Aerospace and Flight Technology - Oklahoma Department of Career ...

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CIMC
CIMC
Student Edition
www.okcimc.com
800-654-4502
TE8144
Technology Learning Activity:
Aerospace and
Flight Technology
Aerospace and
Flight Technology
Student Edition
Developed by the
Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center
Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
TE8144
Copyright © 2010

Project Manager:
Claire Zevnik-Cline
Design:
Melinda Hawk
Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America by the
Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Stillwater, OK 74074-4364
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the CIMC Warehouse staff, under the direction of Darrell Stiles.
ContEntS
IntroDuCtIon
...................................................................
1
LESSon 1: hIStory of fLIght
.....................................................
3
Activity 1:
Aerospace and Flight Crossword
............................................
5
Activity 2:
Create a presentation on an Early Aviator
....................................
11
LESSon 2: thEory of fLIght
.....................................................
13
Activity 1: Create Paper Airplanes
..................................................
19
Activity 2: Mathematics of Flight
....................................................
21
LESSon 3: BErnouLLI’S PrInCIPLE
................................................
25
Activity 1: Bernoulli in Action 1
.....................................................
27
Activity 2: Bernoulli in Action 2
.....................................................
31
LESSonS 1-3 rEvIEw/QuIz
........................................................
33
LESSon 4: tEStIng fLIght DESIgn
................................................
39
Activity 1: Styrofoam Glider
......................................................
41
Activity 2: Design a Balsa Wood Glider
..............................................
45
Activity 3: Competition Glider Design Project
..........................................
49
Activity 4: Flying Rings
.............................................................
LESSon 5: MovIng, turnIng, anD ChangIng DIrECtIonS – LEt’S fLy!
...............
51
Activity 1: Flight Simulation
........................................................
55
LESSonS 4-5 rEvIEw/QuIz
........................................................
57
LESSon 6: IMPaCt
...............................................................
59
Activity 1: Design an Airplane Seat
..................................................
61
LESSon 7: SPaCE travEL
........................................................
63
Activity 1: How Much Do You Know About Early Space Travel? A Little, or a Lot?
.............
65
Activity 2: Build a Crew Exploration Vehicle
...........................................
67
Activity 3: Launch It!
.............................................................
69
Activity 4:
The Future of Space Travel
...............................................
71
Activity 5: What Else is Out There?
.................................................
73
LESSon 8: CarEErS In thE aEroSPaCE InDuStry
.................................
77
Activity 1: Promote an Aerospace Career
LESSonS 6-8 rEvIEw/QuIz
........................................................
79
Introduction:
From ancient times, people dreamed of flying. As soon as flight was
achieved, humans have wanted to fly further, faster, higher! Just as it
was then, it still is today. We are looking for ways to fly faster and further
all the time. Space exploration may even lead to space inhabitation in
your lifetime. This TLA will allow you to explore the area of aerospace
and flight, and you may be the first person to live in space!
What you will learn about:
• The history of flight and early aviators
• The theory of flight and how planes fly
• Newton’s Laws of Motion
• The Bernoulli Principle
• Glider design, flight and how to test designs
• How to fly a plane
• About the social, environmental, and ergonomic impacts of flight
• The history and future of space travel
• Learn about commercial space travel
• Learn about careers in the aerospace and flight industry
Aerospace and Flight
Technology Learning Activity
Aerospace and Flight Technology
Aerospace and Flight Technology
CIMC — Copyright © 2010
1
Aerospace and Flight
Aerospace and Flight Technology
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What you will do:
• Explore photos of early aircraft on the Internet
• Complete a crossword puzzle of terms related to aerospace and flight
• Create a presentation on an early aviator
• Look at the Bernoulli Principle in action by doing experiments
• Write an essay over information you find on Internet sites dealing
with aerospace and flight
• Create and test a Styrofoam glider
• Sketch designs for a balsa wood glider
• Build and test a balsa wood glider
• Construct a flying ring
• Use flight simulator software to fly a plane
• Design a seat for an airplane
• Create a presentation on early space exploration or an early space craft
• Create a Crew Exploration Vehicle
• Develop a flight plan for a space mission
• Research commercial space travel
• Track a satellite
• Research a career in the aerospace and flight industry
Aerospace and Flight Technology
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Lesson 2
Theory of Flight
To understand how airplanes fly, you
need to know the characteristics of air.
