. Creative Commons does not recommend this tool for works
that are restricted by copyright laws in one or more jurisdictions.



CC0 = “No rights reserved”


Use this universal tool if you are a holder of copyright or database rights,
and you wish to waive
all

your interests in your work worldwide.


CC = Creative Commons License


With a Creative Commons license,
you keep your copyright

but allow
people to
copy and distribute your work

provided they
give you credit



and only on the conditions you specify.
http://creativecommons.org/
. A
great way to learn about CC licenses, is to watch some of these videos at
http://creativecommons.org/videos
. Here’s one video in particular:
http://creativecommons.org/videos/creative
-
commons
-
kiwi

Attribution

CC BY

This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even
commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the
most
accommodating

of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination
and use of licensed materials.

Attribution


Share
-
Alike

CC BY
-
SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial
purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical
terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software
licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives
will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is
recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia
and similarly licensed projects.

Attribution
-
NoDerivs

CC BY
-
ND

This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non
-
commercial, as long as it is
passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.

Attribution
-
NonCommercial

CC BY
-
NC

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non
-
commercially, and
although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non
-
commercial, they don’t
桡h攠瑯elic敮e攠瑨敩r 摥物v慴av攠睯wks 潮⁴o攠s慭攠瑥牭s.

Attribution
-
NonCommercial
-
Share
-
Alike

CC BY
-
NC
-
SA

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non
-
commercially, as
long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.

Attrribution
-
NonCommercial
-
NoDerivs

CC BY
-
NC
-
ND

This license is the
most restrictive

of our six main licenses, only allowing others to
download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they
can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

Attribution (BY)

You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your
copyrighted work
-

and derivative works based upon it
-

but only if
they give you credit.

Noncommercial (NC)

You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work
-

and derivative works based upon it
-

but for noncommercial
purposes only.

No Derivative Works (ND)

You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim
copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.

Share Alike

(SA)

You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license
identical to the license that governs your work.

After all this talk about proper license, how do you check and/or attribute properly??
Here’s a link:
http://www.wikihow.com/Attribute
-
a
-
Creative
-
Commons
-
Licensed
-
Work


Type:

Web sources

Types of licenses

(if known)






Images


http
://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_pag
e


Mixed/CC

http://openclipart.org
/


Public Domain

http://www.clker.com
/


Public Domain

http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/by
-
2.0
/


CC

http://creative
-
commons.deviantart.com
/


CC

google

images: advanced search

http
://support.google.com/websearch/bin/ans
wer.py?hl=en&answer=29508

Mixed

Music

http://creativecommons.org/legalmusicforvideos

http://creativecommons.org/music
-
communities

http://
creative
-
commons
-
music.wikia.com/wiki/Creative_Commons_Music_Wiki


Sound Effects

http://www.freesound.org/

http://soundbible.com/

http://
filmsound.org/sound
-
effects/libraries.htm


Video

http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Video

http://
googlesystem.blogspot.com/2011/06/creative
-
commons
-
videos
-
on
-
youtube.html


Multiple Media:

http://www.sitepoint.com/30
-
creative
-
commons
-
sources/

http://imaginarysoundspace.wordpress.com/2007/02/03/creative
-
commons
-
video
-
sharing
-
sites
-
and
-
social
-
media
-
tools/

File
Format

Extension(s)

Description

XCF

.
xcf
/

.
xcf.gz
/.
gz
/.
xcfgz
/
.xcf.bz2/.bz2/.xcfbz
2/ .
gbr
/.
gih
/.pat

GIMP's native format which will preserve all image data, including layer, the current selection, channels, transparency, path
s a
nd guides.
Note that it doesn't save undo history.

XCF images take up a lot of disk space, and are not supported by most image viewers, which is why XCF is more suitable for sa
vin
g
images for future editing (rather than image exchange).

If you must exchange a XCF file, you can use the compress option, which uses either gzip (using xcf.gz/gz/xcfgz extension) or

bz
ip2
(using xcf.bz2/bz2/xcfbz2 extension) compression.

Other GIMP's native format includes GIMP Brush (.gbr), GIMP Animated Brush (.gih), and GIMP Pattern (.pat).

BMP

.bmp/.dib

Bitmap is an uncompressed image format, which is the internal image format for Windows and OS/2 Graphic Subsystem.

