CCNP : Routing Study Guide

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28 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Index

Note to the Reader:

Throughout this index

boldfaced

page numbers indicate primary discussions of a topic.

Ital-
icized

page numbers indicate illustrations.

A

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and
Accounting), 434
AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer), 434
AAL1 (ATM Adaptation Layer 1), 434
AAL2 (ATM Adaptation Layer 2), 434
AAL3/4 (ATM Adaptation Layer 3/4), 434
AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer 5), 434
AARP (AppleTalk Address Resolution
Protocol), 435
AARP probe packets, 435
A&B bit signaling, 434
ABM (Asynchronous Balanced Mode), 435
ABRs (area border routers), 435
ASBRs without, 139
in OSPF, 116, 127, 145–146, 170
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
language, 440
access control, 435
Access layer,

12

, 435
access links, 435
access-list command, 377, 380
access lists, 435
for efficiency, 15
for metrics, 377
for security, 17
access method, 435
access rate, 435
access servers, 435
accessibility,

16–17

accounting, 436
ACK (acknowledgment) packets
in EIGRP, 215
in iBGP, 251
acknowledgments
defined, 436
LSA,

125–127

ACR (allowed cell rate), 436
active monitors, 436
active paths and routes
in EIGRP, 216
with routers, 7
Active state, 260
adaptability,

16

additive syntax in set community, 341
address learning, 436
address mapping, 436
address masks, 436
address resolution, 436
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 439
address syntax in clear ip bgp, 301
Address Translation Gateway (ATG), 440
addresses, IP.

See

IP addresses
adjacency, 436
in OSPF, 115
displaying, 146–147
DR and BDR election procedure,

122–124

518

administrative distance – area command

initialization,

117–124

neighbor states in,

118–119

,

119

requirements,

120–122

,

120

administrative distance, 436
in EIGRP, 222
in routing,

33–34

administrative weight, 437
ADSU (ATM Data Services Unit), 437
advertised distances in EIGRP, 217
advertising
in BGP, 431
defined, 437
AEP (AppleTalk Echo Protocol), 437
AFI (Authority and Format Identifier), 437
AFP (AppleTalk Filing Protocol), 437
aggregate-address command, 298, 422,
430–431
Aggregator attribute, 269
AIP (ATM Interface Processor), 437
algorithms, 437
alignment errors, 437
all nodes addresses, 68
all ones broadcasts, 68
all-routes explorer packets, 437
allowed cell rate (ACR), 436
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI), 438
alternate paths routing, 14
AM (Amplitude Modulation), 437
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 438
American Registry for Internet Numbers
(ARIN), 248
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII), 439
AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion), 438
amplitude, 438
Amplitude Modulation (AM), 437
analog connections, 438
analog signals, 438
analog transmissions, 438
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute), 438
anycast addresses, 438
AP-NIC (Asia Pacific-NIC), 248
AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
(AARP), 435
AppleTalk Control Program (ATCP), 440
AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP), 437
AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP), 437
AppleTalk protocols, 438
AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA), 439
AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP), 440
AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP), 441
AppleTalk Update-based Routing Protocol
(AURP), 442
Application layer, 439
Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
(ASICs), 439
ARA (AppleTalk Remote Access), 439
Architecture for Voice, Video, and Integrated
Data (AVVID), 443
Area 0 in OSPF configuration, 135
area area-id nssa command, 182
area area-id range command, 182–183
area border routers (ABRs), 435
ASBRs without, 139
in OSPF, 116, 127, 145–146, 170
area command, 184–185

Area IDs – ATM Adaptation Layer 1 (AAL1)

519

Area IDs, 117
areas in OSPF, 115,

166

, 439, 489
configuring,

182–183

basic,

172–174

,

172

in NBMA environment,

140–144

not-so-stubby areas,

180–181

,

180

single areas,

135–144

,

136

stub areas,

174–177

,

175

totally stubby areas,

177–179

,

178

verifying,

144–148

LSAs in,

170–171

monitoring and troubleshooting,

187

router roles in,

168–170

,

169

scalability in,

167–168

,

167

types of,

171–172

virtual links for,

184–186

,

184–185

ARIN (American Registry for Internet
Numbers), 248
ARM (Asynchronous Response Mode), 439
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 439
AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE path segment
type, 268
AS_CONFED_SET path segment type, 268
AS External Link Advertisements, 171
AS numbers (ASNs), 245, 248
in IGRP, 210
peer group members in, 342
AS_PATH attribute, 259, 267
AS path filters, 323
AS path pre-pending, 323
AS path syntax in neighbor, 324
AS_SEQUENCE path segment type, 268
AS_SET path segment type, 268
as-set syntax in aggregate-address, 298, 430
ASBRs (autonomous system boundary
routers), 439
without ABRs, 139
in EIGRP, 225
in OSPF, 116, 127, 145–146, 170
ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange), 439
Asia Pacific-NIC (AP-NIC), 248
ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated
Circuits), 439
ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One)
language, 440
ASNs (autonomous system numbers), 245, 248
in IGRP, 210
peer group members in, 342
ASP (AppleTalk Session Protocol), 440
ASs.

See

autonomous systems (ASs)
AST (Automatic Spanning Tree), 440
Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM), 435
asynchronous connections, 440
asynchronous dial-up, 440
Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM), 439
Asynchronous Time-Division Multiplexing
(ATDM), 440
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), 441
asynchronous transmissions, 440
AT-EIGRP sessions, 220
ATCP (AppleTalk Control Program), 440
ATDM (Asynchronous Time-Division
Multiplexing), 440
ATG (Address Translation Gateway), 440
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 441
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL), 434
ATM Adaptation Layer 1 (AAL1), 434

520

ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) – B8ZS (Binary 8-Zero Substitution)

ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2), 434
ATM Adaptation Layer 3/4 (AAL3/4), 434
ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5), 434
ATM ARP servers, 441
ATM Data Services Unit (ADSU), 437
ATM endpoints, 441
ATM Forum, 441
ATM Interface Processor (AIP), 437
ATM layer, 441
ATM Management (ATMM), 441
ATM switching, 7
ATM user-user connections, 441
ATMM (ATM Management), 441
Atomic Aggregate attribute, 269,

298

ATP (AppleTalk Transaction Protocol), 441
Attempt neighbor state, 118
attenuation, 442
attributes in BGP,

265–266

configuring,

296–301

,

297

optional non-transitive,

270–271

optional transitive,

269–270

well-known discretionary,

269

well-known mandatory,

266–269

AURP (AppleTalk Update-based Routing
Protocol), 442
AURP tunnels, 442
authentication, 442
in OSPF Hello packets, 117
for security, 17
Authentication, Authorization, and
Accounting (AAA), 434
Authority and Format Identifier (AFI), 437
authority zones, 442
authorization, 442
auto duplex setting, 442
Auto-RP feature, 443
automatic call reconnects, 442
Automatic Spanning Tree (AST), 440
autonomous confederations, 442
autonomous switching, 442
autonomous system boundary routers
(ASBRs), 439
without ABRs, 139
in EIGRP, 225
in OSPF, 116, 127, 145–146, 170
autonomous system numbers (ASNs), 245, 248
in IGRP, 210
peer group members in, 342
Autonomous System Path attribute,

267

autonomous systems (ASs), 442
BGP for,

245–248

,

246

in dynamic routing, 35
in OSPF multi-areas, 170
peer group members in, 342
stub,

248–250

,

249

transit,

250

,

250

, 336
autoreconfiguration, 443
auxiliary ports, 443
availability requirements,

13–14

AVVID (Architecture for Voice, Video, and
Integrated Data), 443

B

B channels, 444
B8ZS (Binary 8-Zero Substitution), 443

back ends – BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

521

back ends, 443
backbone areas, 169, 174
backbone routers, 169
backbones, 443
backup designated routers (BDRs) in OSPF,
115, 443
in adjacency, 120–121
election procedures,

122–124

in Hello packets, 118
backup routes in EIGRP, 213
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
(BECN), 444
bandwidth, 443.