Air is difficult to define because we
cannot see it. But it is all around us:
filling up every bit of space, including
the largest building and the smallest
crack. Air is a gas that is both heavy
and strong. How much does air weigh?
The air inside an empty suitcase weighs
about as much as a silver dollar. And all
the air in your living room weighs more than the
average person. We live at the bottom of a vast ocean of air called the
atmosphere which extends at least 350 miles upward. Because the
air on top pushes down on the air below, the pressure at the bottom
is very high. This weight of air pushing down on the Earth is called air
pressure.
Air pressure presses down on everything — on every square inch
of land and water, on all living and non-living things, even a sheet of
paper. The reason a sheet of paper does not seem heavy with the
weight of the atmosphere pressing down on it, is that there is an equal
upward push from the air beneath the paper. We sometimes have
trouble imagining what this upward push really is, especially since the
material doing the pushing is invisible. But the weight of the air not only
pushes downward and upward, it also pushes sideward. Air pushes
from every direction. You do not feel the weight of the air because the
air pressure on all sides of you is the same.
Air also resists the movement of things through it. This is called air
resistance. If you drop a sheet of paper laying flat, it will not fall
straight downward because as it falls it is affected by the air resistance.
The paper will slide sideways or fall with one edge leading towards the
ground. The faster something moves through the air, the greater the air
resistance that thing encounters. For example, the faster you ride your
bicycle the greater the air resistance you feel. It is air resistance that
makes it seem there is a wind on a calm day as you ride. Have you
ever watched a large jet airplane roll down the runway for a takeoff?
The jet moves faster and faster along the runway and then it rises in
the air and begins to climb.
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Aerospace and Flight
What makes the airplane go up? Why does it stay up? There are four
important forces at work that govern the flight of every plane: gravity,
lift, drag, and thrust. Gravity is the natural force that pulls the plane
toward the ground. Lift is the force that pushes a plane upward against
the force of gravity. The movement of a plane through the air creates
lift. Drag is the natural force of air pushing against the plane as it
moves through the air. Drag is created by air resistance. Thrust is the
force that moves the plane forward. Thrust is created by the plane’s
propeller or jet engines.
Go to http://science.howstuffworks.com/airplane1.htm and read about
the aerodynamic forces of flight. Use the next page button to read
about drag, weight, and lift.
Once in flight, when a plane’s lift equals the force of gravity (the force
pushing up equals the force pushing down) and the thrust of the plane
equals the drag on the plane, the plane flies level. Whenever any of
these four forces change, the plane will change its speed and direction
away from an increased force and toward any decreased force. This
change in speed and direction is called a change in velocity. Planes
must be designed so as the plane increases speed the forces of lift
and thrust become stronger than the forces of drag and gravity. The
pilot of a plane controls the lift and thrust by the way he or she uses the
parts of the plane. Pilots control the different parts of a plane from the
cockpit. Pilots use many instruments and tools while flying their planes.
The instruments and tools function much like the steering wheel,
pedals, and dashboard of your family car.
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Go to http://science.
howstuffworks.com/airplane.htm
and read about how planes
work.
Review and think about it:
1. What two forces work for an airplane?
_________________________________________
2. What two forces work against an airplane?
_________________________________________
3. What would happen if a plane didn’t have
enough lift or thrust?
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
4. Which force opposes gravity?
_________________________________________
5. Which force opposes thrust?
_________________________________________

6. If an airplane flies straight and level
at a steady speed, how would you describe
the four forces of flight?
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
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Aerospace and Flight
Thrust and Drag
Airplanes are much heavier than air, but they can fly. A large jet
airplane weighs about 700,000 pounds, yet it can carry passengers
and tons of baggage into the air and then return safely to the ground.
To begin its adventure, a plane must move forward through the air. The
force used to move the plane is called thrust. Propeller-driven planes
move forward by pushing air backward with the spinning blades of the
propellers. Planes without propellers usually use jet engines to get their
thrust. Jet engines work somewhat like firecrackers: a stream of hot
gases escapes the rear of the engine and pushes the plane forward.
