Explicit knowledge - Simponi

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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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BAB 8

TOOLS MANAJEMEN PENGETAHUAN

INTRODUCTION

Technology is used to facilitate primarily
communication, collaboration, and content

management for better knowledge capture,
sharing, dissemination, and application.


IT : enabler or supporting system in knowledge
management

INTRODUCTION

Many dimensions are involved in describing
knowledge management tools.

Ruggles

(1997)
provides a classification of KM
technologies as tools that

1. Enhance and enable knowledge generation,
codification, and transfer.

2. Generate knowledge (e.g., data mining that
discovers new patterns in data).

3. Code knowledge to make knowledge available for
others.

4. Transfer knowledge to decrease problems with time
and space when communicating in an organization.


INTRODUCTION

Rollet

(2003)
classifies KM technologies according to
the following scheme:

1. Communication

2. Collaboration

3. Content creation

4. Content management

5. Adaptation

6. E
-
learning

7. Personal tools

8. Artificial intelligence

9. Networking


Knowledge Management Tools


There are commercial tools that are announced as
Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) but they
don’t cover all the aspects of KM specially regarding
implicit knowledge.


The objective of this session is to explain the
alternatives/extensions to this commercial tools
using Open Source that combined can create a
powerful taylor
-
made KMS

Knowledge Management
Explicit
Implicit
Tacit
CMS
Repositories
File Servers
Collaborative tools
·
Wiki
·
Forums
·
Collaborative Editors
Bookmarking
Blogs
Searchers
Communication Tools
eMail
Chat
Messenger
Audioconference
Videoconference
Best Practices
Virtual
Communities
Social Networks
Competence
Management
Knowledge Map
Ontologies
Taxonomies
Folksonomies
P
2
P Networks
Recommendation
Support System
Rating
Voting
Tagging
Explicit Knowledge


Explicit knowledge

is
knowledge

that has been or
can be
articulated
,
codified
, and
stored

in certain
media
. The most common forms of explicit
knowledge are
manuals
, documents, procedures,
and stories. Knowledge also can be audio
-
visual.
Works of art and
product design

can be seen as other
forms of explicit knowledge where human skills,
motives and knowledge are externalized

Implicit Knowledge


The knowledge that
people carry in their heads
. Compared
with
explicit knowledge
, implicit knowledge is more difficult
to articulate or write down and so it tends to be shared
between people through discussion, stories and personal
interactions. It includes skills, experiences, insight, intuition
and judgement.


There are authors that make a difference between
Implicit
Knowledge

(a knowledge that through indirect mechanisms
should be made explicit) and
Tacit Knowledge

(the one that
resides in the head of the humans and that cannot be made
explicit in anyway).


Example of Tacit Knowledge. A expertise in a machine is able
to locate a problem faster that a junior one even if they use
the same procedures (if they have at their disposal the same
explicit knowledge)

Integration Methods


Web
Services


Syndication

Systems

(RSS/
Atom
)


Metadata

Exchange
Protocols


Plug
-
ins


HTTP
Posting


Coding
,
coding
,
coding
... (
standard

or

proprietary

Languages
)


Knowledge Management
Explicit
CMS
Repositories
File Servers
Collaborative tools
·
Wiki
·
Forums
·
Collaborative Editors
Bookmarking
Blogs
Searchers
P
2
P Networks
Explicit Knowledge (Social Bookmarking)


del.icio.us (
http://del.icio.us
); NO OPENSOURE


A non
-
hierarchical

keyword

categorization

system

(
users

can
tag

their

bookmarks

with

a
number

of
freely

chosen

keywords

creating

folksonomies
).


Integration
:


Syndication

(ex: "http://del.icio.us/tag/wiki"
returns

all

of
the

most

recent

links
tagged

"wiki“ in RSS
format
).


Open
Source

API

implementations

available

in
several

languages

(Java,
Phyton
,
PHP...)


Open
source

plugins

to

access

by

browsers
or

desktop
applications



del.irio.us (
http://de.lirio.us
)


An

open
source

social
bookmarking

clone of del.icio.us.
Now

part

of
Simpy
, a popular, and
long
-
running
, social
bookmarking

website
.


DEMO: LIST of
Bookmarks

for

Tencompetence
:

http://de.lirio.us/tags/TenCompetence

(
Login

ws
;
Password

ws
)


Explicit Knowledge (CMS) 1/2


A CMS (Content Management
System
)
facilitates

the

organization
, control, and
publication

of a
large

body

of
documents

and
other

content
,
such

as
images

and
multimedia

resources
.