See also

congestion
in classless routing, 38–39
in distance-vector protocols, 206
in EIGRP, 214, 216, 219, 221–223, 227
in IGRP, 210–212,

368–369

in OSPF, 128
bandwidth command, 222
bandwidth on demand (BoD), 443
baseband technology, 443
Basic Management Setup, 444
basic multi-homing, 346
Basic Rate Interface (BRI), 445
baud, 444
BDRs (backup designated routers) in OSPF,
115, 443
in adjacency, 120–121
election procedures,

122–124

in Hello packets, 118
beacons, 444
bearer service, 444
BECN (Backward Explicit Congestion
Notification), 444
Bellman-Ford algorithm, 39, 210, 221
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol),

244–245

,

322

administrative distance in, 33
attributes in,

265–266

configuring,

296–301

,

297

optional non-transitive,

270–271

optional transitive,

269–270

well-known discretionary,

269

well-known mandatory,

266–269

for autonomous systems,

245–248

,

246

common header in,

261–271

,

261–262

,

264

confederations in,

338–340

,

339

communities,

340–341

multi-homing,

343–346

,

344–345

peer groups,

340–343

configuration,

290–295

,

292

attributes,

296–301

,

297

clearing routes,

300–301

disabling synchronization,

301

prefix lists,

326–329

verifying,

295–296

debug with,

305

filters in,

258–259

, 291,

323–324

network layer reachability information
in,

272

peers in,

250–253

,

252

, 259, 291
policies in,

324

distribute lists,

324–325

prefix lists,

325–329

route maps,

330–332

route reflectors in,

332–338

,

333

,

336

route summarization for,

430–431

routing protocols in,

253–257, 256
troubleshooting, 301–305
522 bgp confederation identifier command – bytes
updates in, 259–261
uses for, 257–258
bgp confederation identifier command,
338–340
bgp confederation peers command, 338–340
bgp dampening command, 323
bgp default local-preference command,
299, 422
BGP Identifier field, 263
BGP speakers, 259, 263
BGP4 (BGP Version 4), 444
bidirectional route redistribution, 226
bidirectional shared trees, 444
Binary 8-Zero Substitution (B8ZS), 443
binary IP addresses, 66
binary numbers
conversion chart for, 92–96
defined, 444
BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity), 444
BISDN (Broadband ISDN), 445
bit buckets, 381, 381
Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP), 444
bit-oriented protocols, 445
bits, 65
black holes, 381
BoD (bandwidth on demand), 443
Boot ROM, 445
bootstrap protocols, 445
Border Gateway Protocol. See BGP (Border
Gateway Protocol)
border gateways, 445
border routers, 445
BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit), 445
BRI (Basic Rate Interface), 445
bridge IDs, 445
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU), 445
bridges
defined, 445
segmentation with, 4–5, 5
bridging, 446
Broadband ISDN (BISDN), 445
broadband method, 446
broadcast and unknown servers (BUS), 447
broadcast domains, 446
broadcast networks
LSA updates in, 124
in NBMA, 129–130, 130, 140–142
in OSPF, 134–135, 140–142
broadcast packets, 446
broadcast storms, 5, 446
broadcasts
addresses for, 65
in OSPF, 116, 121
brute force attacks, 446
buffers, 446
bursting technologies, 446
bus, 447
BUS (broadcast and unknown servers), 447
bus topology, 447
BX.25 standard, 447
bypass mode, 447
bypass relays, 447
byte-oriented protocols, 447
bytes, 65, 447
cable modems – Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) 523
C
cable modems, 447
cable ranges, 447
CAC (Connection Admission Control), 447
call admission control, 448
call priority, 448
call set-up time, 448
candidate packets, 448
Carrier Detect (CD) signal, 448
Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect
(CSMA/CD), 455
CBR (Constant Bit Rate), 448
CD (Carrier Detect) signal, 448
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), 448
CDVT (Cell Delay Variation Tolerance), 448
Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT), 448
Cell Error Ratio (CER), 449
Cell Loss Priority (CLP) area, 452
Cell Loss Ratio (CLR), 452
cell payload scrambling, 449
cell relay technology, 449
cell-switching, 7
Cell Transfer Delay (CTD), 455
cells, 448
Central Office (CO), 452
Centrex service, 449
CER (Cell Error Ratio), 449
CGMP (Cisco Group Management
Protocol), 449
Challenge authentication, 449
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
(CHAP), 449
Channel Interface Processor (CIP), 450
Channel Service Units (CSUs), 455
channelized E1, 449
channelized T1, 449
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol), 449
character mode connections, 450
checksums, 450
choke packets, 450
CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing), 82–
84, 450
aggregate routes in, 298
and distance-vector protocols, 254
in link-state protocols, 256
CIDR blocks, 429–430
CIP (Channel Interface Processor), 450
CIR (Committed Information Rate), 450
circuit switching, 450
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), 448
Cisco FRAD, 450
Cisco Group Management Protocol
(CGMP), 449
Cisco IOS (Internet Operating System)
software, 451
CiscoFusion architecture, 451
CiscoView software, 451
Class A IP addresses, 67, 69–70, 451
Class B IP addresses, 67, 70, 451
Class C IP addresses, 67, 70–71, 451
classful routing, 36–38, 37, 367
classical IP over ATM, 451
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR), 82–
84, 450
aggregate routes in, 298
524 classless routing – connection-oriented data transfer
and distance-vector protocols, 254
in link-state protocols, 256
classless routing, 38–39, 38, 451
clear ip bgp command, 300–301, 422
clear ip bgp peer-group command, 343
clear ip prefix-list command, 329
clearing BGP routes, 300–301
CLI (Command-Line Interface), 451
clients in BGP, 334–335
clocking, 452
CLP (Cell Loss Priority) area, 452
CLR (Cell Loss Ratio), 452
cluster IDs, 335
Cluster List attribute, 271
clusters for route reflectors, 335
CO (Central Office), 452
collapsed backbones, 452
collapsed cores, 452
collision domains, 12, 452
collisions, 452
Command-Line Interface (CLI), 451
Committed Information Rate (CIR), 450
common header in BGP, 261–271, 261–
262, 264
Common Part Convergence Sublayer
(CPCS), 455
Common Spanning Tree (CST), 455
Communities attribute, 270, 340
communities in BGP, 340–341
composite metrics, 452
in EIGRP, 217
in IGRP, 44
compression
defined, 453
over WANs, 15
confederations in BGP, 338–340, 339
communities, 340–341
multi-homing, 343–346, 344–345
peer groups, 340–343
configurable metrics, 209
configuration
BGP, 290–295, 292
attributes, 296–301, 297
clearing routes, 300–301
disabling synchronization, 301
prefix lists, 326–329
verifying, 295–296
EIGRP, 221–222
OSPF, 131–132
areas in. See areas in OSPF
network discovery, 132–135
single area, 135–144, 136
verifying, 144–148
route redistribution, 370–374, 371,
373–374
route reflectors, 335–338, 336
configuration register, 453
congestion, 3–4, 453
in RIP, 41, 42
segmentation for
with bridges, 4–5, 5
with LAN switches, 7–8
with routers, 6–7, 6
congestion avoidance, 453
congestion collapse, 453
connected routes in route redistribution,
382, 383
Connection Admission Control (CAC), 447
connection IDs, 453
connection-oriented data transfer, 453
Connection state – DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol) 525
Connection state, 260
connectionless data transfer, 453
console ports, 453
Constant Bit Rate (CBR), 448
contention media, 453
control direct VCC connections, 454
control distribute VCC connections, 454
convergence, 47–48, 454
in Core layer, 11
in distance-vector protocols, 48, 206, 255
in EIGRP, 50, 214
in IGRP, 49
in link-state protocols, 256
in OSPF, 50–51
for responsiveness, 14
in RIP, 43, 43, 48–49, 48
conversion charts, decimal-to-binary, 92–96
Core layer, 10–11, 454
costs, 454
in EIGRP, 217–218
in OSPF, 128, 146–147
count to infinity, 454
in distance-vector protocols, 39
in link-state protocols, 256
CPCS (Common Part Convergence
Sublayer), 455
CPE (Customer Premises Equipment), 455
crankback technique, 455
CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check), 455
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access
Collision Detect), 455
CST (Common Spanning Tree), 455