The same escape of hot gases is what moves a bullet when someone
fires a rifle. Burning gunpowder creates a force that ejects the bullet. At
the same time, the gun pushes back against the person’s shoulder. This
is an example of thrust resulting from pushing backward. Three hundred
years ago, Sir Isaac Newton discovered that for every action there
is an equal and opposite reaction. This discovery became Newton’s
Third Law [http://science.howstuffworks.com/newton-law-of-motion4.
htm]. From this law, you can see that for every action that pushes gases
backward there is a reaction that pushes a plane forward.
There is a force that opposes thrust called drag. Drag is the result
of friction caused by air pushing back against the plane as it moves
forward. As the speed of
the airplane increases, drag
also increases. Thus, in
order for a plane to keep
moving the thrust of the
plane must overcome the
drag. This is not an easy
task. For example, when a
plane doubles its speed drag
increases four times. To help
keep the force of drag small,
airplane bodies are built with a sleek, trim shape with all outside parts
designed to cut through the air smoothly and easily. Shaping the outside
of an object to reduce drag is called streamlining. All airplanes and
most automobiles, trains, and trailers are streamlined to help them move
through the air more easily. Moving away from the Earth is not easy
because the Earth appears to constantly pull things toward it. That pull
is called gravity. Gravity pulls on everything in the world every moment.
Gravity holds you on the surface of the Earth and pulls down the things
you throw into the air. Gravity even pulls at the Earth’s atmosphere,
which keeps it from flying off into space.
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We have developed a
method of measuring
the downward pull
of gravity. When
we say a thing
weighs 90 pounds,
we mean gravity is
exerting a measure
of 90 pounds on that
thing. Weight is the
force needed to lift
something. Weight
increases toward the center of the Earth and decreases as you move
away from the Earth. In other words, the force of gravity weakens the
farther you get from the Earth.
Gravity pulls things down, but there is another force that can push
things back up again. This force is called lift and it is caused by the
upward push of air. Without lift an airplane could not leave the ground.
For a plane to take off and remain in the air, its wings must produce a
lifting force strong enough to overcome the downward pull of gravity.
Lift is produced by the change of air pressure around the airplane’s
wing as it moves along the ground or through the air. You will learn
about this in the next lesson on “Bernoulli’s Principle.”
Early attempts to fly with
wings failed because they
did not understand that the
curved shape of a bird’s
wings creates lift. After
people learned this, they
began to build airplane
wings that resembled a bird’s
wings. When a plane is at
rest on the ground, the air
pressure above and below
the wings is the same. When
the plane begins to move
forward, air moves over
and under the wings. The
air moving over the curved
upper part flows in a curve
while the air moving past the
bottom of the wing moves in
a straight line. This means
that the air passing over
the wings must move faster
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Aerospace and Flight
than the air below the wing. The increased speed of the air over the
wing reduces the pressure it exerts on the wing. Thus, the pressure
exerted by the air beneath the wing is greater than the pressure above
the wing. When planes move at high speeds, the air above the wing
moves quickly enough to reduce the pressure above the wing so
that the greater pressure below the wing actually pushes the wings
upward. This upward push is lift. As the plane moves more rapidly
down a runway, the wings build up more lift. Finally, the air pressure
beneath the wings becomes greater than the weight of the plane so
the plane rises into the air. When you read about the Theory of Flight,
you learned that planes can change their speed and direction, and
that when this happens the forces of flight become unbalanced. It is
important to remember, then, that if the speed of the air moving over
and under the wings changes, the amount of lift also changes. Thus,
one of the pilot’s responsibilities is to see that the right amount of lift is
maintained to keep the plane aloft.


NeWtON’S LaWS Of MOtION
Learn more about Newton’s Laws of
Motion at the following websites:
http://science.howstuffworks.
com/newton-law-of-motion.htm
http://science.howstuffworks.com/newton-law
of-motion2.htm
Activity

1
Create Paper Airplanes
What you will do:
For this activity, you will start out flying a simulated paper airplane and
then will create real paper airplanes you can fly. You will also test a
couple of designs to determine which one flies the best.
What you will need:
• Computer with Internet access
• Paper
• Ruler
• Measuring tape
what to do:
1. Go to
http://flightsimx.archive.amnesia.com.au/ and fly the simulated
paper airplane five times. Record your flight distances below.
