Social Software and Web

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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Social Software and Web
2.0

Thomas Ryberg

PhD student

e
-
Learning Lab, Department of Communication and
Psychology

ryberg@hum.aau.dk

http://www.ell.aau.dk

Made with Web 2.0 Logo
-
creator: http://msig.info/web2.php

This work is published under a Creative Commons license:

Attribution
-
ShareAlike 2.5

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by
-
sa/2.5/

Plan for today


Presentation of Web 2.0 and Social
Software


1 hour of CMS
-
exploration


1 hour of Web (2.0) surfing


Work in small groups (2
-
3)

Outline


Social software and Web 2.0


core points


Some thoughts from Dalsgaards article


Demonstration and showcases of “Web 2.0
and social software” services and software


The technological perspective


The conceptual perspective


Understanding the sociology of technology use!


Interactive Innovation


my spin on this:


User generated content, user driven innovation,
hackability, widgetality and the perpetual beta!

Web 2.0 and social software


Have you heard about and know the terms?


What’s the fuzz??


Web 2.0

refers to a second generation of services available on
the internet that let people
collaborate
, and
share

information
online. They often allow for mass publishing (web
-
based social
software). The term may include
blogs

and
wikis
. To some
extent
Web 2.0

is a buzzword, incorporating whatever is newly
popular on the Web (such as
tags

and
podcasts
), and its
meaning is still in flux.

Adapted from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0


May be a lot of buzz


but it’s buzz that’s supported and
developed by Google, Yahoo and Microsoft…




Also the entire media landscape in DK is currently re
-
organising to accommodate to ‘user generated content’ or
‘citizen journalism’!


Should we understand this as software and services or a
conceptual framework?

Comments on Web 2.0:


Computerworld podcast 12/10/06:

http://www.computerworld.dk/podcast/events/36070



Web 2.0 er et tomt begreb (Web 2.0 is an empty
concept)...suggests that it should be replaced by ’social
media’...that certainly added the clarity we needed



”Unge gider ikke social networking” (Youth don’t bother
social networking)


apparently DR SKUM lost a lot of users
the last year and Morten Bay argues


They should use
mobile phones like Helio and MySpace...arto.dk has more
than 500.000 profiles, 21.000 online (now...then) and they
introduced ArtoD2 a mobile chat application app. a year
ago...Maybe the problem lies with SKUM and not youth...



Big discussion on kommunikationsforum.dk

“Web 1.0”


“Web 2.0”

Ofoto

Flickr

Akamai

BitTorrent

mp3.com

Napster

Britannica Online

Wikipedia

Personal websites

Blogging

Web services publishing

Participation

Content management systems

Wikis

Directories (taxonomy)

Tagging ("folksonomy")

Stickiness

Syndication (RSS, XML)

Web 1.0

Web 2.0

Some Examples:
www.furl.net
,
www.elgg.net
,
http://www.librarything.com


Matrice above adapted from:

http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what
-
is
-
web
-
20.html

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0

Del.icio.us, furl,
Bibsonomy, CiteULike

Youtube, Revver,
Flickr, Riya

Digg, technorati,
craigslist

Plazes, Myspace, arto,
dodgeball, hi5

Live, Yahoo360,
Google

Podcasting, Wikis,
Blogs


Folksonomies,
Architecture of
participation, botto
-
up

User driven
innovation & design,
citizen journalism

Collective
intelligence, sharing,
exchanging

Aggregation,
distribution

Hackability,
Widgetality

Copy
-
left

Rich internet apps,
Web
-
office/desktops

Livewriter, writely,
reader, Flock

IM
-
integration,
Calendars

Google Earth, Yahoo
Maps etc.

“Standards”

Open Source,
OpenAPI

RSS, CSS, XML, FOAF,
XFN

AJAX

Mash
-
ups

Services

Web 2.0 and SoSo

Conceptual

“Software” RIA

Technologies

Some metaphors and
“movements” on the internet


Individual user:

browsing centrally defined web
-
pages, or
constructing such a webpage


webpages as
information
silos
!


