4th Assignments

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ASSIGNMENTS



BTME
-
401 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

II


Assignment No. 1

1.

What is resilience?

2.

Derive the expression for strain energy stored in a hollow circular shaft subjected to
torsion?

3.

Derive the expression for Castigliano’s theorem?

4.

Define strain energy.
Derive an equation for strain energy for a uniform bar subjected
to tensile load P Newtons. Hence calculate strain energy in 50mm diameter bar, 4m
long when carrying an axial pull of 150kN. Take E = 208 GN/m
2



(Ans = 110.23 N/m)

5.

What is the change
of response due to hydrostatic stress, predicated by Tresca theory?

6.

Derive the Maxwell’s

theorem. Also state its assumption


Assignment No. 2

1.

Write a note on the significance of theories of failure?

2.

A simply supported beam of span L (between supports)
has an overhang of ‘a’ on left
side. A vertical load W is applied at the end of overhang. Calculate deflection at the
point of application of load by Castigliano’s method.

3.

Derive an expression for strain energy stored in a body when subjected to three
prin
cipal tensile stresses

4.


What is generally accepted criterion of failure?

5.

What type of shape of yield locus for Rankine theory?

6.

What is a theory of failure?


Assignment No. 3


1.

For what type of materials are the Rankine theory and Tresca theory valid?

2.

Define octahedral shear stress?

3.

What is the necessity of theory of failure?

4.

Discuss in detail the yield locus and yield surface for the following theories: (a)
Rankine’s theory. (b) Teresa theory

5.

Explain in detail the yield surface for shear strain energy
theory?

6.

Discuss g
raphical representation and derivation of equation for two dimensional
stress systems only

Assignment No. 4

1.

A steel tube is shrunk on another steel tube to form a compound cylinder 60 mm
internal diameter, 180 mm external diameter. The
initial compressive stress at 120mm
common diameter is 30MN
/m
2
. Calculate the shrinkage allowance. E = 200GN/m
2
.


(Ans = 0.03834mm)

2.

Derive an expression for an open coiled helical spring for axial deflection and twisting
moment when subjected
to an axial load W.


3.

An open coiled helical spring have 10 coils. The stresses due to bending and twisting
are 98 M
P
a and 105 M
P
a respectively, when spring is axialy loaded. Assuming mean
diameter of coil is eight times the dia of wire, find the maximum
permissible load and
diameter of wire for a maximum extension of 2 cm. E = 210 G
P
a and
C

= 82 G
P
a.(
Ans : d = 0.006m, W = 250.8 N).

4.

If the close coil spring formula is used for finding the extension of an open coil spring
under axial load, find the maximum

angle of helix for which error in the value of
extension is not to exceed 1 percent. Take E = 2.5 G. (Ans : α = 10.26
0
)

5.


What are various types of springs? What are helical springs? Differentiate between a
closely coiled helical spring and an open coiled helical spring?

6.

Derive from first principles, making usual assumptions the formula for the maximum
bending

stress and for central deflection of leaf spring consisting of leaves and
subjected to a central loa


BTME
-
402

THEORY OF MACHINE
-
I


Assignment No. 1

1.

Explain D’ Alembert’s principle?

2.

Draw and explain Klien’s construction for determining the velocity and a
cceleration of
the piston in a slider crank mechanism?

3.

A petrol engine has a stroke of 120 mm and connecting rod is 3 times the crank length.
The crank rotates at 1500 rpm in clockwise direction? Determine: 1. Velocity and
acceleration of the piston, and
2. Angular velocity and angular acceleration of the
connecting rod, when the piston had traveled one
-
fourth of its stroke from I.D.C.?

4.

The stroke of a steam engine is 600 mm and length of connecting rod is 1.5 m. The
crank rotates at 180 rpm. Determine:
1. Velocity and acceleration of the piston when
crank has traveled through an angle of 40
0
from inner dead centre and 2. The position
of the crank for zero acceleration of the piston?

5.

The magnitude and direction of acceleration of two ends of a link in mec
hanism are
given along with its weights, position of centre of gravity and radius of gyration?

6.

In order to find the moment of inertia of a small flywheet, it was suspended in a
vertical plane as a compound pendulum. The distance of G.G. from the knife edg
e
support was 300 mm and the flywheel made 100 oscillations in 145 sec. find the
moment of inertia about the axis through C.G. If the mass of the flywheel was 85 kg?