• ___________________________________________
• ___________________________________________
• ___________________________________________
• ___________________________________________
• ___________________________________________
2. Go to
www.bestpaperairplanes.com/ and look at the selection of
paper airplane designs. You can also look for other designs if you
like.
3. Select two different paper airplane designs to build. You can
choose from the designs on the website, use others you find, or
create your own design.
4. Create two different paper airplanes.
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Aerospace and Flight
5. Test both of your planes by measuring the distance they fly. Make
three test flights for each of your planes and record the distances
below. Then, average the distance of the three flights to determine
how well your planes flew.
Plane 1
Flight 1: _____________________________________________
Flight 2: _____________________________________________
Flight 3: _____________________________________________
Average of the three flights: ______________________________
Plane 2
Flight 1: _____________________________________________
Flight 2: _____________________________________________
Flight 3: _____________________________________________
Average of the three flights: ______________________________
6. Which of your planes flew best? __________________________
7. Why do you think this plane flew better than the other design?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
Activity

2
Mathematics of Flight
Part 1: Distance, Rate, and Time
What you will do:
For this activity, you will be given mathematical formulas used in flight.
You will then solve problems based on the formulas.
What you will need:
• Pen or Pencil
what to do:
A common formula used by flight personnel is:
Distance = rate x time
Or
D = r t
With this formula, distance is determined by multiplying the rate at
which the plane travels by the time it takes to reach a destination.
Distance is normally measured in miles. Rate or speed is usually
measured in knots or nautical miles per hour. Nautical miles are bigger
than regular miles on the ground because they are calculated based on
the earth’s curvature. A nautical mile is 6080.27 feet long, and a ground
mile is 5280 feet long. Time is measured in hours.
The formula can also be used to determine the speed the plane travels
if you know the distance and amount of time. Also, if you know the
distance and speed, you can determine the amount of time the flight
will take. All you need to do is multiply or divide to get these figures.
ExAMPLE:
If a plane is traveling at 350 knots (nautical miles per hour)
for 3 hours, how many nautical miles will the plane fly?
d = r t
d = 350 x 3
d = 1050
The plane flew 1050 nautical miles.
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Complete the following problems:
1. If a plane is traveling at 500 knots for four hours, how many
nautical miles will it fly?
_____________________________________________________
2. If a plane is traveling at 625 knots for two and a half hours, how
many nautical miles will it fly?
_____________________________________________________
3. If a plane travels 2550 nautical miles in five hours, what is the
speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
4. If a plane travels 585 nautical miles in one and a half hours, what
is the speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
5. If a plane flies 1575 nautical miles at 450 knots, how long will the
flight take?
_____________________________________________________
Part 2: Headwinds and Tailwinds
What to Do:
Headwinds and tailwinds affect the speed of a flight. A tailwind is
wind that is blowing the same direction as the plane is flying. It pushes
the plane through the air, increasing the plane’s speed. A headwind is
wind that is moving the opposite direction of a flight. It slows the plane’s
speed. Figuring tailwind and headwind speed is important to determine
actual flight times.
ExAMPLE 1:
A plane’s speed in still air is 275 knots. There is a headwind of 25
knots. What is the speed of the plane traveling into the headwind?
Solution: To determine speed into a headwind, subtract the headwind
speed from the still air speed.
275 – 25 = 250
The plane is actually traveling at 250 knots.
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ExAMPLE 2:
A plane’s speed in still air is 275 knots. There is a tailwind of 25 knots.
What is the speed of the plane traveling with a tailwind?
Solution: To determine speed with a tailwind, add the tailwind speed to
the still air speed.
275 + 25 = 300
The plane is actually traveling at 300 knots.
Complete the following problems:
1. A plane’s speed in still air is 400 knots. There is a headwind of 35
knots. What is the actual speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
2. A plane’s speed in still air is 210 knots. There is a tailwind of 15
knots. What is the actual speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
3. A plane’s speed in still air is 365 knots. There is a headwind of 29
knots. What is the actual speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
4. A plane’s speed in still air is 298 knots. There is a tailwind of 24
knots. What is the actual speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
5. A plane travels 585 nautical miles in one and a half hours with a
headwind of 16 knots. What is the speed of the plane?
_____________________________________________________
Information for this activity comes from Math in Flight, Celebrating the Centennial of Powered
Flight created by the United States Department of Air Force, Department of Defense.
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