Integration
: RSS/
Atom

in
most

cases


Open
Source

CMS:


Drupal

http://drupal.org/


Demo
http://demo.opensourcecms.com/e107/e107_admin/admin.php



User
:
admin
;
Password
: demo

Explicit Knowledge (CMS) 2/2


Alfresco

(
http://dev.alfresco.com
):
an

Open
Source

ECM
(Enterprise Content Management).
It

uses Java: Spring,
Hibernate
,
Lucene

and JSF


Knowledgetree

(
http://www.ktdms.com/
): a
powerful

document

management

system

made

in Java and PHP


Exponent

http://www.exponentcms.org/


Typo3
http://typo3.com



Joomla

http://www.joomla.org/


Nucleus

http://www.nucleuscms.org/



List

of CMS
http://www.opensourcescripts.com/dir/Content_management_,040CMS,041/



Explicit Knowledge (Blogs)


A
blog

is

a
user
-
generated

website

where

entries

are
made

in
journal

style

and
displayed

in a reverse
chronological

order
.


WordPress

http://wordpress.org/
:


Written

in PHP and
backed

by

a
MySQL

database
:


Feeded

by

eMail
, RSS, etc.


Access
through
: RSS/
Atom


bBlog

http://www.bblog.com/



Supports

ATOM

0.3 and
RSS

2.0
Syndication

formats



Display

RSS

feeds

on

your

blog


Explicit Knowledge (Collaborative Tools) 1/3


Wikis: a website that allows visitors to easily add,
remove, edit and change available content, and
typically without the need for registration. This ease
of interaction and operation makes a wiki an
effective tool for mass collaborative authoring.


MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org/)
http://www.mediawiki.org/



Wikipedia
http://wikipedia.org/



WikiQuote
http://wikiquote.org/



WikiBooks
http://wikibooks.org/



List of Wiki Engines
http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines



Explicit Knowledge (Collaborative Tools) 2/3


Forum: a facility for holding discussions and posting
user generated content
. A forum is essentially a
website composed of a number of member
-
written
threads that entails a discussion or conversation in
the form of a series of member
-
written posts.


PHBB
http://www.phpbb.com/



A popular
internet forum

package written in the
PHP

programming language.


Comparison of Internet Forum Storage
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Internet_forum_software




Explicit Knowledge (Collaborative Tools) 3/3


Collaborative Real
-
Time Editors: a software
application that allows several people to edit a
computer file using different computers:


Google Docs (Not OpenSource)
http://docs.google.com/



Gobby
http://darcs.0x539.de/trac/obby/cgi
-
bin/trac.cgi



OpenEffort
http://www.openeffort.com/



List of Real Time Editors
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_real
-
time_editor


Explicit Knowledge (Repositories)


A repository is a central place where data is
stored and maintained by an organisation


Access to information is possible though
several mechanisms as:


Metadata Exchange Protocols (OAI, Z93.50)


Query Languages (SQI)


Web Services


Syndication (RSS/Atom)

Explicit Knowledge (Federated Search) 1/3


Several Repostories can be linked together in a
federation
making possible to launch searches
in all of them (
federated searches
)


In a
federation

the repositories must follow
certain specifications regarding query
language, results format, session
management, etc.

Explicit Knowledge (Federated Search) 2/3

GUI
Federated Search
Keywords
SQI Implementation for
Youtube
SQI Implementation for
Flickr
Youtube
Flickr
rest
xml
vsql
lom
lom
vsql
EXAMPLE OF FEDERATED SEARCH



Federated search of images and videos in
Flickr and YouTube using vSQL (users queries),
SQI (repositories query), LOM (result format)


SQI:
Simple Query Interface

adopted by
ARIADNE

among others with the final aim of extending its
repositories to create a global Learning Network of
learning object repositories:



SILO implements the ARIADNE’s federated search

http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/silo2006/NewFederatedQuery.do


SQI Repositories
http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/SqiInterop/free/SQIImplementationsRe
gistry.jsp


Explicit Knowledge (Federated Search) 3/3

Explicit Knowledge (Searchers)


Open
source

search

engines


DataparkSearch



Egothor



Gonzui



Ht://dig



Lucene



mnoGoSearch



Namazu



Nutch



OpenFTS



Swish
-
e



Wikiasari



Xapian



YaCy



Zettair



Explicit Knowledge (P2P Networks) 1/2


A Peer
-
To
-
Peer
computer network

relies primarily on
the computing power and
bandwidth

of the
participants in the network rather than concentrating
it in a relatively low number of
servers
.