CSUs (Channel Service Units), 455
CTD (Cell Transfer Delay), 455
custom queuing, 456
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), 455
cut-through frame switching, 456
Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC), 455
D
D channel, 457
data communications equipment (DCE), 457
Data Country Code (DCC), 457
data direct VCC connections, 456
data encapsulation, 456
Data Exchange Interface (DXI), 461
data frames, 456
Data-Link Connection Identifier (DLCI), 460
data link control layer, 456
Data Link layer, 457
Data Service Units (DSUs), 460
Data Set Ready (DSR) circuits, 460
data terminal equipment (DTE), 460
data terminal ready (DTR) circuits, 460
Database Description (DD) packets, 118, 120
databases
in EIGRP, 220
in OSPF
displaying, 187
synchronizing, 120
Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP), 457
datagrams, 456
DCC (Data Country Code), 457
DCE (data communications equipment), 457
DD (Database Description) packets, 118, 120
DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol), 457
526 DDR (dial-on-demand routing) – distance-vector protocols
DDR (dial-on-demand routing), 15, 457
DE bits, 458
DE (Discard Eligibility) field, 457
debug ip bgp dampening command, 305, 422
debug ip bgp events command, 305, 422
debug ip bgp keepalives command, 305, 422
debug ip bgp updates command, 305, 423
debug ip ospf events command, 187
debug ip ospf packet command, 187
decimal-to-binary conversion chart, 92–96
dedicated WAN support, 16
default-information originate command, 344
default-information originate always
command, 343–344
default-metric command, 212–213, 223, 227,
371–373
default routes, 458
in route redistribution, 382, 383
setting, 31
delay, 458
in EIGRP, 216, 219, 221, 223, 227
in IGRP, 210–212, 369
delayed method for LSAs, 127
demarc point, 458
demodulation, 458
demultiplexing, 458
denial-of-service attacks, 259, 458
designated bridges, 458
designated ports, 458
designated routers (DRs) in OSPF, 115, 459
adjacency, 120–121
election procedures, 122–124
in Hello packets, 118
desktop layer in three-layer model, 12
destination addresses, 459
in packet switching, 34
in routing, 30–31
Destination Service Access Points (DSAPs), 460
dial backup, 14, 459
dial-on-demand routing (DDR), 15, 457
Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL), 39, 213,
216, 460
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), 460
digital waveforms, 459
Dijkstra, Edsger, 256, 368
Dijkstra algorithm, 115, 268, 368
direct method for LSAs, 127
directed broadcast packets, 459
disabling BGP synchronization, 301
Discard Eligibility (DE) field, 457
discontiguous networks
with IP unnumbered, 92
reachability of, 81
route summarization in, 89, 90
discovery, network, 132–135
discovery mode, 459
discretionary attributes, 269
distance command, 423
distance eigrp command, 227
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
(DVMRP), 461
distance-vector protocols, 35–36, 39–40, 459
BGP as, 254–255
convergence in, 48, 206, 255
EIGRP as, 214
IGRP, 44–45
RIP
timers, 40–41
distance-vector routing algorithm – EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP) 527
updates, 41–43, 42–43
verification, 43–44
scalability of, 206–207
distance-vector routing algorithm, 459
distances
administrative, 33–34, 222, 436
in EIGRP, 217–218, 222
distribute-list command, 380–381
distribute lists in BGP, 324–325
Distribution layer, 11–12, 459
distribution lists, 460
DLCI (Data-Link Connection Identifier), 460
Domain Name System (DNS), 460
dotted-decimal IP addresses, 65–66
Down neighbor state, 118
DROther routers, 120–121
DRs (designated routers) in OSPF, 115, 459
adjacency, 120–121
election procedures, 122–124
in Hello packets, 118
DSAPs (Destination Service Access Points), 460
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), 460
DSR (Data Set Ready) circuits, 460
DSUs (Data Service Units), 460
DTE (data terminal equipment), 460
DTR (data terminal ready) circuits, 460
DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm), 39, 213,
216, 460
DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol), 461
DXI (Data Exchange Interface), 461
dynamic entries, 461
dynamic route recoveries, 213
dynamic routes in BGP, 343
dynamic routing, 35, 461
dynamic VLANs, 461
E
E.164 standard, 461
E channel, 461
E1 lines, 461
eBGP (external Border Gateway Protocol),
252–253
eBGP_MULTIHOP configuration, 268
edge devices, 461
EDP, administrative distance in, 33
EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Program-
mable Read-Only Memory), 462
EFCI (Explicit Forward Congestion Indication)
mode, 462
efficiency, 15
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol), 247
EGP origin type, 269
80/20 rule, 462
EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP), 204–205, 213–
214, 463
for adaptability, 16
administrative distance in, 33, 222
characteristics of, 39–40, 46–47
configuring, 221–222
convergence in, 50, 214
load balancing in, 223–225
metrics in, 217, 219–221
neighbor relationships in, 215–216, 228
528 EIP (Ethernet Interface Processor) – external routing protocols
redundant link calculations in, 216–
219, 217
route calculations in, 216–220, 217, 219
route optimization in, 370
route redistribution in, 225–227
with IGRP, 372–373, 373
with OSPF, 374, 374
route summarization for, 429–430, 430
route tagging in, 214–215
troubleshooting, 227–229
tuning, 222–223
updates and changes in, 214–216, 219–
220, 219
EIP (Ethernet Interface Processor), 462
ELANs (Emulated LANs), 462
ELAP (EtherTalk Link Access Protocol), 462
election procedures
in NBMA, 128–129
in OSPF, 122–124
Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-
Only Memory (EEPROM), 462
Emulated LANs (ELANs), 462
enable packets, 462
encapsulation, 462
encryption, 463
end-to-end VLANs, 463
endpoints in BGP, 259–261
Enhanced IGRP. See EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP)
enterprise networks, 463
enterprise services, 463
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only
Memory), 463
Error codes in BGP, 273–275
error correction, 463
ESFs (Extended Superframes), 463
Established state, 260
Ethernet Interface Processor (EIP), 462
Ethernet specification, 4, 464
EtherTalk Link Access Protocol (ELAP), 462
EtherTalk product, 464
event-triggered announcements, 46
events
in EIGRP, 228–229
in OSPF, 187
excess rate, 464
Exchange neighbor state, 119
expansion procedure, 464
expedited delivery, 464
Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI)
mode, 462
explicit LSA acknowledgements, 125–127
explorer packets, 464
ExStart neighbor state, 118
extended IP access lists, 464
extended IPX access lists, 464
extended route processors, 464
Extended Setup, 464
Extended Superframes (ESFs), 463
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), 247
exterior routes in IGRP, 210
exterior routing protocols, 245
for accessibility, 16
defined, 465
external BGP, administrative distance in, 33
external Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP),
252–253
external routes in OSPF, 429
external routing protocols, 247
failure domains – Full neighbor state 529
F
failure domains, 465
fallback mechanism, 465
Fast Ethernet Interface Processor (FEIP), 466
Fast Ethernet specification, 4, 465
Fast EthernetChannel specification, 465
Fast Serial Interface Processor (FSIP), 468
fast switching, 465
fault tolerance in Core layer, 10
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), 466
FDM (Frequency-Division Multiplexing), 465
feasible distances, 217–218
feasible successors, 466
in EIGRP, 216–218
in IGRP, 212
FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notifi-
cation), 466
FEIP (Fast Ethernet Interface Processor), 466
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), 466
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 468
filters
in BGP, 258–259, 291, 323–324
in route redistribution, 379–381, 380
firewalls, 466
flapping links, 136
flash memory, 466
flash updates in IGRP, 209
flat address schemes, 66
flat networks, 466
flooding
defined, 466
LSA, 124–127, 125, 480
flow, 467
flow control, 467
flush timers, 45
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
(FECN), 466
forwarding tables, 5
