V I S U A L I Z I N G

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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V I S U A L I Z I N G

P r e p a r e d B y:
D a w n M o r e,
A l g o n q u i n C o l l e g e

C h a p t e r 1 5:

S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y

Media Enhanced PowerPoint


偲e獥湴a瑩on

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

2

L e c t u r e Ov e r v i e w


Our Thoughts about Others


Our Feelings about Others


Our Actions toward Others


Applying
Social Psychology

to Social
Problems


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

3

O u r T h o u g h t s
a b o u t O t h e r s

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

4

1.
Expl ai n how
at t r i but i ons

and
at t i t udes

af f ect the way we
per cei ve and j udge other s.

2.
Summar i ze the thr ee components
of
at t i t udes
.

3.
Descr i be cul tur al di f f er ences i n
how peopl e expl ai n behavi our.

L E ARNI NG OBJ E CT I VE S:

Ou r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
Ot h e r s


Social Psychology
: study of how other people
influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions


Attribution: explanation for the cause of
behaviours or events


To determine the cause, we first decide whether
the behaviour comes from an:


Internal (dispositional) cause, such as personal
characteristics, or


External (situational) cause, such as situational demands


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

5

O u r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
O t h e r s: M i s t a k e n
A t t r i b u t i o n s


Fundamental attribution
error
: misjudging causes
of others’ behaviour and
attributing to internal
(dispositional) versus
external (situational) ones


Saliency bias
: may explain
this focus on dispositional
causes.


Self
-
Serving Bias
: taking
credit for our successes
and externalizing our
failures


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

6

Ou r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
Ot h e r s


Attitude: learned predisposition to respond
cognitively, affectively, and behaviourally to
a particular object


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

7

O u r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
O t h e r s: C o g n i t i v e
D i s s o n a n c e


Cognitive Dissonance
:
feeling of discomfort
created from a
discrepancy between
an attitude and a
behaviour or between
two competing
attitudes

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

8

O u r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
O t h e r s: C o g n i t i v e
D i s s o n a n c e

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

9

O u r T h o u g h t s a b o u t
O t h e r s: C o g n i t i v e
D i s s o n a n c e


Festinger and
Carlsmith’s

Cognitive
Dissonance

Study:


Participants given VERY boring tasks to
complete, and then paid either $1 or $20 to tell
next participant the task was “very enjoyable”
and “fun.”


Result: Those paid $1 experienced greater
cognitive dissonance
, and, therefore changed
their attitude more than those paid $20.


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

10

P au s e an d R e f l e c t:
Ch e c k & R e v i e w

1.
What is the
fundamental attribution error
?

2.
According to the _____ theory, people are
motivated to change their
attitudes

because of
tension created by a discrepancy between an
attitude and a
behaviour

or between two or
more competing
attitudes
.

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

11

O u r F e e l i n g s
a b o u t O t h e r s

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

12

1.
Expl ai n t he di f f er ence bet ween
pr ej udi ce

and
di scr i mi nat i on
.

2.
I dent i f y f our expl anat i ons f or why
pr ej udi ce

devel ops.

3.
Summar i ze t he f act or s t hat i nf l uence
i nt er per sonal at t r act i on
.

4.
Expl ai n how l ovi ng i s di f f er ent f r om
l i ki ng.

L E ARNI NG OBJ E CT I VE S:

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t O t h e r s:

P r e j u d i c e a n d
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n


Prejudice
: learned, generally negative,
attitude toward members of a group


Discrimination
: negative behaviours
directed at members of a group


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

13

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t O t h e r s:

P r e j u d i c e a n d
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

14

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t O t h e r s:

P r e j u d i c e a n d
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n


There are three components of
prejudice
:

1.
Cognitive


Stereotype: set of beliefs about the
characteristics of people in a group generalized to
all group members

2.
Affective: feelings associated with objects of
prejudice

3.
Behavioural


Discrimination
: negative behaviours directed at
members of a group


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

15

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t O t h e r s:
S o u r c e s o f P r e j u d i c e a n d
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n


Learned response


Mental shortcut


Ingroup

favouritism
:
ingroup

viewed more
positively than
outgroup


Outgroup

homogeneity effect
:
outgroup

judged
as less diverse than
ingroup


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

16

O u r
F e e l i n g s
a b o u t
O t h e r s:
P r e j u d i c e
a n d
D i s c r i m i n a
-
t i o n

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

17

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:
C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g


Do you believe you are free of
prejudice
? Would
you date and marry someone of another ethnic
group? If you are heterosexual, would you live
with a roommate who is gay or lesbian? Why or
why not?