7.

Discuss how a single revolving mass is balanced by two masses revolving in different
plane
s?

8.

How the different masses rotating in different planes are balanced?

9.

Explain the ‘direct and reverse crank’ method for determining unbalanced forces in
radial engines?

10.

Discuss the balancing of V
-
engines?


Assignment No.2

1.

Explain the Terms: (i) Module,
(ii) Pressure Angle, and (iii) Adendum?

2.

State and prove the law of gearing. Show that involute profile satisfies the conditions
for correct gearing?

3.

Derive and expression for the velocity of sliding between a pair of involute teeth.
State the advantages
of involute profile as a gear tooth profile?

4.

The pitch circle diameter of the smaller of the two spur wheels which mesh externally
and have involute teeth is 100 mm. The number of teeth are 16 and 32. The pressure
angle is 20
0

and the addendum is 0.32 of the circular pitch. Find the length of the path
of contact of the pair of teeth.?

5.

Two gears of module 4mm have 24 and 33 teeth. The pressure angle is 20
0
and each
gear has a standard addendum of one module. Find the length o
f arc of contact and
the maximum velocity of sliding if the pinion rotates at 120 r.p.m.?

6.

What do you understand by the term ‘interference’ as applied to gears?

7.

Define (i) normal pitch, and (ii) axial pitch relating to helical gears?

8.

Derive an expression f
or the centre distance of a pair of spiral gears?

9.

A 20
0
involute pinion with 20 teeth drives a gear having 60 teeth. Module is 8 mm
and addendum of each gear is 10 mm?

10.

State whether interference occurs or not. Give reasons.


Assignment No. 3

1.

What do you
understand by ‘gear train’? Discuss the various types of gear trains?

2.

Explain briefly the differences between simple, compound, and epicyclic gear trains.
What are the special advantages of epicyclic gear trains?

3.

Explain the procedure adopted for designin
g the spur wheels?

4.

Two parallel shafts are to be connected by spur gearing. The approximate distance
between the shafts is 600 mm. If one shaft runs at 120 rpm and the other at 360 rpm
find the number of teeth on each wheel, if the module is 8 mm. Also
determine the
exact distance apart of the shafts?

5.

How the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train is obtained by tabular method?

6.

Explain with a neat sketch the ‘sun and planet wheel’?

7.

What are the various types of the torques in an epicyclic gear train?

8.

An
epicyclic gear train. The wheel S has 15 teeth and is fixed to the motor shaft
rotating at 1450 rpm. The planet P has 45 teeth, gears with fixed annulus A and
rotates on a spindle carried by an arm which is fixed to the output shaft. The planet P
also g
ears with the sun wheel S. Find the speed of the output shaft. If the motor is
transmitting 1.5 KW, find the torque required fixing the annulus A?



Assignment No. 4

1.

Write a short note on gyroscope?

2.

What do you understand by gyroscopic couple? Derive a f
ormula for its magnitude?

3.

Explain the application of gyroscopic principles to aircrafts?

4.

Describe the gyroscopic effect on sea going vessels?

5.

A flywheel of mass 10 kg and radius of gyration 200 mm is spinning about its axis,
which is horizontal and is susp
ended at a point distant 150 mm from the plane of
rotation of the flywheel. Determine the angular velocity of precession of the flywheel.
The spin speed of flywheel is 900 rpm?

6.

Explain the effect of the gyroscopic couple on the reaction of the four wheel
s of a
vehicle negotiating a curve?

7.

Discuss the effect of the gyroscopic couple on a two wheeled vehicle when taking a
turn?

8.

What will be the effect of the gyroscopic couple on a disc fixed at a certain angle to a
rotating shaft?

9.

Each paddle wheel of a ste
amer have a mass of 1600 kg and a radius of gyration of
1.2m. The steamer turns to port in a circle of 160 m radius at 24 km/h, the speed of
the paddles being 90 rpm. Find the magnitude and effect of the gyroscopic couple
acting on the steamer?

10.

What is F
reudenstain’s equation and what is its use in mechanisms? What is the
relationship between Freudenstain’s equation and the Cramer’s Rule?



BTME
-
403 FLUID MECHANICS


1

Assignment No. 1

1.