FRADs (Frame Relay Access Devices), 467
fragmentation, 467
FragmentFree switches, 467
fragments, 467
Frame Relay Access Devices (FRADs), 467
Frame Relay Access Support (FRAS), 468
Frame Relay bridging, 467
Frame Relay protocol, 467
Frame Relay switching, 467
frame-switching, 7
frame tagging, 468
frames, 467
framing, 31, 468
FRAS (Frame Relay Access Support), 468
frequency, 468
Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), 465
FSIP (Fast Serial Interface Processor), 468
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 468
full-duplex Ethernet devices, 4
full duplex transmissions, 468
full mesh networks, 468
in NBMA, 129, 140
and route reflectors, 332–333, 333
full multi-homing, 346
Full neighbor state, 119
530 gateways of last resort – hosts, subnet mask support for
G
gateways of last resort, 468
in IGRP, 210
setting, 31–32
ge-value syntax, 328
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) pro-
tocol, 469
Gigabit Ethernet, 4, 469
GNS (Get Nearest Server) packets, 469
grafting, 469
graph theory algorithm, 256
GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation)
protocol, 469
Group of Four, 469
guard bands, 469
H
H channel, 469
half duplex transmissions, 469
handshakes, 469
hardware addresses on NICs, 65
HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control), 469
headers in BGP, 261–271, 261–262
Hello intervals, 118
Hello packets
in EIGRP, 215
in link-state protocols, 207, 257
in OSPF, 117–118
helper addresses, 470
hexadecimal IP addresses, 66
hierarchical addresses, 65–66
defined, 470
route summarization in, 89, 90
hierarchical model, 8–9, 9–10
Access layer in, 12
Core layer in, 10–11
Distribution layer in, 11–12
hierarchical networks
defined, 470
in link-state protocols, 46
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), 469
High-Speed Communication Interface
(HSCI), 470
High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI), 471
HIP (HSSI Interface Processor), 470
hold-down state, 470
hold-down timers
in BGP, 263
for convergence, 48
in distance-vector protocols, 39
in IGRP, 45
hold-downs
in BGP, 323
in EIGRP, 215
in IGRP, 209
Hold Time field, 263
hop counts, 470
in distance-vector protocols, 35, 40
in IGRP, 44
in link-state protocols, 47
in RIP, 41, 367
hops, 470
host addresses, 66–67, 470
hosts, subnet mask support for, 76–77
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) – interfaces in OSPF 531
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP), 470
HSCI (High-Speed Communication
Interface), 470
HSSI (High-Speed Serial Interface), 471
HSSI Interface Processor (HIP), 470
hubs, 471
I
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority),
69–70, 248
iBGP (internal Border Gateway Protocol), 33,
251, 252
ICD (International Code Designator), 471
ICMP (Internet Control Message
Protocol), 471
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP), 475
identifiers in BGP configuration, 291
Idle state, 260
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers), 471
IEEE 802.1 specification, 471
IEEE 802.3 specification, 471
IEEE 802.5 specification, 471
IGMP (Internet Group Management
Protocol), 472
IGMP Join process, 472
IGMP Query process, 472
IGP origin type, 269
IGPs (interior gateway protocols), 246, 472
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 44,
204–205, 208, 472–473
administrative distance in, 33
characteristics of, 39–40
convergence in, 49
features and operation of, 209–210
metrics in, 44, 210–213
route optimization in, 368–370
route redistribution in, 372–373, 373
timers, 44–45
verifying, 45
ILMI (Integrated Local Management
Interface), 472
implicit LSA acknowledgements, 125, 127
in-band management, 472
in-band signaling, 472
in syntax in clear ip bgp, 301
INCOMPLETE origin type, 269
ingress filtering, 258–259
Init neighbor state, 118
initialization in OSPF, 117–124, 119–120
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), 471
insured bursts, 472
Integrated Local Management Interface
(ILMI), 472
Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN), 475
inter-area routing, 473
Inter-Switch Link (ISL) routing, 475
inter-VLAN routing, 473
interdomain routing protocols, 247
interface processors, 473
interfaces in OSPF, 115, 146–147
532 interior gateway protocols (IGPs) – IPCP (IP Control Program)
interior gateway protocols (IGPs), 246, 472
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. See IGRP
(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
interior routes, 209
Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
(IS-IS) algorithm, 46
administrative distance in, 33
characteristics of, 46–47
internal Border Gateway Protocol (iBGP), 33,
251, 252
internal route processors, 473
internal routers in OSPF multi-areas, 169
internal routing protocols, 247
internal routing tables, 187
International Code Designator (ICD), 471
International Telecommunication Union-Tele-
communication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T), 475
Internet, 473
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA),
69–70, 248
Internet community, 341
Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP), 471
Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP), 472
Internet Protocol (IP), 473–474
defined, 473–474
for EIGRP, 219, 219
internets, 473
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), 475
internetworking, 473
internetworks, 2–3, 473
intra-area routes, 429, 474
intruder detection, 474
invalid timers, 45
inverse ARP, 474
IP (Internet Protocol)
defined, 473–474
for EIGRP, 219, 219
IP addresses, 64, 474
CIDR for, 82–84
in classful routing, 37
decimal-to-binary conversion chart for,
92–96
in EIGRP, 215
extending, 71–73, 72
hierarchical scheme, 65–66
network addressing in, 67–71
in OSPF, 146–147
route summarization for, 84–92, 84, 90
terminology in, 65
VLSMs for, 73–81, 74, 80–81
IP Control Program (IPCP), 474
IP-EIGRP sessions, 220
IP multicasts, 474
ip ospf cost command, 128
ip ospf network command, 140
ip ospf network broadcast command, 142–143
ip ospf priority command, 122
IP Prefix field, 265
IP Prefix Length field, 265
ip prefix-list command, 326–328
IP RIP, 367–368
ip route command, 343, 431
ip summary-address eigrp command, 429
ip unnumbered command, 423
IP unnumbered protocol, 91–92, 475
IPCP (IP Control Program), 474
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Link Control Protocol (LCP) 533
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange), 475
IPX Control Program (IPXCP), 475
IPX-EIGRP sessions, 220
IPX spoofing, 475
IPXCP (IPX Control Program), 475
IPXWAN protocol, 475
IRDP (ICMP Router Discovery Protocol), 475
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate
System) algorithm, 46
administrative distance in, 33
characteristics of, 46–47
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
Network), 475
ISL (Inter-Switch Link) routing, 475
isochronous transmissions, 475
ITU-T (International Telecommunication
Union-Telecommunication
Standardization Sector), 475
K
keepalive messages, 260, 275, 476
L
LAN Emulation (LANE), 476
LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol
(LE ARP), 477
LAN Emulation Clients (LECs), 477
LAN Emulation Configuration Servers
(LECSs), 478
LAN Emulation Network-to-Network
Interface (LNNI), 479
LAN Emulation Servers (LESs), 478
LAN Emulation User-to-Network Interface
(LUNI), 480
LAN frame switches, 8
LAN switches, 7–8, 476
LANE (LAN Emulation), 476
LANs (Local Area Networks), 476
LAPB (Link Access Procedure Balanced), 476
LAPD (Link Access Procedure on the D
Channel), 476
latency, 5, 476
Layer-2 switching, 477
layered architectures, 477
LCP (Link Control Protocol), 477
LE ARP (LAN Emulation Address Resolution
Protocol), 477
le-value syntax, 328
leaky buckets, 477
learning bridges, 477
leased lines, 477
least-cost path, 216
LECs (LAN Emulation Clients), 477
LECSs (LAN Emulation Configuration
Servers), 478
Length field, 261
LESs (LAN Emulation Servers), 478
Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB), 476
Link Access Procedure on the D Channel
(LAPD), 476
Link Control Protocol (LCP), 477
534 Link State Advertisements (LSAs) – maps, route
Link State Advertisements (LSAs), 46, 115, 479