Communities:

With strong relations and common
goals/enterprises


usenet, online communities (Communities
of Practice)


Soap Opera, Computer Games etc.


Networked Individualism:

Constant traversing of different
types of networks with strong and weak ties. Constructing an
individual, but deeply relational network, through blog
-
rings,
tagging, sharing links, aggregating or distributing news via
RSS


social networking sites have become increasingly
popular: Hi5.com, Friendster, MySpace, Arto.dk,
dodgeball.com


These types of use are of course co
-
existing and overlapping


Some web
-
trends


From communities to networked structures


From centrally defined content and static pages to user driven
content (Blogs, Wikis, Flickr, Wikipedia)


democratisation of
Knowledge and content?


“Web 2.0 either empowers the individual and provides an outlet for
the 'voice of the voiceless'; or it elevates the amateur to the
detriment of professionalism, expertise and clarity.”

(Citation from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0)


Potential

Democratisation, de
-
centralisation and anarchy


“back to
the future”


the original idea of the Internet according to Tim
Berners Lee e.g. Creative Commons alternative copyright licences,
The Open Source Movement, whole notion of sharing and
collaborating


Distribution, Aggregation and tagging of various media and content


from hierarchical directories and central ownership to distributed,
user driven “folksonomies” and media aggregation


From consumers to producers: a recent study from PEW internet
research concluded that 57% of American teens are producing
content for the web of various nature (blogs, fan
-
fiction etc.). But
this might also be overstated


depending on the perspective.

Dalsgaards article


Resources are not
learning

materials, until they are used
actively by students.


"Resources are media, people, places or ideas that have the
potential

to support learning. Resources are information assets


data points organized by an individual or individuals to convey a
message (Allee, 1997). For learning, resources must be
contextualized to determine situational relevance and meaning.
Resources also need to be recontextualized to enable the use of
information gleaned from various resources. Once contextual
meaning has been established, information becomes organized
as knowledge (Dewey, 1933), operating in a larger context of
meaning encompassing relevant patterns, biases, and
interpretations.” (
Hill & Hannafin 2001, p. 38
)


This is very much in line with the idea of networked learning
as we talked about it last time

Different types of network


Networks between people working collaboratively:


Students working together in groups. Networks of closely related
participants


Networks between people sharing a context:


Students and teachers within the same course. Also networks of
closely related participants, but individuals within these networks
are not working together, though they might be using each other
as resources


Networks between people sharing a field of interest:


Networks of more loosely related participants. Create and
participate in networks of people from all over the world.
Subscribing to RSS feeds from a number of different weblogs
without participating actively by writing comments.


Pedagogical task: Facilitating networks between students
within the same course, and facilitating networks between
students and other people working within the field.


Dalsgaard


Using a management system
for administrative issues,
offering students personal
tools for construction,
presentation, reflection,
collaboration, etc.,


A focus on students, providing
them with tools to support:


Self
-
governed, problem
-
based
and collaborative activities.


Differs from the sole use of an
integrated LMS.


Focusing on empowerment of
students as opposed to
management of learning.

Services!

Services


Sharing links,
bookmarks, references


Folksonomy


information
architecture “designed”
by users


Search, tags, archives


relies on the power of
weak ties, networks of
interests and trust


“collective intelligence”
emerges


RSS, Refer, Bibtex,
Endnote


Aggregation,
distribution

Services


Sharing, exchanging,
watching, rating,
commenting


User generated
content: video,
pictures, audio


Search, tags,
clusters, popularity,
mass, picture search
(face recognition)


Distribute,
aggregate through
widgets, RSS, links,
Java
-
scripts

Services


Rating, sharing,
commenting,
hot/not,
promotion,
electronic billboard


Search, tags, power
of weak ties,
location (DK, US),
placeness


User driven rating
and content, mass,
popularity, no
center


Distribute, RSS,
widgets, blogrolls

Services


Networking, profiles,
interests, strong and
weak ties,
communication,
discussion, identity,
sharing


Closeness,
placeness, locality
discovering,
networking


Heavily widgetised,
and mediatised


audio, video


Distribute,
aggregate,
convergence, GPS,
OpenAPIs, SMS,
mobility

“Software”


Like regular apps


but they’re online


web
-
office,
calendar, news
reader, Web OS etc.


