Lecture notes

gabonesedestructionΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

17 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

83 εμφανίσεις

Information technology project
management


Cloud computing and SaaS

MBA 501

WEEK 6

What is project management?


Project management


a definition

“Project management is the process by which
projects are defined, planned, monitored, controlled
and delivered such that the agreed benefits are
realised.”


Association for Project Management




Project management is both a discipline and a set of
tools and practices



Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

PM as a profession: Project Management
Institute (PMI)


The
Project Management Institute
is the major project
management
organization / professional society


defines and standardize the body of knowledge (PMBOK)


has an important
credentialising

function


Project Management
certification




Founded in
1969




Very significant growth from
7,500 members in 1990 to
over 260,000 in
2007



The
Project Management Journal

and
PM Network

are
the leading project management journals

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Why such growth in the profession of PM?


Recent Changes in Managing Organizations




The replacement of traditional hierarchical
management with more consensual forms.


The increasing adoption of the “systems
engineering” approach to problem solving.


The establishment of projects as the preferred
way to accomplish the organizations goals.

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Project management


“Managing projects has always been one of
the most important, and toughest, jobs in the
IS organization” McNurlin & Sprague


What is a project?


“collection of related tasks and activities
undertaken to achieve a specific goal”


Must be a clearly stated goal


Must have a clearly stated beginning and end

McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Definition of a project


“A temporary
endeavour

undertaken to create a unique
product or service”


Project Management Institute (2004)



How do we distinguish a project from other kinds of work?



Major characteristics of a project


Importance


in the eyes of the organization (not necessarily size)


Performance


well defined set of goals


Life cycle with a finite due date


Interdependencies


interaction between project activities, and with
other activities in the organization


Uniqueness


even routine project produce a unique result


Resources


budgets, personnel etc…..are always limited


Conflict


over cost, schedule, resources, requirements. Between
stakeholders, between team members. There is always conflict in PM.


Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

What is
not

a project?


Non
-
projects: Routine tasks that are performed again
and again (projects are one
-
time events)



Quasi
-
projects (
Bill, would you look into this?)
are
those that do not have a specific task identified, no
specific budget, and no specific deadline defined.
Although there are some uncertainties, project
management skills can still be used to manage them.

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Why Project Management?


The main purpose for initiating a project is to
accomplish some goal


Project management increases the likelihood of
accomplishing that goal


Project management gives us someone (the project
manager) to spearhead the project and to hold
accountable for its
completion


Better results


Better control


Better customer relations


Better ROI

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Projects Tend to be Large


Projects tend to be large


The Channel Tunnel


Three Gorges Dam, China


IT megaprojects

(Wikipedia)



Projects are getting larger over time


Flying: balloons


planes


jets


rockets


reusable
rockets



The more we can do, the more we try to do

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Project Management Also Getting Smaller

1.
More people are seeing the advantages of
project management techniques

2.
The tools are become cheaper

3.
The techniques are becoming
more

widely
taught and written about


Wedding and other event planning


A new kitchen


A website redesign


Etc
etc



some examples that come to mind?

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Project management


Techniques for managing the three elements
of any project (the project triangle)


Time


Cost


Performance objectives (scope)




Project management is hard


it is all about
managing risks!


McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice
Hall

The job of a project manager


Setting up the project (selecting the team etc)


Managing the schedule


WBS and assigning
activities/tasks


Managing the finances (estimating and managing
costs)


Managing the benefits (and managing expectations)


Managing the risks, opportunities, and issues/threats


Soliciting independent reviews



McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

The Project Life Cycle

Figure 1
-
3

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Time Distribution of Project Effort

Figure 1
-
4

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Uncertainty and Risk at the Start of the Life
Cycle


very difficult to predict with accuracy

Figure 1
-
6

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Estimate of
project cost
made at the start

Risk During the Life Cycle


uncertainty
decreases as the project nears completion

Figure 1
-
7

Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project
management: a managerial approach. 7th
ed. Wiley.

Estimates of
project cost
made at time t
0
,
t
1

and t
2

Project Management Institute


core
competencies for PMs


Management of:


Integration / co
-
ordination


Scope


Time


Cost


Quality


Human resources


Communication


Risk


Procurement


McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice
Hall

Software for project management



MS Project



Wrike



Basecamp


Example of PMs work: Activity
Planning


Activity planning includes


Selecting a systems analysis team


Estimating time required to complete each task


Scheduling the project



Two tools for project planning and control are
Gantt charts and network diagrams

McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice
Hall

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)


Project is broken down into phases



Further broken down into tasks / activities and sub
-
tasks



Identify task dependencies



Estimate the time each task will take


may use “most likely”, “pessimistic”, and
“optimistic” estimates for time







McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice
Hall

Gantt Charts


Easy to construct and use



Shows activities over a period of time and
illustrates how activities and tasks are
interrelated.