A 2.5 cm wid
e gap between two vertical plane

surfaces is filled with an oil of specific gravity 0.7
and dynamic viscosity 3 Pas. A metal plate 1.3 m x 1.3 m x 0.25 cm thick and weighing 50 N is
placed midway in the gap. Find the
velocity of the plate generated

if it is lifted with a force of
100 N.

2.

Specific weight of a liquid is 7000 N/m
3
. Determine its
density & specific gravity
.

3.

A Triangular plate of base width 2.5 m & height 1.5 m lies immersed in water with apex
downwards. The base of the plate is 1.5 m below and parallel to the free water surfac
e. Find the
Total pressure

on the plate and
depth of Centre of pressure
.

4.

Find the
increase in pressure required

to produce 1.5 percent reduction in volume of water.
Take bulk modulus of elasticity of water K = 2.2 GPa.

5.

A dashpot 9.5 cm diameter & 13 cm lo
ng slides vertically down in 10.03 cm diameter cylinder.
The oil filling the annular space has a viscosity of 0.74 poise. Determine
the load on the piston

if
it slides down with a speed of 0.8 m/s.

6.


In a 45 mm long journal
-
bearing arrangement, the clearanc
e b/w the two is 0.1 mm. the shaft is
15 mm in diameter and rotates at 3000 rpm. The dynamic viscosity of the lubricant used is 0.01
Pas and the velocity variation is linear. Determine the
frictional torque

the journal has to
overcome.

7.


A stone weighs 350

N in air & when immersed in water it weighs 200 N. Calculate the
volume
of the stone and its relative density
.

8.

A hollow circular plate 4 m external diameter and 2 m internal diameter with the greatest and
least depths below the surface being 3 m and 1.5 m respectively. Find the
magnitude,

direction
and location

of force acting on one side of the plate.


Assignment
No. 2


1.

Find the
kinematic viscosity

of a liquid in stokes whose specific gravity is 0.92 and dynamic
viscosity is 0.012 poise.

2.


The clearance space b/w a shaft and a concentric sleeve has been filled with a Newtonian fluid.
The sleeve attains a speed of 50

cm/s when a force of 450 N is applied to it parallel to the shaft.
What
force is needed

if it desired to move with a speed of 250 cm/s?

3.

A flow is described by the stream function ψ = 6xy. Locate the point at which velocity vector has
a magnitude of 6 unit
s and makes an angle of 145 degree with the x


axis.

4.

Check whether the flow defined by the function ψ = 2xy is irorational. If so, determine the
corresponding
velocity potential function
.

5.

Water is flowing with a velocity of 15 m/s and under a pressure of
300kPa. If the height above the
datum is 30 cm, calculate the
total energy

per unit weight of water.

6.

Explain the difference b/w energy gradient line and hydraulic gradient line.

7.

A man holds a pipe ending into a nozzle that issues a 20 cm diameter jet of water. If the pressure
of water in the 60 mm diameter pipe is 500kPa, find the
force

experienced by the man.

8.

A 25 cm diameter pipe carries water under a head of 15 m with a velocit
y of 4 m/s. if the axis of
the pipe turns through 55 degree; find the magnitude and direction of the
resultant force

on bend.


Assignment No. 3


1.

D
iscuss the following

a.

M
omentum & KE correction factors

b.

free & forced vortex flow

c.

G
radient lines(EGL & HGL)

d.

D
arc
y equation

e.

E
quivalent

pipe and E
quivalent diameter

f.

V
ariable head meter

2.


A sharp edged circular orifice of diameter 8 mm is provided in a tank having water upto a height
of 1 m above the orifice. The jet strikes a wall 1.2 m away and 0.4 m below the center
line of the
contracted section of the jet. Given Q = 40kg/min. find
orifice coefficients
.

3.


Find the
discharge

through a 90 mm diameter external mouthpiece fitted to the side of a large
vessel, if the head over the mouthpiece is 4 metres. Assume suitable v
alue of discharge
coefficient.

4.


The efficiency η of a fan depends on density, dynamic viscosity, angular velocity, diameter of
pipe and discharge. Express
efficiency

in terms of dimensionless parameters.

5.

Check whether the following functions represent poss
ible flow phenomena of irrotational flow,
Φ = sin(x + y + z).