Also stand alone
apps


Google Earth


Discover, search,
location, placeness,
closeness


Collaborative
editing, sharing
calendars, Social
networks


sharing
placemarks, layers


Integration with
maps, wikipedia,
external sites

The technological perspective


Some of all this stuff are new technologies; some are older
technologies, which have been popularised e.g. blogs, wikis

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Web20buzz.png

Technological perspective


Some of the tech
-
stuff:


AJAX that allows web
-
office


live editing
updating (maybe some of you know more?)


Standards and exchange ’protocols’: RSS, XML,
CSS, java
-
script, Flash


OpenAPIs and Open Source Software


not the
same, but OpenAPI and exchange mechanisms
open for MashUps


This results in: aggregation, distribution,
widgetality and hackability


Aggregation, distribution,
Hackability


Agg/Distr: This refers to the interoperability of systems e.g.
How one through RSS or XML document can import content
from other sites or streams into one own page e.g. One page
with all blog
-
posting, Flickr pictures, sport
-
results, news etc.
create a tapestry of microcontent


Hackability is the notion that code is open or there is a freely
available API, one can create services that draws on Google
Maps e.g. Findvej.dk. That profiles on Arto and Myspace
supports HTML, javascript where one can customise the
looks, import video from youtube, bookmarks from
del.icio.us, create tag
-
clouds and so on.


It is also becoming available in gadgets and OS’es


one can
tamper with the coding, hardware and so on to create new
services or functions (Chumby, Xbox, MacOS is full of
widgets, so Vista will be)


Widgets are the easy way of doing this


mashups are a little
harder but great fun!

Widgetality


A Web Widget is a portable chunk of code that can be installed and executed
within any separate html
-
based web page by an end user without requiring
additional compilation. They are akin to plugins or extensions in desktop
applications. Other terms used to describe a Web Widget include Gadget,
Badge, Module, Capsule, Snippet, Mini and Flake. Web Widgets often but not
always use Adobe Flash or JavaScript programming languages.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_widget

Mash
-
ups


By using the possibilites of exchange,
distribution and aggregation (refers both to
aggregation, but also to specific software
mashups) new services/software are created


E.g. 10 best flickr
-
mashups:

http://www.webmonkey.com/webmonkey/0
6/08/index4a_page2.html?tw=commentary


Or:
http://www.programmableweb.com/mashu
ps



http://www.bashr.com/

MashUps

The conceptual perspective


Sharing, collaborating, connecting, networking, identity work


harnessing the power of both weak and strong ties in networks


Hive
-
intelligence (stupid term!)


Two heads are better than one
-

one
million heads are even better


Wikipedia; no central expert, but
distributed intelligence (though questionable)


Folksonomies


the bottom
-
up approach


the structure and what is
important are decided by the users, not a central categorisation unit,
what is hot news depends on the users, not an editor


User
-
driven innovation and user generated content


people upload
and share their homemade pictures, videoes, bookmarks, calendars
etc. creating ’creative’ personal profiles through use of scripting,
widgets, light
-
weight coding, mashups and so on.


Funny tension
: Copy
-
left, Open Source, Free software foundation


information should be free
vs.

We make shit
-
loads of money on
idiots freely giving their videos away and all their personal
information (Google, Youtube, MySpace etc.)


hence some call it
loser
-
driven innovation


Understanding the sociology of
technology


Some of this stuff is pretty nerdy and funny; but some of the
thoughts surrounding all of this is quite
philosophical/academic:


Are blogs the savior of modern democracy or are they the
biggest attempt till date to flatten our culture with superstitious
narcissistic babblings?


Are moblogs and videoblogs the liberation of consumers in a
process of making them into content producers or are we
witnessing an overflow of reality TV addicts gone crazy in
exposing themselves online?