Good at illustrating tasks that run parallel to
one another


Example of Gantt chart

McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice
Hall

Sample of a simple Gantt chart

Source

Network Diagram


Network diagrams show precedence, activities
that must be completed before the next activities
may be started


Show multiple paths to project completion


Used to calculate the critical path, ie. the longest
path through the activities


The critical path will cause the project to fall
behind if any delay is encountered on it

A
None
3
Conduct Interviews
B
Questionnaires
A
4
C
Read Reports
None
4
D
Analyze Data Flows
B, C
8
E
Introduce Prototypes
B, C
5
F
Observe Reactions
E
3
G
Perform Cost/Benefit
D
3
H
Prepare Proposal
G
2
Present Proposal
I
H
2
10
20
30
50
60
70
80
40
A, 3
B, 4
C, 4
D, 8
G, 3
H, 2
I, 2
E, 5
F, 3
Activity

Predecessor

Duration

Critical path

= 10


20


30


50


60


70


80 (22 days
-

the longest path)

Non
-
critical path = 10


30


40


60


70


80 (16 days)

F,

Project failure


Chaos Report 2011 (
The Standish Group
)


More than half of projects conducted between 2002
and 2010 either described as challenged or complete
failures.


37% Successful: delivered on time, on budget,
with required features and functions


42 % Challenged: late, over budget, and/or with
less than the required features and functions



21% Failed: cancelled prior to completion or
delivered and never used

Why do projects fail?


Any non
-
trivial project is almost certain to have
problems


project management is hard


Problems with people


Poor communication


Lack of buy
-
in from key stakeholders


Resistance from employees / users


Tasks not completed as agreed


Insufficient training


Problems with estimating time and budgets


overly optimistic or over
-
promising


Scope creep

McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Poor risk management


One of the main reasons that IT projects fail is poor risk
management


Technical risks:
eg
. scope creep causing complexity, vendor package
doesn’t scale


Business risks: the business doesn’t change properly to use the new
system (in a way necessary to reap the benefits)


S
electing the right project management approach can help
mitigate risk entailed with business changes


The business case for an IT project should include the
business
-
change risks


McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Risk management
-

steps


Step 1: Assess the risks

1.
leadership

of the business change

2.
employees’ perspective

on the change

3.
the
scope and urgency

of the change.


Step 2: Mitigate the risks


Risk avoidance


remove source of the risk (eg remove certain
functions to avoid hacking)


Risk limitation by implementing controls (eg. System monitoring to
avoid disaster)


Risk transfer by letting others assume the risk (eg. by outsourcing)


Step 3: Adjust the project management approach

McNurlin & Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

The role of the Project Management
Office (PMO)


Large organizations often centralize their PM
functions into a Project Management Office


Assist CIO in achieving objectives:


Instill project management discipline and
knowledge


Standardize project management best practices


Facilitate IT project portfolio management (for
better control)


Keep closer watch on project expenses and
progress


Megan Santosus. Why you need a PMO. CIO Magazine, July 1, 2003.

The PMO


PMO Models


Consulting model


provides PMs in business units with training,
guidance and best practice


Centralized model


PMs loaned out to business units to work
on specific projects


Payback from the PMO?


Help deliver strategic IT projects


Enable better resource management


Fewer project failures


Only projects that offer the biggest payback are supported

Megan Santosus. Why you need a PMO. CIO Magazine, July 1, 2003.

OUTSOURCING



Outsourcing


In the IT world, outsourcing means…


turning over a firm’s computer operations, network
operations, or other IT function to a provider for a specified
time…usually a period of years


Not at all common until late 1980s, early 1990s


Now, CIOs must demonstrate good reasons NOT to outsource


Outsourcing is evidence of a global and mobile trend in the IT
labour market


As is “reverse outsourcing” (eg. Wipro presence in US)

McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Working outwards: Drivers towards outsourcing


Value (cost savings). Forrester research shows that
firms save between 12 & 17% of the cost of doing
the work in
-
house


Benefits from economies of scale



Focus on core business due to global competition


What business are we in?


Where do we add value?


McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Location of supplier of outsourced
services


Off
-
shoring: means outsourcing to a provider outside
the country (For the US this means India, Ireland, the
Philippines, China etc)


Low wage countries


Cultural and time zone issues need to be managed


Political issues at home re the domestic workforce


Near
-
shoring


outsourcing to Canada, Mexico


Outsourcing to home country


McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Types of outsourcing


Project based (
eg
. Y2K work)


Best
-
of
-
breed outsourcing


one supplier might handle desktop
support, another data
centre

operations, another network
management. Now managed collaboratively, with one supplier
taking the lead


Business process outsourcing (BPO)


outsourcing all or most of a
re
-
engineered process that has a large IT component (
eg
. travel
agency handing over ticket accounting)


eBusiness

outsourcing


speed and focus are the big drivers,
especially where IT gives no competitive advantage


Shared services


a type of “in
-
sourcing” where economies of scale
are achieved by centralizing IT, legal,
etc

services


Utility and cloud computing


pay as you go


Amazon Web Services
(
SaaS

is another variant)



McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

Two statements for discussion


Outsourcing offloads a burdensome technical
responsibility and allows management to
focus on its core business


OR


Outsourcing strips a company of an important
core competence


IT know
-
how and creates
unnecessary risks


McNurlin

& Sprague. Information Systems Management in Practice. 7th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall

CLOUD COMPUTING AND
SAAS

The idea of cloud computing


the
big shift


“Computers used to be self
-
contained devices. If you wanted to do
something with your PC, you had to buy a piece of software and install it
on your hard drive”.


The web changed all that. All you needed was a browser and a network
connection “The PC began to turn inside out

what was important wasn’t
what was inside its case but what was outside it.”


Now, we use FB and Gmail, YouTube, and Netflix


this shift has been
largely invisible to the consumer


“[Computing today] is turning into a service supplied over a network. It’s
becoming a utility.”


The implications for corporate users are IT are very significant


Why build data centers?


Why bother even having an IT department any longer?

Nicholas Carr: The Big Switch.
http://www.nicholasgcarr.com/bigswitch/interview.shtml

Cloud computing: what is it?


“Cloud computing is a model for enabling
convenient, on
-
demand network access to a
shared pool of configurable computing
resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
applications, and services) that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider
interaction”
National Institute of Standards and Technology


Three types of cloud computing


IaaS



Infrastructure as a Service: computing
power, storage, database services
eg
.
Amazon
Web Services


PaaS



Platform as a Service: an entire
platform to build applications from scratch
eg
.
Windows Azure

and
Heroku


SaaS



Software as a Service: already built
applications (pretty much the same as COTS)


eg
.
Adobe Photoshop Creative Cloud

Utility computing


Carr (The Big Shift)


in the same way that
private production of electricity was replaced
by utility companies, private computing is
being replaced by utility computing


The “cloud” is actually extremely tangible, and
a huge user of energy


The big players include


Amazon, Microsoft, and Google (
this is what one
looks like
) 6m


The three reasons to cloud compute
(Christopher
Barnatt
)

SaaS: what is it?


Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (SaaS)


Software programs offered through “the cloud”
usually via a web browser interface


An alternative to packaged application software
installed on a local system


Example:
Salesforce.com


Salesforce.com: What is cloud computing

(3m)


Why Google Apps for Education
(Google) 11m




SaaS
-

pricing


Shift from upfront license fee and service fees
for local installation as revenue for software
companies


Now we see new pricing models:


Monthly subscription fees: On
-
demand usage


Transaction
-
based


Advertising supported


Example of
Salesforce.com pricing

Cusumano (2010) Cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Comm. ACM Vol 53 No4

SaaS

advantages


Cheaper


Available from anywhere via web browser / mobile
devices


Pay for it on an as
-
needed basis


No ongoing maintenance fees


One price covers everything


No need for in
-
house IT staff to install and maintain


all patches and updates dealt with by the service
provider


Cusumano (2010) Cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Comm. ACM Vol 53 No4

Risks and disadvantages


Risks of downtime are managed by making
sure that contracts address service levels
(SLAs)


No competitive advantage


all your
competitors can and do access exactly the
same software


Security


Privacy concerns


a large and growing issue

Cusumano (2010) Cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Comm. ACM Vol 53 No4

SaaS as platform / app
development ecosystem


SaaS providers like Salesforce.com open their
platforms via APIs so that other application
companies can build products utilizing some features
in the Salesforce CRM product


So opening up the cloud infrastructure creates an
“app” ecosystem and inter
-
relationships between
developers


Eg. All the uses of the Google Maps API such as
Zillow.com



This creates a network effect

Cusumano (2010) Cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Comm. ACM Vol 53 No4