6.

Show that streamlines and equipotential lines are orthogonal to each other.

7.


A pipe conveys 0.3 kg/s of air at 300 K and under an absolute pressure of 3 bar. Find the
minimum diameter of pipe
if velocity is limited to 8 m/s.

8.

Find
time required

to lower water level from 3 m to 2 m in a reservoir of dimensions 80 x 80 m
by a rectangular notch of length 2m.

9.

A rectangular tank 6 m long, 2 m wide and 2 m deep contains water to a depth of 1 m. it is
accelerated at 2.5 m/s in direction of flow, find
minimum and max pressure

at bottom of tank.


Assignment No. 4

1.

A triangular plate of base width 2 m and height 3 m is immersed in water with its plan making an
angle of 45 with free surface of water. Find the
location of center of pressure

when apex of
triangle lies 5 m below the free surface of water.

2.


A 30 cm diamet
er horizontal pipe terminates in a nozzle with exit diameter of 8 cm. if Q = 0.2
m
3
/s. find the
force exerted

by fluid on nozzle.

3.


What is free vortex? Give examples of its occurrence. Show how velocity and pressure vary with
radius.

4.

The centerline velocit
y of flow through a nozzle changes from 2 m/s to 10 m/s over a length of 30
cm. find magnitude of convective tangential acceleration.

5.

Derive
hydrostatic equation

from Bernoulli’s equation.

6.

Water discharge at rate of 100 L/s through a 12 cm diameter vertica
l sharp edged orifice under a
constant head of 10 m. Find all hydraulic coefficients if venta contracta has co
-
ordinates 5 m
horizontal and 0.5 m vertical.

7.

What is a submerged weir? Find expression for computing discharge through a submerged weir.

8.

A nozzle

of diameter 20 mm is fitted to a pipe of diameter 40 mm. find force exerted by nozzle on
water which is flowing through pipe at rate of 3 m
3

/s.

9.

Explain the following flows.

i.

steady and unsteady flow

ii.

ideal and real flow

iii.

Rotational and irrotational flow.


BTME404

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS


II


Assignment No. 1

1.
A single stage single acting reciprocating compressor without clearance volume is
required to compress 70 m of air per minute. Compressor sucks air at 1 bar and 15 degree
centigrade. If pressure after c
ompression is 8 bar. Determine temp of air at end of
compression and work done during isothermal compression, isentropic compression.

2. What are the rotary compressors? How rotary compressors are classified.

3. Discuss working principle of rotary vane,
screw and lobe type compressors. Mention their


merits and demerits.

4. Find work done and polytropic work done for a rotary compressor without intercooling


with the help of TS diagram

5.a) Explain with neat sketch actual PV diagram and TS diagram for a single stage


compressor.


b) What do you mean by multistage compression, state its advantages?

6. Prove that the volumetric efficiency of a single stage compressor is given by



Efficiency η = 1 + K


K (P
2

/ P
1
)

7. 5m
3

of free air per minute at 1 bar and 18 degree centigrade is compressed by a single


stage compressor to 8 bar . speed = 300 rpm, P = 0.98 bar and T = 30 degree . Clearance


ratio is 0.04. Find po
wer required, vol efficiency and cylinder diameter. Assume


efficiency. 88%.


Assignment No. 2

1.

Why TS plots are in use for the analysis of rorary compressors?

2.

Find out the total work done and polytropic work done for a rotary compressor
with
out intercooling with the help of TS Diagram.

3.


With the help of TS Diagram, Find out the total work done for a isothermal process.

4.

Drive out the relation for polytropic efficiency.

5.

With the help of TS Diagrams find out energy lost in internal friction.

6.

Wha
t is a centrifugal compressor & what are its advantages?

7.

With a neat sketch explain the essential parts of a centrifugal compressor.

8.

What are the three types of blade shapes possible & how they are classified?

9.

Briefly explain the flow through the following

components. a)The inlet casing b) the
inducer c) the impeller d) the impeller channel.

Briefly explain with suitable diagram how the blade shape affects the performance of the
compressor

Assignment No. 3

1.

Define slip factor & derive an expression for the s
ame.

2.

Why diffusers are necessary in centrifugal compressor?

3.

Explain the details of vaned & vaneless diffusers?

4.

