Genetic Engineering in food - Science E-portfolio - Hwa Chong ...

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10 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Cl ass:
2
O1

Done By: J i ang Qi an Feng

Hwa Chong I ns t i t ut i on

Genetic Engineering

in food


Hwa Chong Insti tuti on

661, Buki t Ti mah Road

Si ngapore 269734





Combining genes

Bibliography

1.

Patrick Dixon
.

What is biotechnology, genetic
engineering? free book genetic revolution
-

chapter 1
.
Retrieved from
http://www.globalchange.com/genetic
-
revolution
-
chapter
-
1.htm


2.

Process of developing genetically modified (gm) crops
.
Retrieved from
http://www.nepadbiosafety.net/for
-
regulators/resources/subjects/biotechnology/process
-
of
-
developing
-
genetically
-
modified
-
gm
-
crops


3.

Genetic engineering advantages & disadvantages
.
Retrieved from http://www.biology
-
online.org/2/13_genetic_engineering.htm


4.

Im
pacts of genetic engineering
. Retrieved from
http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_a
nd_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/


5.

Genetic engineering. In Britannica. Retrieved from
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/228897/ge
netic
-
engineerin
g


6.

Ron Epstein.

Genetic engineering and its dangers
.
Retrieved from
http://online.sfsu.edu/~rone/GEessays/gedanger.htm







Insight
-




Figure 4:

A genetic engineering lab in Regensburg

Source:
http://www.doemges.ag/462
-
1
-
genetic
-
engineering
-
lab
-
regensburg.html



Figure 5: A plant genetic engineering lab, scientists
are conducting an experiment on genetic
engineering

Source:

http://www.sust.edu/labs





An Introduction




Figure 2: A brief overview of genetic engineering in food (plants)

Source:
Genetic Engineering in Indian Agriculture

by
Kavitha
Kuruganti, G V Ramanjaneyulu, Centre for Sustainable
Agriculture, Hyderabad, 01/04/2007


A brief overview of the process (not in
-
depth)

1
.
Step 1:Isolate the gene(s) that give(s) the
desirable traits and insert the genes into an transfer
vector (most commonly plasmid from bacterium,
A.
tumefaciens


2.

The modified

A. tumefaciens

cells containing the
plasmid with the new gene are mixed with pla
nt
cells
, at the same time, the desired traits are
brought along to t
he plant with this "infection"

3.

This method is often used on plants such as
tomatoes and potatoes


Note:
As genetic engineering is a broad topic, this
brochure only contains information
about

genetically
engineered food, the above process is a logical summary
of the entire genetic engineering in plants, of course
there are other processes such as
checking the

traits of
plants after combining the genes and errors in combining
which are not included.

What is genetic engineering?


Genetic engineering is the
alteration
of

genetic

code by artificial means, and it is
hence different from traditional selective
breeding.

Its main objective is to better the
traits of the organism by combining its genes
with genes from other organisms.

For instance
to make a cabbage

resistant to caterpillars,
scientist can take the genes that program the
poison in a scorpion's tail, and combine it with
the genes of the cabbage, these genetically
modified cabbages will be able to kill
caterpillars.


Other

examples include:



Genetically

modified sweet corn that
produces poison to kill harmful insects



Insertion of

human genes

into sheep so
that they secrete alpha
-
1 antitrypsin in
their milk
-

a useful substance in treating
some cases of lung disease


How is it beneficial to mankind?



Figure 1: A cartoon to understand the benefits of genetic
engineering

Source:

biology.slss.ie/resources/U2_Genetic_Engineering.doc

How is it done?

Controversy

Although

genetic

engineering

do

promise

and

provide

us

more

and

better

food,

there

are

many

negative

consequence

we

cannot

ignore.

For

instance,

genetically

modified

crop

may

transmit

their

novel

gene
s

to

wild

populations,

possibly

creating

organisms

that

human

beings

have

no

defense

against,

there

are

also

people

concerned

about

the

food

s
afety

and

the

unknown

cells

it

contain,

such

that

a

vegetarian

may

consume

a

vegetable

modified

with

animal

cells

without

knowing.

Figure

3:

A

satire

cartoon

opposing

genetically

modified

food



Source:

http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/g/geneti
cally_modified_foods.asp