Provocative (and purposely wrong questions from Søren Mørk)


What we need to realise:


This is just part of people’s lives


it is a way of being in the
world, which is social, banal, mundane, meaningful, purposeful;
it is part of people’s identity, friendships and social networks


Maybe wrong to speak of ’content’


maybe better to take about
events, situations, life
-
bits


Social fabric of everyday life


Online/offline


makes no sense


the web and web 2.0 for that
matter is a continuation, overlap, extension of everyday life


Virtual/Real


makes no sense: people are real in the virtual, some
identity play, but identity is very often tied to location, everyday
doings, interests, friends and so on


quite mundane


The notion of virtual networks as non
-
places (Christopher Lash) is
nonsense!! Place, space and location is ALL


closeness, personal,
close social networks, intimacy


Here are some citations from Danish Arto users


why they use arto:


”that I have more contact with my friends… also when we’re together…
because then we might talk about something that happened in here…”
(Girl, 15)


”That I won’t lose some of my IRL
-
friends!” (Boy, 17)


The social fabric of the web is tightly closed to the local, the place,
the location and the creation of a personal, but relational identity


Barry Wellman terms it: Glocalization


we do become more global,
but we do not become less local or grounded


Location based technology


Space, Place and location
-

Plazes.com


Location based games


PacManhattan


http://www.in
-
duce.net/archives/locationbased_mobile_phone_
games.php


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Location_based_ga
me


Intermixture between virtual/real


GPRS, GPS, mobile location (moblogging
tied to places, coupled e.g. With google
maps) or services like Dodgeball


User Driven Innovation?


User generated content and innovation




Understanding how technologies speak into people’s lives,
identities and connects to their streams of experience, their
being in the world and connection to others


the social fabric of
life!


Creating architectures of meaningful participation, opportunities
for engaging with peers, networks and developing situations,
events, life
-
bits


Hackability, widgetality


keep it open, modifiable, listen to
and understand the users, let them play, hack, modify,
develop


The perpetual beta! You’re never done, people’s needs will
change, their practices and ways of using the systems will
develop and change, which in turn will mean you’ll have to
change the systems to accommodate to emerging needs

Some references


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_So
ftware

Group Work: Exercise 1


CMS
exploration


1 hour of CMS
-
exploration


Case: Use your own case or alternatively this one


Informationsvidenskab needs a webpage so that it can promote itself
to students at hum.inf


it should be a CMS that would allow different
functionalities and users at different levels to provide content
(secretaries, researchers, students etc.)


what would be the needed
features e.g. Forums, chats, podcasts, RSS, news etc? What should be
the role of the system


dissemination, communication, interaction?


Choose a CMS to explore from
http://www.opensourcecms.com/

e.g.
Typo3, Joomla, Mambo, TikiWiki maybe plone via plone.org


Check also the CMS’s own homepage


what are the requirements,
what are the functionalities, what extensions does it feature, is it
easy to use, is it well
-
documented?


Would it be a feasible system for inf.vid to use


describe pros
and cons in a blog posting in the Læring and Samarbejde
community blog


As Inf.vid’ers you should be able to carry out such analyses and
give recommendations that are also based on a sound knowledge
of the organisation and its needs

Template for Blog Posting


Your requirements of functionalities


The system’s technical requirements


Does it meet your requirements? Can
these be met otherwise


through
extensions?


Ease of use


Documentation


Describe the pros and cons as you see
them!


Group Work Exercise 2


Web
2.0 and SoSo exploration


Add at least three interesting RSS
-
feeds to ’your resources’ in
Elgg


Browse different Web 2.0 and SoSo services


either those I
have presented or preferably find alternatives: Make a blog
-
posting describing at least three different services with
different functionality (just a link and a short description of
what it does + possible pedagogical use


how could it
support (networked) learning)


Widget competition


find the best widget for Elgg


Win some
candy!


The group that finds the best/coolest/Funniest widget and
implements it in Elgg wins some Candy


we’ll do a collective
voting afterwards


you present briefly your widget


after all
presentations we each vote for a group (you can’t vote for
yourself :
-
)