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

18

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t
O t h e r s: I n t e r p e r s o n a l
A t t r a c t i o n


Interpersonal attraction
: positive feelings
toward another


Three key factors:


Physical attractiveness


Proximity (geographic closeness)


Similarity


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

19

O u r F e e l i n g s a b o u t O t h e r s:
I n t e r p e r s o n a l A t t r a c t i o n
( L i k i n g a n d L o v i n g )


Liking is a favourable evaluation of another.


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

20

Ou r F e e l i n g s a b o u t
Ot h e r s: I n t e r p e r s o n a l
A t t r a c t i o n


Romantic Love
: erotic
attraction with future
expectations


Companionate Love
:
lasting attraction based
on trust, caring,
tolerance, and
friendship


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

21

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:
C h e c k & R e v i e w

1.
Briefly explain how
prejudice

differs from
discrimination
.

2.
How does
romantic love

differ from
companionate love
?

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

22

O u r A c t i o n s
T o w a r d s
O t h e r s

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

23

1.
I dent i f y t he f act or s t hat cont r i but e t o
conf or mi t y

and
obedi ence
.

2.
Expl ai n how gr oups af f ect behavi our
and deci si on
-
maki ng.

3.
Summar i ze t he bi ol ogi cal and
psychosoci al f act or s bel i eved t o be
i nvol ved i n
aggr essi on
.

4.
Compar e t he
egoi st i c model

wi t h t he
empat hy

al t r ui sm hypot hesi s
.

L E ARNI NG OBJ E CT I VE S:

O u r A c t i o n s t o w a r d
O t h e r s: S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e


Conformity
: changing
behaviour because of
real or imagined group
pressure


Obedience
: following
direct commands,
usually from an
authority figure


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

24

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: C o n f o r mi t y


Asch’s
Conformity

Study


Participants were asked
to select the line closest
in length to X.


When confederates gave
obviously wrong answers
(A or C), more than 1/3
conformed and agreed
with the incorrect
choices.


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

25

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: C o n f o r mi t y


Why do we conform?


Normative social influence: need for approval
and acceptance


Informational social influence: need for
information and direction


Reference groups
: we conform to people we
like and admire because we want to be like
them


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

26

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: Ob e d i e n c e


Milgram’s

obedience

study: Participants
serving as “teachers” are ordered to
continue shocking someone with a known
heart condition who is begging to be
released.


Result: 65% of “teachers” delivered highest
level of shock (450 volts) to the heart
condition “learner.”


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

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Ot h e r s: Ob e d i e n c e


Milgram’s

“Learner” & Shock Generator

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

28

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: Ob e d i e n c e


Four major factors affecting
obedience
:


legitimacy and closeness of the authority figure


remoteness of the victim


assignment of responsibility


modeling/imitation


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

29

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: Ob e d i e n c e

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

30

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:
C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g


How would you have behaved if you were a
“teacher” in
Milgram’s

obedience

studies? Would
you have given the highest level of shocks? What
about your best friend or parents? Would their
behaviour

differ from yours? Why and how?

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

31

O u r A c t i o n s t o w a r d
O t h e r s:

G r o u p P r o c e s s e s


Group membership involves:


Roles: set of behavioural patterns connected
with particular social positions


Deindividuation
: anonymity leads to reduced
inhibition, self
-
consciousness, and personal
responsibility


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

32

G r o u p P r o c e s s e s: “ P o w e r
o f t h e S i t u a t i o n ”


Zimbardo’s

Stanford
Prison Study


Students were randomly
assigned to play the role of
either “prisoner” or
“guard.”


Original study was
scheduled for 2 weeks, but
it was stopped after 6 days
due to serious
psychological changes in
both “prisoners” and
“guards.”