P2P networks are typically used for connecting nodes
via largely
ad hoc

connections. Such networks are
commonly used for sharing contents but can be also
used for transmit realtime data, such as
telephony

traffic

Explicit Knowledge (P2P Networks) 2/2

Network or
Protocol

Applications

BitTorrent

AllPeers
,
ABC [Yet Another BitTorrent Client]
,
Azureus
,
BitComet
,
BitSpirit
,
BitTornado
,
BitLord
,
BitTorrent
,
BitTorrent.Net
,
Burst!
,
G3 Torrent
,
KTorrent
,
Limewire
,
mlMac
,
MLDonkey
,
QTorrent
,
Shareaza
,
Transmission
,
Tribler
,
µTorrent
,
Opera

eDonkey

aMule
,
eDonkey2000

(discontinued),
eMule
,
eMule Plus
,
Hydranode
,
Jubster
,
lMule
,
Lphant
,
MLDonkey
,
mlMac
,
Morpheus
,
Pruna
,
Shareaza
,
xMule
,
iMesh

GNUnet

GNUnet, (GNUnet
-
gtk)

Gnutella

Acquisition
,
BearShare
,
Cabos
,
Gnucleus
,
Grokster
,
iMesh
,
gtk
-
gnutella
,
Kiwi Alpha
,
LimeWire
,
FrostWire
,
MLDonkey
,
mlMac
,
Morpheus
,
Phex
,
Poisoned
,
Swapper
,
Shareaza
,
XoloX

Gnutella2

Adagio
,
Caribou
,
Gnucleus
,
iMesh
,
Kiwi Alpha
,
MLDonkey
,
mlMac
,
Morpheus
,
Shareaza
,
TrustyFiles

Kad Network

aMule
,
eMule
,
MLDonkey

Knowledge Management
Implicit
Best Practices
Virtual
Communities
Social Networks
Competence
Management
Knowledge Map
Ontologies
Taxonomies
Folksonomies
Recommendation
Support System
Rating
Voting
Tagging
Implicit Knowledge (Virtual Communities)


Virtual communities form "when people carry on public discussions long
enough, with
sufficient human feeling,

to form webs of personal
relationships"


A
virtual community

or
online community

can be used loosely for a variety
of social groups interacting via the Internet. It does not necessarily mean
that there is a strong bond among the members


It is supported by a variety set of communication tools as forums, chats or
CMS


Interactions within the communities allows organisations to make explicit
some implicit knowledge as:


Discover
experts

as the people that becames a reference in the community


Qualify contents

through
Rating/Voting

processes


Define
Ontologies

through the tagging of contents by the members of the
community (folksonomies)

Implicit Knowledge (Tagging/Voting)


Digg
http://www.digg.com


is a community
-
based popularity
website

with an
emphasis on
technology

and science articles. It combines
social bookmarking
,
blogging
, and
syndication

with a form of non
-
hierarchical,
democratic

editorial
control. News stories and websites are submitted by users, and then promoted to
the front page through a user
-
based ranking system. This differs from the
hierarchical editorial system that many other news sites employ.





Meneame

http://meneame.net



Open Source Clone of Digg

http://svn.meneame.net/index.cgi/branches/version2/



DEMO:
http://meneame.net/?category=1

Implicit Knowledge (Social Networks)

A
social network

is a
social
structure

made of nodes
which are generally
individuals or organizations.
It indicates the ways in
which they are connected
through various social
familiarities ranging from
casual acquaintance to close
familial bonds.




Social Networks make
explicit the implicit
relations among the
people.

Implicit Knowledge (Social Networks)




Name

Description/Focus

User count

Registration

Flickr

Photo sharing

4,000,000

Open

Last.fm

Music

Unknown

Open

MySpace

General

130,000,000

Open

TagWorld

General (tagging)

1,850,692

Open

WAYN

Travel & Lifestyle

7,000,000

Open to people 18 and older

Windows Live Spaces

Blogging (formerly MSN
Spaces)

30,000,000

Open
-

Uses
Windows Live ID

Xanga

Blogs and "metro" areas

40,000,000

Open

Yahoo! 360
°

Linked to Yahoo! IDs

4,700,000

Open to people 18 and older

List of social networks


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites



Implicit Knowledge (Knowledge Map)


Taxonomy:
the practice and science of classification.