acknowledgements and validation, 125–
127, 480
in multi-areas, 170–171
link-state protocols, 36, 46–47
BGP as, 256–257, 256
EIGRP as, 214
scalability of, 207–208
Link State Request (LSR) packets, 120
link-state routers, 478
link-state routing algorithm, 478
Link State Update (LSU) packets, 120, 124
links in OSPF, 115, 146–147
LLAP (LocalTalk Link Access Protocol), 478
LLC (Logical Link Control), 478
LMI (Local Management Interface), 478
LNNI (LAN Emulation Network-to-Network
Interface), 479
load balancing, 479
in distance-vector protocols, 39–40
in EIGRP, 223–225
in IGRP, 44, 209, 212
in link-state protocols, 47
for responsiveness, 14
in RIP, 41
Loading neighbor state, 119
loads
in EIGRP, 219, 223, 227
in IGRP, 212, 369
Local Area Networks (LANs), 476
local-as community, 341
local explorer packets, 479
local loop, 479
Local Management Interface (LMI), 478
Local Preference attribute, 269, 298–299
local services, 479
local VLANs, 479
LocalTalk protocol, 479
LocalTalk Link Access Protocol (LLAP), 478
logical addresses
in packet switching, 34
in routing, 30–31
Logical Link Control (LLC), 478
loop avoidance, 479
LSA flooding, 124–127, 125, 480
LSAs (Link State Advertisements), 46, 115, 479
acknowledgements and validation, 125–
127, 480
in multi-areas, 170–171
LSR (Link State Request) packets, 120
LSU (Link State Update) packets, 120, 124
LUNI (LAN Emulation User-to-Network
Interface), 480
LZW algorithm, 480
M
MAC (Media Access Control), 480
MAC (media access control) addresses, 480
MacIP protocol, 480
manageability with routers, 6
Management Information Base (MIB), 482
Manchester encoding, 480
mandatory attributes, 266–269
MANs (metropolitan area networks), 480
maps, route, 377, 383–384
in BGP, 330–332
Marker field – multi-access in OSPF 535
policy-routing subnets in, 386–387,
386–387
policy-routing TCP services in, 384–
385, 385
Marker field, 261
match command, 331, 378, 383–385
Maximum Burst Size (MBS), 481
maximum bursts, 481
Maximum Cell Delay Variation (MCDV), 481
Maximum Cell Loss Ratio (MCLR), 481
Maximum Cell Transfer Delay (MCTD), 482
maximum hop counts in IGRP, 44
maximum rate, 481
maximum transmission units (MTUs), 484
in EIGRP, 219, 223, 227
in IGRP, 44, 208, 212, 369
MBONE (multicast backbone), 481
MBS (Maximum Burst Size), 481
MCDV (Maximum Cell Delay Variation), 481
MCLR (Maximum Cell Loss Ratio), 481
MCR (Minimum Cell Rate), 481
MCTD (Maximum Cell Transfer Delay), 482
MED attribute, 270
Media Access Control (MAC), 480
medium multi-homing, 346
MEDs (Multi-Exit Discriminators), 299–300
metric weights command, 211
metrics, 499
in distance-vector protocols, 40
in EIGRP, 217, 219–221
in IGRP, 44, 210–213
in link-state protocols, 47
in OSPF, 128
in RIP, 367
in route redistribution, 366–368, 376–378,
377, 379
metropolitan area networks (MANs), 480
MIB (Management Information Base), 482
microsegmentation, 7–8, 482
millions of instructions per second (mips), 482
Minimum Cell Rate (MCR), 481
MIP (Multichannel Interface Processor), 482
mips (millions of instructions per second), 482
MLP (Multilink PPP), 482
MLS (Multi-Layer Switching), 482
MLS-RP (Multilayer Switching Route Pro-
cessor), 482
MLS-SE (Multilayer Switching Switching
Engine), 482
MLSP (Multilayer Switching Protocol), 482
MMP (Multichassis Multilink PPP), 483
modem eliminators, 483
modemcap database, 483
modems, 483
modulation, 483
monitoring
multi-area OSPF, 187
prefix lists, 329
MOSPF (Multicast OSPF) protocol, 483
MP (MultiPoint) bonding, 483
MP_REACH_NLRI attribute, 271
MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute, 271
MPOA (Multiprotocol over ATM)
technology, 483
MSFC (Multilayer Switch Feature Card), 483
mtrace (multicast traceroute), 484
MTUs (maximum transmission units), 484
in EIGRP, 219, 223, 227
in IGRP, 44, 208, 212, 369
multi-access in OSPF, 116, 121
536 multi-area OSPF – neighbors
multi-area OSPF
configuring, 172–174, 172
link state advertisements in, 170–171
monitoring and troubleshooting, 187
router roles in, 168–170, 169
MULTI_EXIT_DISCRIMINATOR
attribute, 270
Multi-Exit Discriminators (MEDs), 299–300
multi-homing, 343–346, 344–345
Multi-Layer Switching (MLS), 482
multicast addresses, 484
multicast backbone (MBONE), 481
multicast groups, 484
Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) protocol, 483
multicast send VCC connections, 484
multicast traceroute (mtrace), 484
multicasts
defined, 484
in EIGRP, 216
Multichannel Interface Processor (MIP), 482
Multichassis Multilink PPP (MMP), 483
Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC), 483
multilayer switches, 484
Multilayer Switching Protocol (MLSP), 482
Multilayer Switching Route Processor
(MLS-RP), 482
Multilayer Switching Switching Engine
(MLS-SE), 482
Multilink PPP (MLP), 482
multiplexing, 484
MultiPoint (MP) bonding, 483
Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA)
technology, 483
Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI attribute, 271
Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI
attribute, 271
My Autonomous System field, 263
N
NAK (negative acknowledgment), 485
Name-Binding Protocol (NBP), 485
NAPs (network access points), 258
NAT (Network Address Translation) algo-
rithm, 485
NBMA (Non-Broadcast Multi-Access) net-
works, 128–129, 487
broadcast environments in, 129–130, 130
configuring, 299
non-broadcast environments in, 130
in OSPF, 116, 121, 140–144
point-to-multipoint environments in,
131, 131
point-to-point environments in, 130–131
NBP (Name-Binding Protocol), 485
NCP (Network Control Protocol), 485
negative acknowledgment (NAK), 485
neighbor command, 293–294, 298–299, 324,
328, 333, 335, 341–342, 423
neighbor Router IDs, 118
neighbor tables, 215, 220
neighboring routers, 485
neighbors
in BGP, 250–253, 252, 259, 291, 301–305
in EIGRP, 215–216, 228
in link-state protocols, 207, 256
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) protocol – node addresses 537
in OSPF, 115
displaying, 147–148, 187
initialization, 117–124
states of, 118–119, 119
in packet switching, 34
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
protocol, 485
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output
System), 485
NetFlow Feature Card (NFFC), 486
NetView product, 485
NetWare IPX RIP, 367
NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP), 486
NetWare operating system, 486
network access points (NAPs), 258
Network Address Translation (NAT)
algorithm, 485
network addresses, 65, 486
Network Basic Input/Output System
(NetBIOS), 485
network command, 134, 176, 294–295,
423, 431
Network Control Protocol (NCP), 485
network discovery, 132–135
Network File System (NFS), 486
Network Information Center (NIC), 71
network interface cards (NICs), 65, 486
Network layer, 486
network layer reachability information,
272, 291
Network Layer Reachability Information
(NLRI) field, 265
network/len syntax, 328
Network Link Advertisements (NLAs), 171
Network Management Processor (NMP), 487
network masks, 117
network size
in distance-vector protocols, 40
in link-state protocols, 47
network termination 1 (NT1) designation, 487
network termination 2 (NT2) designation, 487
network types, OSPF, 146–147
Next-hop attribute, 267
Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP), 486
NEXT_HOP_SELF configuration option, 267
next-hop-self syntax in neighbor, 299
Next Hop Servers (NHSs), 486
NFFC (NetFlow Feature Card), 486
NFS (Network File System), 486
NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol), 486
NHSs (Next Hop Servers), 486
NIC (Network Information Center), 71
NICs (network interface cards), 65, 486
NLAs (Network Link Advertisements), 171
NLRI (network layer reachability
information), 272, 291
NLRI (Network Layer Reachability
Information) field, 265
NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol), 486
NMP (Network Management Processor), 487
no-advertise community, 341
no auto-summary command, 91, 423
no debug all command, 305
no-export community, 341
no ip prefix-list command, 329
no redistribute command, 373
no synchronization command, 301, 423
node addresses, 66–67, 487
538 non-broadcast environments – OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