GIF

.gif

Graphic Interchange Format is often used for screenshots and computer graphics. It is lossless if the image has under 256 col
or
or
otherwise it become lossy.

The GIF format allows transparent mask, which means a pixel can only be fully transparent or fully opaque, and not partially
tra
nsparent.

HTML

.htm/.html

Hypertext Markup Language. GIMP will save an HTML page with the image represented by an HTML table. Each table cell represent
s a

different pixel in the image. Hexadecimal colors are used in order to apply colors to each cell.

JPEG

.jpg/.jpeg/.jpe

Joint Photographic Experts Group is typically used for photographs. JPEG uses lossy compression that results in a loss of det
ail
, commonly
called artifacts. The artifacts are usually most noticeable on images that have sharp edges, while less noticeable on photogr
aph
s, which
have many smooth gradients.

PNG

.png

Portable Network Graphic is often used for screenshots and computer graphics. It uses lossless compression. It allows full al
pha

transparency.

PSD

.psd

Photoshop Document, the native format of another popular graphic editing software, Adobe Photoshop.

TIFF

.tif/.tiff

Tagged Image File Format


http://www.labnol.org/software/tutorials/jpeg
-
vs
-
png
-
image
-
quality
-
or
-
bandwidth/5385/



GIF format

is limited to 256 colors and is a lossless* compression file format, a common choice
for use on the Web. GIF is a good choice for storing line drawings, text, and iconic graphics at a
small file size.



PNG format

is a lossless* compression file format, which makes it a common choice for use on
the Web. PNG is a good choice for storing line drawings, text, and iconic graphics at a small file
size. PNG (along with .tiff & .bmp files) has a transparency option, which makes is great to be
able to cut out the shape of images without backgrounds.



JPG format

is a
lossy
* compressed file format. This makes it useful for storing photographs at a
smaller size than a BMP. JPG is a common choice for use on the Web because it is compressed.
For storing line drawings, text, and iconic graphics at a smaller file size, GIF or PNG are better
choices because they are lossless



George adds


“JPEGs are for photographs and realistic images. PNGs are for line art, text
-
heavy
images, and images with few colors. GIFs are just fail.” JPEG does NOT have a transparency
option.



*
Lossy

vs. lossless: both are compressed image formats. Some loose information and some
don’t.
Lossy

looses information. Lossless doesn’t.
Lossy

is a lot smaller, so it’s good for
webpages
, where it doesn’t matter that much, & it downloads faster. Lossless is good for
showing off your killer graphics!



Common
Audio File types:



:

.WAV
,

.AIF
,



.MP3
, and

.
MID




http
://
www.fileinfo.c

om
/
filetypes
/video


Common
Video File types:



.
MPG
,

.MOV
,

.WMV
,

and

.RM
., .MP4, .H264


http
://
www.fileinfo.c

om
/
filetypes
/video

NOTE:

To work with images or video:

A 32 bit operating system (OS) will handle 3 gigs of working memory, so to work with reall
y large images or video, you need more working

memory, e.g., 64 bit OS.

NOTE:
To
work with images or
video: A
32 bit operating system (OS) will
handle 3 gigs of working memory, so to work with really large images or
video, you need more working
memory
, e.g., 64 bit OS.


Google

How to Search

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZP7GzMPsUi4

Info. about usage rights

http://support.google.com/websearch/bin/answer.p
y?hl=en&answer=29508

Searching for photographic
images w/Public domain, CCO
or CC licenses (Ann): Google,
Flickr
,
Wikimedia


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0eDl1M1bZE&f
eature=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Searching for clipart w/public
domain licenses (Ann): open
clip art,
Clickr.com


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcrM2xzvBo4&f
eature=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Gimp

Basics

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJZr4JFRsEg&feature=
g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Inkscape

9
-
card template

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBwPAMtFokQ&featur
e=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Bingo

Board

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0I3YZAxQ5ds&feature
=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Communication Board


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoUaB_6uxMM&featu
re=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA

Gimp +
Inkscape

How to cut out an object
from an image using
Gimp, and then using it
in an
Inkscape

document

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYYTDhn
-
L
-
g&feature=g
-
upl&context=G20e410cAUAAAAAAAAAA