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

33

G r o u p P r o c e s s e s:

P r o b l e ms w i t h D e c i s i o n
M a k i n g


Group Polarization
:
group movement
toward either a riskier
or more conservative
decision; result
depends on the
members’ initial
dominant tendency



Groupthink
: faulty
decision making
occurring when a highly
cohesive group seeks
agreement and avoids
inconsistent
information



Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

34

Ou r A c t i o n s
t o wa r d
Ot h e r s:
Gr o u p
P r o c e s s e s


How
Groupthink

occurs

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

35

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A g g r e s s i o n


Aggression
: any behaviour intended to
harm someone


Biological factors in
aggression
: instincts,
genes, brain and nervous system, hormones
and neurotransmitters, substance abuse,
and other mental disorders


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

36

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A g g r e s s i o n


Psychosocial Factors in
Aggression
:


Aversive stimuli


Culture and learning


Violent media/video
games


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

37

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A g g r e s s i o n


How can we control or reduce
aggression
?


Introduce incompatible responses


Improve social and communication skills


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

38

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A l t r u i s m


Altruism
: actions designed to help others
with no obvious benefit to the helper


Why do we help?


Egoistic Model
: helping motivated by
anticipated gain


Empathy
-
Altruism

Model: helping motivated
by empathy


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

39

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A l t r u i s m

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

40

Ou r A c t i o n s t o wa r d
Ot h e r s: A l t r u i s m


Why don’t we help?


Diffusion of Responsibility
: dilution, or
diffusion, of personal responsibility by
spreading it among others


Ambiguity of the Situation: unclear what help is
needed


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

41

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:
C h e c k & R e v i e w

1.
Briefly explain how
groupthink

differs
from
group polarization
.

2.
What are the best ways to reduce
aggression
?

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

42

A p p l y i n g S o c i a l
P s y c h o l o g y t o
S o c i a l P r o b l e m s

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

43

1.
Descr i be f our maj or appr oaches t o
r educi ng
pr ej udi ce

and
di scr i mi nat i on
.

2.
Expl ai n how soci al changes mi ght
cr eat e
cogni t i ve di ssonance

and
event ual l y pr omot e a r educt i on i n
pr ej udi ce
.

3.
Summar i ze t he pr i nci pl es t hat expl ai n
dest r uct i ve
obedi ence

t o aut hor i t y.

L E ARNI NG OBJ E CT I VE S:

A p p l y i n g S o c i a l
P s y c h o l o g y t o

S o c i a l P r o b l e ms


Prejudice

and
discrimination


How do we reduce
prejudice

and
discrimination
?


Encourage cooperation
and
superordinate

goals


Increased contact


Cognitive retraining


Employ
cognitive
dissonance


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

44

A p p l y i n g S o c i a l
P s y c h o l o g y t o

S o c i a l P r o b l e m s:


Destructive
Obedience


How do we reduce destructive
obedience
?


Adjust socialization toward
obedience


Recognize power of the situation


Protect against
groupthink


Avoid
foot
-
in
-
the
-
door technique
: making a small
request followed by increasingly larger requests


Guard against relaxed moral guard


Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

45

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:

Wh y S t u d y P s y c h o l o g y?


Psychology provides scientific research and
insight into social problems, like
prejudice

and destructive
obedience
.


Psychologists also produce concrete
suggestions for reducing these problems.

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

46

P a u s e a n d R e f l e c t:
C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g


Chapter 15 is often the last chapter covered
in a general psychology course. If this is
true for you, stop and take the time to list
the top 5 to 10 concepts or terms that you
learned in this course and want to
remember for the rest of your life.

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

47

Mu l t i me d i a

Social Psychology Network

Welcome to Social Psychology Network, one of the
largest Internet sites devoted to psychological
research and teaching.

Mirror Neurons

Why do sports fans feel so emotionally invested in
the game, reacting almost as if they were part of the
game themselves?

You Have Found the Prisoner’s Dilemma

A fiendish cyberspace wizard has locked you and
Serendip

into a diabolical game with the following
rules

Locus Of Control &
Attributional

Style Test

Do you control your destiny or are you controlled by
it?

Project Implicit

The demonstration site for the Implicit Association
Test (IAT).


Cognitive Dissonance theory

Cognitive Dissonance theory was first developed by
Leon Festinger in 1956 after the publication of a
book
When Prophecy Fails
, written with co
-
authors
Henry W.
Riecken

and Stanley
Schachter
, to explain
how members of a UFO doomsday cult increased
their commitment to the cult when a prophesised
destruction of the Earth did not happen.

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is a theory of human
motivation that asserts that it is psychologically
uncomfortable to hold contradictory cognitions.