non-broadcast environments, 130, 142–143.
See also NBMA (Non-Broadcast
Multi-Access) networks
non-clients in BGP, 334
non-hierarchical addresses, route
summarization in, 89, 90
non-stub areas, 487
non-transitive attributes, 270–271
Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM), 488
nondesignated ports, 487
Nonreturn to Zero (NRZ) encoding, 487
Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZI)
encoding, 487
nonroutable network protocols, 16
not-so-stubby areas, 172, 180–183, 180
NOTIFICATION messages, 272–275, 272
NRZ (Nonreturn to Zero) encoding, 487
NRZI (Nonreturn to Zero Inverted)
encoding, 487
NT1 (network termination 1) designation, 487
NT2 (network termination 2) designation, 487
Null0 interface, 381–382, 381
NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM), 488
O
OC (Optical Carrier) protocols, 488
octets, 65, 488
100BaseT standard, 488
100BaseTX standard, 488
one-time challenge tokens, 488
ones density clocking, 488
OPEN messages
in BGP header, 262–264, 262
error codes for, 274
Open Shortest Path First. See OSPF (Open
Shortest Path First)
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
standard, 488
OpenConfirm state, 260
OpenSent state, 260
Optical Carrier (OC) protocols, 488
optimization, route. See route optimization
optional non-transitive attributes, 270–271
Optional Parameters field, 264
Optional Parameters Length field, 264
optional transitive attributes, 269–270
Options in OSPF Hello packets, 118
Organizationally Unique Identifiers
(OUIs), 489
ORIGIN attribute, 259, 268–269
ORIGINATOR_ID attribute, 271, 335
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
standard, 488
OSI reference model, 489
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), 114, 166, 489
adjacency in, 115
displaying, 146–147
DR and BDR election procedure,
122–124
initialization, 117–124
neighbor states in, 118–119, 119
requirements, 120–122, 120
administrative distance in, 33
areas in. See areas in OSPF
characteristics of, 46–47
OUIs (Organizationally Unique Identifiers) – Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) 539
configuring, 131–132
network discovery, 132–135
single area, 135–144, 136
verifying, 144–148
convergence, 50–51
LSA flooding in, 124–127, 125
metrics in, 128
NBMA in, 128–131, 130–131, 140–144
route optimization in, 368
route summarization for, 28–429
SPF tree calculations in, 127–128
terminology in, 115–116
OUIs (Organizationally Unique
Identifiers), 489
out-of-band digital signaling, 489
out-of-band management, 489
out syntax in clear ip bgp, 301
overlapping routes, 269
P
packet assembler and disassembler (PAD), 490
Packet Level Protocol (PLP), 492
packet mode connections, 490
Packet Switch Exchange (PSE), 495
packet-switched networks (PSNs), 495
packet switches, 490
packet switching, 34, 490
packets, 187, 489
PAD (packet assembler and disassembler), 490
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), 490
parity checking, 490
partial mesh topology, 490
passive-interface command, 222, 423
passive routes in EIGRP, 216
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), 490
PAT (Port Address Translation) process, 490
path-cost calculations, 216
path-vector protocol, 267
payload compression, 491
PCR (Peak Cell Rate) parameter, 491
PDMs (protocol-dependent modules), 214
PDNs (Public Data Networks), 491
PDUs (Protocol Data Units), 491
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) parameter, 491
peer-group syntax in neighbor, 342
peer groups, 293, 340–343
peers. See neighbors
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST), 495
permanent virtual circuits (PVCs), 129–
130, 495
permanent virtual paths (PVPs), 495
permit statement, 326
PFC (Policy Feature Card), 491
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 491
Physical layer, 491
PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast)
protocol, 491
PIM DM (Protocol Independent Multicast
dense mode), 491
PIM SM (Protocol Independent Multicast
sparse mode), 492
PIM sparse-dense mode, 492
ping tool, 492
pinhole congestion, 41, 42, 492
Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS), 493
540 pleisochronous transmissions – protocol-specific metrics
pleisochronous transmissions, 492
PLP (Packet Level Protocol), 492
PNNI (Private Network-Network
Interface), 492
point-to-multipoint connections, 492
point-to-multipoint environments
LSA updates in, 124
in NBMA, 131, 131, 143–144
point-to-point connections, 116, 492
point-to-point neighbors, 121
point-to-point network discovery, 134
point-to-point networks
LSA updates in, 124
in NBMA, 130–131
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), 493
Points of Presence (POPs), 493
poison reverse updates, 209, 493
policies, 501
in BGP, 324
distribute lists, 324–325
prefix lists, 325–329
route maps, 330–332
in Distribution layer, 11
Policy Feature Card (PFC), 491
policy-routing subnets, 386–387, 386–387
policy-routing TCP services, 384–385,
384–385
polling, 493
POP (Post Office Protocol), 493
POPs (Points of Presence), 493
Port Address Translation (PAT) process, 490
port configuration-switching, 7
port security, 493
Post Office Protocol (POP), 493
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), 493
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 493
PPP callbacks, 493
Predictor technique, 493
prefix-list command, 326–327
prefix lists in BGP, 325–326
configuring, 326–329
monitoring, 329
prefix routing, 40, 494
Presentation layer, 494
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), 491
PRI (Primary Rate Interface), 494
primary routes, 218
priorities, OSPF, 122–124, 146–147
priority queuing, 494
Private Network-Network Interface
(PNNI), 492
Process/Application layer, 494
Process IDs, OSPF, 146–147
process numbers in BGP, 291
process switching, 494
processes, OSPF, 144–145
PROM (programmable read-only
memory), 494
propagation delay, 494
Protocol Data Units (PDUs), 491
protocol-dependent modules (PDMs), 214
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)
protocol, 491
Protocol Independent Multicast dense mode
(PIM DM), 491
Protocol Independent Multicast sparse mode
(PIM SM), 492
protocol-specific metrics, 376, 377
protocol stacks – remote Telnet 541
protocol stacks, 494
protocols, 494
for adaptability, 16
for routing, 35–36
for security, 17
Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (Proxy
ARP), 494
pruning, 495
PSE (Packet Switch Exchange), 495
PSNs (packet-switched networks), 495
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone
Network), 495
Public Data Networks (PDNs), 491
PVCs (permanent virtual circuits), 129–
130, 495
PVP tunneling, 495
PVPs (permanent virtual paths), 495
PVST (Per-VLAN Spanning Tree), 495
PVST+ (Per-VLAN Spanning Tree+), 495
Q
QoS (Quality of Service), 495
queueing, 495
queues, 215, 495
R
R reference point, 496
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service), 496
RAM (random access memory), 496
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution
Protocol), 496
rate queues, 496
RCID_PATH code, 271
RCP (Remote Copy Protocol), 496
reachability
in BGP, 272
in discontiguous networks, 81
for responsiveness, 14
read-only memory (ROM), 498
redistribute command, 376
redistribute connected command, 382
redistribute rip command, 372
redistribute static command, 382
redistribution, 496. See also route
redistribution
for adaptability, 16
in IGRP, 213
redundancy, 496
redundant link calculations, 216–219, 217
reference points, 496
relay systems, 30, 496
reliability, 496
in Core layer, 11
in EIGRP, 219, 223, 227
in IGRP, 212, 369
in scalable internetworks, 13–14
reliable session management, 247
reloading, 497
remote access, 497
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
(RADIUS), 496
Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), 496
remote services, 497
remote Telnet, 497
542 rendezvous points (RPs) – route redistribution
rendezvous points (RPs), 499
Request To Send (RTS) signal, 500
Requests for Comments (RFCs), 497
Reseaux IP Eurpeennes-Network Information
Center (RIPE-NIC), 248
responsiveness, 14–15
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
(RARP), 496