Folksonomy
: An
Internet
-
based
information retrieval

methodology
consisting of
collaboratively

generated, open
-
ended labels that
categorize

content such as
Web pages
,
online photographs
, and
Web links
. A
folksonomy is most notably contrasted from a
taxonomy

in that the
authors of the labeling system are often the main users (and sometimes
originators) of the content to which the labels are applied. The labels are
commonly known as
tags

and the labeling process is called
tagging
.


Ontology
: It seeks to describe or posit the
basic categories

and
relationships of being or existence to define
entities

and
types of entities

within its framework.


KNOWLEDGE MAP:

Taxonomy where the knowledge of a certain
community are clasiffied

.


Implicit Knowledge (LSA/LSI)


LSA is an algorithm that makes automatic the process of creating
ontologies from specific contents to, for example, allow them to be
classified in a taxonomy (or in the knowledge map of an organisation).



Latent Semantic Analysis

http://lsa.colorado.edu/

: LSA uses a
term
-
document matrix

which describes the occurrences of terms in documents.
Your original matrix gives the relationship between terms and documents.
Latent semantic analysis transforms this into a
relationship between the
terms and
concepts
, and a relation between the documents and the same
concepts. The terms and documents are
now

indirectly related through
the concepts.



The Semantic Indexing Project
http://knowledgesearch.org/



Open source program for latent semantic indexing

Implicit Knowledge (Best Practices)


Best Practice

is a
management idea

which
asserts that there is a
technique
, method,
process, activity, incentive or reward that is
more effective at delivering a particular
outcome than any other technique, method,
process, etc. The idea is that with proper
processes, checks, and testing, a project can
be rolled out and completed with fewer
problems and unforeseen complications.

Knowledge Management
Communication Tools
eMail
Chat
Instant Messaging
Audioconference
Videoconference
...
COMMUNICATION TOOLS


Asynchronous


eMail


Annotation (Warichu)
http://www.warichu.com/



Warichu (formerly diginote.info) is a communication tool that sits on top of the web and
allows everyone to discuss the webs content.


Open API


Extensions for IE and Firefox


Synchronous


Instant Messaging


Jabber (XMPP)
Jabber

is an open system primarily built to provide
instant messaging

service
and
presence information

(aka buddy lists). The protocol is built to be extensible and other
features such as
Voice over IP

and file transfers have been added.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_instant_messaging_clients



AudioConference


Asterisk
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterisk_PBX



OpenWengo
http://dev.openwengo.com/trac/openwengo/trac.cgi/



Chat


IRC
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Internet_Relay_Chat_clients



VideoConference


Egika/GnomeMeeting
http://www.ekiga.org/



Knowledge Management Suites



Egroupware

www.egroupware.org



Demo
for

Winter
School

http://192.168.2.144/egroupware



User
:
ws
;
Password
:
ws
;


Moodle

www.moodle.org


eGroupware


eGroupWare (
www.egroupware.org
) is a free enterprise ready groupware
software for your network. It enables you to manage contacts, appointments,
todos and many more for your whole business.



eGroupWare is a groupware server. It comes with a native web
-
interface which
allowes to access your data from any platform all over the planet. Moreover you
also have the choice to access the eGroupWare server with your favorite
groupware client (Kontact, Evolution, Outlook) and also with your mobile or PDA
via SyncML.



eGroupWare is international. At the time, it supports more than 25 languages
including rtl support.




eGroupWare is platform independent. The server runs on Linux, Mac, Windows
and many more other operating systems. On the client side, all you need is a
internetbrowser such as Firefox, Konqueror, Internet Explorer and many more.


http://demo.egroupware.org/currentversion/login.php



MOODLE

Moodle (
www.moodle.org
) is a free software/open
source e
-
learning platform (also known as a Course
Management System (CMS) or Virtual Learning
Environment (VLE). Moodle is designed to help
educators create online courses with opportunities
for rich interaction. Its open source license and
modular design means that many people can
develop additional functionality, and development
is undertaken by a globally diffuse network of
commercial and non
-
commercial users.