Festinger and
Carlsmith

Cognitive consequences of forced compliance

Understanding Prejudice

Exercises and Demonstrations

Justice4Youth

Homepage






Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

Web Links

48

Mu l t i me d i a

Kids Help Phone

Homepage

Virtual Attractiveness

A remarkable result of our research project is that
faces which have been rated as highly attractive do
not exist in reality.

How Love Works

If you've ever been in love, you've probably at least
considered classifying the feeling as an addiction.

The Science of Love

Poets have been struggling to describe love for
centuries.

Indecently Exposed

Profile: Jane Elliott

Stanley
Milgram

The purpose of this website is to be a source of
accurate information about the life and work of one
of the most outstanding social scientists of our time,
the social psychologist Stanley
Milgram
.


Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives
On

Thirty years ago, a group of young men were
rounded up by Palo Alto police and dropped off at a
new jail
--

in the Stanford Psychology Department.

A Simulation Study of the Psychology of
Imprisonment Conducted at Stanford University

Welcome to the Stanford Prison Experiment web
site, which features an extensive slide show and
information about this classic psychology
experiment, including parallels with the abuse of
prisoners at Abu Ghraib.

Philip G.
Zimbardo

Welcome to the website of Philip G.
Zimbardo
,
Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Stanford
University, current core faculty at Palo Alto
University, two
-
time past president of the Western
Psychological Association, and the past president of
the American Psychological Association.







Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

Web Links

49

Mu l t i me d i a

How Groups can Intensify Decisions

People in groups often advocate riskier decisions
than individuals

Helping Preschoolers Resolve Social Conflicts

We can help even the youngest of our girls express
their feelings and solve conflicts directly so they
don't need to use indirect forms of aggression.

Understanding Boy Aggression

What did the boys play at recess today?

Media Smarts

Canada’s Centre for Digital and Media Literacy

Is it the Media?

Does violence in the media contribute to boys'
aggressive behavior or does it reflect it?


International Center for Aggression Replacement
Training

The International Center for Aggression Replacement
Training, ICART, is an organization devoted to the
practice and evaluation of Aggression Replacement
Training (ART), a cognitive
-
behavioral intervention
designed for aggressive children, adolescents, and
adults.

What We Can Do

There are ways we can help support our boys' active
impulses and help them work through feelings of
aggression.

Re
-
Establishing Altruism As A Viable Social Norm

What is Altruism?

Egoism/Altruism Test

Are you the type who will bend over backwards for
others until it hurts or do you merely look out for #1?








Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

Web Links

50

Mu l t i me d i a

Research Bulletin: Reducing Prejudice with Fiction

We have discussed the relation between fiction and
empathy extensively in
OnFiction
, but have not really
broached the topic of what the consequences of this
empathy might be.

Jigsaw Classroom

Welcome to the official web site of the

jigsaw classroom, a cooperative learning technique
that reduces racial conflict among school children,
promotes better learning, improves student
motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning
experience.

Jane Elliot’s Blue Eyes Brown Eyes Exercise

Jane Elliott, internationally known teacher, lecturer,
diversity trainer, and recipient of the National Mental
Health Association Award for Excellence in
Education, exposes prejudice and bigotry for what it
is, an irrational class system based upon purely
arbitrary factors.

Jigsaw Classroom

Chapter 1: What Happened at Columbine?

Resisting the Effects of Destructive Obedience

Obedience is something that everyone must exhibit
in one form or another in order to be considered a
productive member of society, however, obedience
may be taken to a form which in many ways becomes
a crime against others (Hamilton, 1978).







Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

Web Links

51

Mu l t i me d i a

Gender and Love (1:27)

Are men from Mars and women from Venus? As this
ScienCentral

News video reports, this Valentine's
Day, brain scientists offer new evidence for that
continuing debate.









Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

52

Videos

Mu l t i me d i a

Attitudes and Cognitive Dissonance

Imagine that after months of searching, you and your
spouse have found the home of your dreams


a
beautiful old house on a tree
-
lined street. You love
everything about the house, and you’re even more
captivated by the old
-
fashioned charm of the
neighbourhood. Then and there, you decide to make
an offer.

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd

Animations

53

C o p y r i g h t

Copyright ©
2013
John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this
work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The
Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful.
Requests for further information should be addressed
to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons
Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back
-
up
copies for his or her own use only and not for
distribution or resale. The author and the publisher
assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or
damages caused by the use of these programs or
from the use of the information contained herein.


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