RFCs (Requests for Comments), 497
RIB (routing information base), 255
RIF (Routing Information Field), 497
ring topology, 497
rings, 497
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 497
administrative distance in, 33
characteristics of, 39–40
convergence in, 43, 43, 48–49, 48
in route redistribution, 367
timers, 40–41
updates, 41–43, 42–43
verifying, 43–44
RIP version 2, 497
RIPE-NIC (Reseaux IP Eurpeennes-Network
Information Center), 248
RJ connectors, 498
RLAs (Router Link Advertisements), 170
robbed-bit signaling, 498
ROM (read-only memory), 498
root bridges, 498
routable and nonroutable protocols in
adaptability, 16
route aggregation. See route summarization
route calculations, 216–220, 217, 219
route databases, 220
route flaps, 323
route flush timers, 41
route invalid timers, 41
route-map command, 300, 331
Route Map Configuration mode, 330, 341
route-map map-tag command, 330
route-map routemail command, 384–385
route-map test command, 378
route maps, 377, 383–384
in BGP, 330–332
policy-routing subnets in, 386–387,
386–387
policy-routing TCP services in, 384–385,
384–385
route optimization, 364
in EIGRP, 370
in IGRP, 368–370
in OSPF, 368
route maps in, 383–387, 384–387
route redistribution in, 364–368, 365–366
route poisoning, 498
Route Processor (RP), 499
route redistribution, 364–366, 365–366, 498
configuring, 370–374, 371, 373–374
in EIGRP, 225–227
with IGRP, 372–373, 373
with OSPF, 374, 374
filtering in, 379–381, 380
Null0 interface for, 381–382, 381
in OSPF, 170, 183, 374, 374
protocol-specific metrics for, 376, 377
route-specific metrics for, 377–378, 379
routing protocol metrics in, 366–368
static, connected, and default routes in,
382, 383
verifying and troubleshooting, 375
route-reflector-client syntax – routing metrics 543
route-reflector-client syntax, 335
route reflectors, 332–338, 333, 336
route-selection attributes, 296–301, 297
route-specific metrics, 377–378, 379
route summarization, 81, 498
for BGP, 430–431
for EIGRP, 429–430, 430
for IP addresses, 84–92, 84, 90
for link-state protocols, 46
for OSPF, 428–429
Route Switch Feature Card (RSFC), 500
Route Switch Modules (RSMs), 500
Route/Switch Processor (RSP), 500
route tagging, 214–215
route update timers, 40
routed protocols, 498
router bgp command, 293, 338–340, 424
router bgp autonomous-system command, 292
router dead interval, 118
router eigrp command, 221, 424
Router IDs, 116–117, 146–147
Router Link Advertisements (RLAs), 170
router ospf 1 command, 134
router priority, 118, 122–124
router rip process command, 367
RouterA in OSPF
basic configuration, 172–174
multi-areas, 169
not-so-stubby area configuration, 180
virtual links, 185–186
RouterB in OSPF
basic configuration, 173–174
multi-areas, 169–170
not-so-stubby area configuration, 180–181
stub-area configuration, 175
totally stubby area configuration, 178
virtual links, 186
RouterC in OSPF
basic configuration, 173–174
not-so-stubby area configuration, 181
OSPF stub-area configuration, 176
totally stubby area configuration, 179
virtual links, 186
RouterD in OSPF
not-so-stubby area configuration, 181
stub-area configuration, 176–177
totally stubby area configuration, 179
routers, 498
in OSPF, 118, 122–124, 168–170, 169
segmentation with, 6–7, 6
routers on a stick, 499
routes in EIGRP, 228
routing, 30–31, 499
administrative distances in, 33–34
classful, 36–38, 37
classless, 38–39, 38
convergence in, 47–51, 48
distance-vector protocols for, 39–45, 42–43
dynamic, 35
link-state protocols for, 46–47
packet switching in, 34
protocols for, 35–36
routing tables for, 31–32
routing by rumor, 36, 41, 499
routing domains, 499
routing information base (RIB), 255
Routing Information Field (RIF), 497
Routing Information Protocol. See RIP
(Routing Information Protocol)
routing metrics. See metrics
544 routing protocols – Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) wiring
routing protocols, 499
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
(RTMP), 367
routing tables, 6, 6, 31–32, 499
in BGP, 258
in EIGRP, 215, 228
entry reductions in, 15
RP (Route Processor), 499
RPs (rendezvous points), 499
RSFC (Route Switch Feature Card), 500
RSMs (Route Switch Modules), 500
RSP (Route/Switch Processor), 500
RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance
Protocol), 367
RTS (Request To Send) signal, 500
S
S reference point, 500
sampling rates, 500
SAP (Service Access Point), 500
SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol), 500
scalability, 205–206
of distance-vector protocols, 206–207
of link-state protocols, 207–208
OSPF, 167–168, 167
scalable internetworks, 12–13
accessibility and security in, 16–17
adaptability in, 16
efficiency in, 15
reliability and availability in, 13–14
responsiveness in, 14–15
SCR (Sustainable Cell Rate) parameter, 500
scripts, 500
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control)
protocol, 500
security
in Distribution layer, 11
in scalable internetworks, 16–17
security policies, 501
security servers, 501
seed routers, 501
segmentation
with bridges, 4–5, 5
with LAN switches, 7–8
with routers, 6–7, 6
send community syntax in neighbor, 341
Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX), 505
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), 502
Serial Tunnel (STUN) technology, 507
servers, 501
Service Access Point (SAP), 500
Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP), 500
Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs), 504
Session layer, 501
sessions in BGP, 259
set-based routers and switches, 501
set command
in BGP, 330–331
for route maps, 383–385
set community command, 341
set metric command, 378
setup mode, 501
SFs (superframes), 501
shared trees, 502
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) wiring, 507
Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm – source-route transparent (SRT) bridging 545
Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm, 256, 504
Shortest Path First (SPF) information, 145–146
Shortest Path First (SPF) tree calculations,
127–128
show ip bgp command, 295, 301
show ip bgp cidr-only command, 296, 424
show ip bgp community command, 295, 424
show ip bgp filter-list command, 296, 424
show ip bgp neighbor command, 337–338
show ip bgp neighbors command, 295,
301–305
show ip bgp paths command, 296, 424
show ip bgp peer-group command, 296, 424
show ip bgp regexp command, 305
show ip bgp summary command, 296,
305, 424
show ip eigrp events command, 228–229, 424
show ip eigrp neighbors command, 228, 424
show ip eigrp topology command, 228, 424
show ip eigrp traffic command, 228–229, 424
show ip ospf command, 144–145
show ip ospf border-routers command, 145–
146, 187
show ip ospf database command, 146, 187
show ip ospf interface command, 122,
146–147
show ip ospf neighbor command, 121,
147–148, 187
show ip ospf process-id command, 187
show ip ospf virtual-links command, 187
show ip prefix-list command, 329
show ip protocols command, 228, 375, 424
show ip route command
for IGRP routers, 45
for RIP routers, 43–44
for route redistribution, 375
show ip route eigrp command, 225–226,
228, 425
show running-config command, 136–139
Signal Quality Error (SQE), 505
signaling packets, 502
silicon switching, 502
Silicon Switching Engine (SSE), 506
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), 502
simplex mode, 502
single area OSPF
configuring, 135–139, 136
in NBMA environment, 140–144
SLAs (Summary Link Advertisements), 171
sliding window method, 502
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol), 502
Small Office/Home Office (SOHO), 503
SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data
Service), 502
smooth round-trip timer (SRRT), 215
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), 502
SNA (System Network Architecture), 503
SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol), 503
snapshot routing, 15, 503
sneakernet, 258
sockets, 503
soft syntax in clear ip bgp, 301
SOHO (Small Office/Home Office), 503
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network), 503
Source-Route Bridging (SRB), 505
source-route translational bridging
(SR/TLB), 505
source-route transparent (SRT) bridging, 505