Briefly explain the phenomena of surge & choking in centrifugal compressors.

5.

What is meant by volute? Explain the purpose of volute casing?

6.

What

are the basic requirements of compressor for aircraft applications? Do axial
flow compressor meet them ? Explain

7.

Derive an expression for work input to the compressor & explain. What is meant by
work done factor ?

8.

With a suitable sketch explain the

working principle of an axial flow compressor?

9.

Explain the following performance coefficient: a) flow coefficient b) rotor pressure
flow coefficient c) rotor enthalpy low coefficient d) diffuser pressure low coefficient f)
loading coefficient

10.

Define
degree of reaction & derive an expression for the same.



Assignment No. 4

1.

What is meant by Jet Propulsion? What are the basic differences between jet
propulsion cycle & shaft power cycle?

2.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a ram jet engine &
what are its
applications?

3.

What is meant by thrust? Derive the thrust equation for a general propulsion system?

4.

With the aid of a neat diagram, explain the working principle of ram jet engine?

5.

Explain the principle of afterburner in thrust augmentation

6.

Men
tion the various advantages & disadvantages of turboprop engine & also bring out
the application.

7.

What do you understand by the term air breathing engines? How are they classified?

8.

With the aid of` neat diagram, explain the working principle of a pulse jet

engine?

9.

With the aid of neat diagram explain the working principle of turbojet engine?

10.

Explain clearly the various efficiencies associated with a propulsion device?



BTME
-
405 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
-
II



Assignment No. 1

1.

Explain with the help of suitable

diagrams different types of rolling mills.

2.

What is the difference between cold rolling and hot rolling processes?

3.

What’s rolling defects & remedies

4.

Describe wire drawing and rod drawing?

5.

Define ‘Degree of drawing”. What are its normal value’s?

6.

Describe
Tube drawing & what are different methods of tube drawing.

7.

Define forging process.

8.

Give the advantages and drawbacks of forging process

9.

How the size of a forging harmer is specified?

10.

What is the difference between hammer forging and drop forging?

11.


Give the

advantages of Sheet metal working processes

12.


Describe the common defects in forgings and write about the causes of each.


Assignment No. 2

1.


Define extrusion process.

2.

Compare extrusion and rolling processes.

3.

Describe the common ways of extruding metals

4.


W
hat is Tubular extrusion?

5.

What is elastic recovery or spring back?

6.

How do hydraulic presses compare with mechanical presses?

7.

What is single action, double action and triple action presses?

8.

Sketch a Blanking die and label it properly. Write the function of
each part.

9.


Describe a progressive, a combination and a compound die.

10.

Define “deep drawing process”.


11.
What is “redrawing”?


12.
Differentiate between “ coining “ and “ embossing”


Assignment No. 3

1.

Compare “metal spinning” with “deep drawing


2.

Write in brief the basic steps of P/M process.

3.

Name the two major advantages & disadvantages in P/M process.

4.

Discuss the various methods of powder manufacture.

5.

Define the following terms related to metal powders. Surface area, density, apparent
density,
particle shape, particle size distribution.

6.

Name the three zones of a sintering furnace and explain the function of each zone.

7.

What is the advantage of irregular
-
shaped particles in powders?

8.

Enumerate the
essential requirements of a tool
-
material

9.

Name the
various cutting tool materials.

10.

Discuss the role
of carbon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium
and tungsten in tool steels

11.

What are the significant characteristics of high
-
speed steels?

12.

How is carbide tools made? Describe the process.


Ass
ignment No. 4

1.

How is carbide tools made? Describe the process.

2.

What do you understand by “laminated” and “coated carbides”?

3.

Enumerable the advantages of ceramic cutting tools over tungsten carbide tools.

4.

What are tools signature and different angle of a
single point cutting tools


5.


Why are discontinuous type chips preferred over continuous type.

6.

Discuss the variables affecting tool life.

7.

List the essential characteristics of a cutting fluid?

8.

Discuss the various methods of applying the cutting fluid at the

cutting zone.

9.

Sketch and explain” feed reversing mechanism”

10.

What is the difference between a vertical shaper and a slotter?

11.

Sketch and contrast the two milling methods of machining flat surfaces.

12.

Sketch and discuss the various tooth
-
forms used for saw bla
des and what is tooth
-
set.