546 Source Service Access Points (SSAPs) – successors
Source Service Access Points (SSAPs), 506
source trees, 503
SP (Switch Processor), 503
SPAN (Switched Port Analyzer) feature, 503
spanning explorer packets, 504
spanning tree, 504
spanning-tree algorithm (STA), 504
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), 247, 256,
504, 507
spans, 503
speakers, BGP, 259, 263
speed in Core layer, 11
SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm, 504
SPF (Shortest Path First) information, 145–146
SPF (Shortest Path First) tree calculations,
127–128
SPIDs (Service Profile Identifiers), 504
split horizon, 372, 505
in BGP, 333
with poison reverse, 39
spoofing, 505
spoolers, 505
SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange), 505
SQE (Signal Quality Error), 505
SR/TLB (source-route translational
bridging), 505
SRB (Source-Route Bridging), 505
SRRT (smooth round-trip timer), 215
SRT (source-route transparent) bridging, 505
SS-7 signaling, 506
SSAPs (Source Service Access Points), 506
SSE (Silicon Switching Engine), 506
STA (spanning-tree algorithm), 504
Stac compression method, 506
standard IP access lists, 506
standard IPX access lists, 506
star topology, 506
startup ranges, 506
state transitions, 506
static routes, 507
administrative distance of, 33
in BGP, 343–345, 344–345
in route redistribution, 382, 383
static VLANs, 507
statistical multiplexing, 507
Status field, 218
STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module
Level 1), 507
store-and-forward packet switching, 507
STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) wiring, 507
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), 247, 256,
504, 507
stub areas, 171, 174–176, 175, 507
stub autonomous systems, 248–250, 249, 507
stub networks, 507
STUN (Serial Tunnel) technology, 507
subarea nodes, 508
subareas, 507
subchannels, 508
subinterfaces, 508
subnet addresses, 508
subnet masks, 28, 71, 74–81, 508
subnets, 72, 386–387, 386–387
subnetting, 71
Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP), 503
subnetworks, 508
successors, 466
in EIGRP, 216–218
in IGRP, 212
summarization – three-layer model 547
summarization. See route summarization
summary address command, 183
Summary Link Advertisements (SLAs), 171
summary-only syntax with aggregate-
address, 183
superframes (SFs), 501
supernetting, 73
Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) parameter, 500
SVCs (switched virtual circuits), 508
switch blocks, 509
switch-fabric blocks, 509
Switch Processor (SP), 503
switched access, 15
switched Ethernet devices, 509
switched LANs, 509
Switched Multimegabit Data Service
(SMDS), 502
Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) feature, 503
switched virtual circuits (SVCs), 508
switched WAN support, 16
switches, 508
SYN packets, 251
synchronization
in BGP, 301
in OSPF adjacency, 120
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) pro-
tocol, 500
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), 503
synchronous transmissions, 509
Synchronous Transport Module Level 1
(STM-1), 507
System Network Architecture (SNA), 503
system routes, 210
T
T reference point, 509
T1 lines, 509
T3 lines, 509
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access
Control System), 509
tag switching, 509
tagged traffic, 510
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 510
in iBGP, 251
in route maps, 384–385, 385
TCP header compression, 510
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol), 510
TDM (time-division multiplexing), 510
TE (terminal equipment), 510
TE1 devices, 510
TE2 devices, 510
telco, 510
Telnet protocol, 510
10BaseT standard, 511
Terminal Access Controller Access Control
System (TACACS+), 509
terminal adapters, 511
terminal emulation, 511
terminal equipment (TE), 510
TFTP protocol, 511
Thicknet networks, 511
Thinnet networks, 511
three-layer model, 8–9, 9–10
Access layer in, 12
Core layer in, 10–11
Distribution layer in, 11–12
548 ticks – unequal-cost load balancing
ticks, 367
time-division multiplexing (TDM), 510
time-to-live (TTL) field, 512
timers
BGP, 263
for convergence, 48
in distance-vector protocols, 39
IGRP, 44–45
OSPF, 146–147
RIP, 40–41
token bus architecture, 511
token passing method, 511
Token Ring Interface Processor (TRIP), 512
Token Ring technology, 511
tokens, 511
toll networks, 512
topology databases, 220
topology tables, 215–216, 218, 228
Total Path Attributes field, 265–271
Total Path Attributes Length field, 265
totally stubby areas, 171, 177–179, 178
trace command, 375, 512
traffic shaping, 512
transit autonomous systems, 250, 250, 336
transitive attributes, 269–270
transitive flag, 266
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 510
in iBGP, 251
in route maps, 384–385, 385
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Pro-
tocol (TCP/IP), 510
transparent bridging, 512
Transport layer, 512
triggered updates
in distance-vector protocols, 39
in link-state protocols, 36, 257
TRIP (Token Ring Interface Processor), 512
troubleshooting
BGP, 301–305
EIGRP, 227–229
multi-area OSPF, 187
route redistribution, 375
trunk links, 512
Trunk Up-Down (TUD) protocol, 512
TTL (time-to-live) field, 512
tuning, EIGRP, 222–223
tunneling, 14, 513
20/80 rule, 513
two-way communication in OSPF
adjacency, 120
2Way neighbor state, 118
Type field in BGP header, 262
KEEPALIVE messages, 275
NOTIFICATION messages, 272–275, 272
OPEN messages, 262–264, 262
UPDATE messages, 264–271, 264
U
U reference point, 513
UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/
Transmitters), 513
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 513
unequal-cost load balancing, 209, 212
Unfeasible Routes Length field – VTP pruning 549
Unfeasible Routes Length field, 264
unicasts, 513
unidirectional shared trees, 513
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitters
(UARTs), 513
unknown alternate routes, 214
unnumbered frames, 513
unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring, 513
UPDATE messages
in BGP header, 264–271, 264
error codes for, 274–275
update-source command, 294
update timers, 40, 44
updates, 229
in BGP, 259–261
in classful routing, 37–38
in classless routing, 38–39
in distance-vector protocols, 36, 39,
206, 255
in EIGRP, 214–216, 219–220, 219
in link-state protocols, 36, 207, 257
LSA, 124–125, 125
in RIP, 41–43, 42–43
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 513
UTP (unshielded twisted pair) wiring, 513
V
validation, LSA, 125–127, 480
Variable Bit Rate (VBR) class, 513
Variable-Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs), 73–
81, 74, 80–81, 514
in classless routing, 38, 38
in distance-vector protocols, 40, 254
in EIGRP, 213
in link-state protocols, 47, 256
variance command, 212, 225, 425
VBR (Variable Bit Rate) class, 513
VCCs (Virtual Channel Connections), 514
verifying
BGP, 295–296
IGRP, 45
OSPF, 144–148
RIP, 43–44
route redistribution, 375
Versatile Interface Processor (VIP), 514
Version field, 263
VIP (Virtual IP), 514
Virtual Channel Connections (VCCs), 514
virtual circuits, 514
Virtual IP (VIP), 514
virtual LANs (VLANs), 514
virtual links, 184–187, 184–185, 514
virtual private networks (VPNs), 514
virtual rings, 514
VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP), 514
VLANs (virtual LANs), 514
VLSMs (Variable-Length Subnet Masks), 73–
81, 74, 80–81, 514
in classless routing, 38, 38
in distance-vector protocols, 40, 254
in EIGRP, 213
in link-state protocols, 47, 256
VPNs (virtual private networks), 514
VTP (VLAN Trunk Protocol), 514
VTP pruning, 515
550 WANs (wide area networks) – zones
W
WANs (wide area networks)
defined, 515
support for, 16
Weight attribute, 298
weighted fair queuing, 515
weights
in EIGRP, 222
in IGRP, 212
well-known attributes
discretionary, 269
mandatory, 266–269
wide area networks (WANs)
defined, 515
support for, 16
wildcards, 136, 515
windowing, 515
WinSock (Windows Socket Interface), 515
Withdrawn Routes field, 264–265
Withdrawn Routes Length field, 264
workgroup layer in three-layer model, 11–12
workgroup switching, 515
X
X.25 protocol, 515
X.25 standard, 515
XTAG value, 515
Z
ZIP (Zone Information Protocol), 515
ZIP storm, 516
zones, 516